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Cyclopedia of textile work : a general reference library on cotton, woollen and worsted yarn manufacture, weaving, designing, chemistry and dyeing, finishing, knitting, and allied subjects (Volume v.6 online

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SIR WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN
Discoverer of Mauve, the Fii'st Coal Tar Coloring Matter



Cyclopedia
Textile Work



A General Reference Library

ON COTTON, WOOLEN AND WORSTED YARN MANUFACTURE, WEAVING, DESIGN-
ING, CHEMISTRY AND DYEING, FINISHING, KNITTING,
AND ALLIED SUBJECTS.



Prepared i>y a Corps of
TEXTILE EXPERTS AND LEAEUNG MANUFACTURERS



Illustrated with over Two Thousand Engravings



SEVEN VOLUMES



CHICAGO

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE

1907



Copyright, 1906, 1907



AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE.



Copyright, 1906, 1907



AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY.



Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.
All Rights Reserved.



Authors and Collaborators



FENWICK UMPLEBY

Head of Department of Textile Design, Lowell Textile School.



LOUIS A. OLNEY, A. C.

Head of Department of Textile Chemistry and Dyeing, Lowell Textile School.

M. A. METCALF

Managing Editor, "The Textile American."



H. WILLIAM NELSON

Head of Department of Weaving, Lowell Textile School.



JOHN F. TIMMERMANN

Textile Expert and Writer.

Formerly with Central Woolen Co., Stafford Springs, Conn.

WILLIAM R. MEADOWS, A. B., S. B.

Director, Mississippi Textile School.

MILES COLLINS

Superintendent of Abbott Worsted Co., Forge Village and Graniteville, Mass.


CHARLES C. HEDRICK

Mechanical Engineer, Lowell Machine Shop.

OTIS L. HUMPHREY

Formerly Head of Department of Cotton Yarn Manufacturing, Lowell Textile SchooL

C. E. FOSTER

Assistant Superintendent, Bigelow Carpet Co., Clinton, Mass.



Authors and Collaborators— Continued



WILLIAM G. NICHOLS

General Manufacturing Agent for the China Mfg. Co., the Webster Mfg. Co., and the

Pembroke Mills.
Formerly Secretary and Treasurer, Springstein Mills, Chester, S. C.
Author of "Cost Finding in Cotton Mills."



B. MOORE PARKER, B. S.

Head of Department of Carding and Spinning, North Carolina College of Agriculture
and Mechanic Arts.



I. WALWIN BARR

With Lawrence & Co., New York City.

Formerly Instructor in Textile Design, Lowell Textile School.



EDWARD B. WAITE

Head of Instruction Department, American School of Correspondence.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Western Society of Engineers.

WALTER M. HASTINGS

Assistant Agent, Arlington Mills, Lawrence, Mass.



GEORGE R. METCALFE, M. E.

Head of Technical Publication Department, Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co.

Formerly Technical Editor, Street Railway Review.

Formerly Editor of Text-book Department, American School of Correspondence.



ALFRED S. JOHNSON, Ph. D.

Editor, "The Technical World Magazine."



HARRIS C. TROW, S. B.

Editor of Text-book Department, American School of Correspondence.
American Institute of Electrical Engineers.

CLARENCE HUTTON

Textile Editor. American School of Correspondence.



Authorities Consulted



THE editors have freely consulted the standard technical literature of
Europe and America in the preparation of these volumes and desire
to express their indebtedness, particularly to the following eminent
authorities, whose well known ti'eatises should be in the library of every
one connected with textile manufacturing.

Grateful acknowledgment is here made also for the invaluable co-opera-
tion of the foremost manufacturers of textile machinery, in making these
volumes thoroughly representative of the best and latest practice in the
design and construction of textile appliances; also for the valuable drawings
and data, suggestions, criticisms, and other courtesies.



WILLIAM G. NICHOLS.

General Manufacturing Agent for the China Mfg. Co., the Webster Mfg. Co., and the Pembroke

Mills.
Formerly Secretary and Treasurer, Springstein Mills, Chester, S. C.
Author of "Cost Finding in Cotton Mills."



THOMAS R. ASHENHURST.

Head Master Textile Department, Bradford Technical College.
Author of "Design in Textile Fabrics."

J. MERRITT MATTHEWS, Ph. D.

Head of Chemical and Dyeing Department, Philadelphia Textile School.
Author of "Textile Fibers," etc.

J. J. HUMMEL, F. C. S.

Professor and Director of the Dyeing Department, Yorkshire College, Leeds.
Author of "Dyeing of Textile Fabrics," etc.



WILLIAM J. HANNAN.

Lecturer on Cotton Spinning at the Chorley Science and Art School.
Author of "Textile Fibers of Commerce."



ROBERTS BEAUMONT, M. E., M. S. A.

Head of Textile Department, City and Guilds of London Institute.
Author of "Color in Woven Design," "Woolen and Worsted Manufacture."



JOHN LISTER.

Author of "The Manufacturing Processes of Woolen and Worsted."



Authorities Consulted— Continued



w. s. BRIGHT McLaren, m. a.

Author of "Spinning Woolen and Worsted."

CHARLES VICKERMAN.

Author of "Woolen Spinning," "The Woolen Thread," "Notes on Carding," etc

WILLIAM SCOTT TAGGART.

Author of "Cotton Spinning."



HOWARD PRIESTMAN.

Author of "Principles of Wool Combing," "Principles of Worsted Spinning," etc.



H. NEVILLE.

Principal of Textile Department, Municipal Technical School, Blackburn.
Author of "The Student's Handbook of Practical Fabric Structure."

FRED BRADBURY.

Head of Textile Department, Municipal Technical Schools, Halifax.
Author of "Calculations in Yarns and Fabrics."



E. A. POSSELT.

Consulting Expert on Textile Manufacturing.

Author of "Technology of Textile Design," "Cotton Manufacturing," etc.

*^

H. A. METZ.

President, H. A. Metz & Co.

Author of "The Year Book for Colorists and Dyers."



T. F. BELL.

Instructor in Linen Manufacturing, etc.. City and Guilds of London Institute.
Author of "Jacquard Weaving and Designing."

M. M. BUCKLEY.

Head of Spinning Department, Halifax Municipal Technical School.
Author of "Cone Drawing," "Worsted Overlookers Handbook," etc.

FRANKLIN BEECH.

Author of "Dyeing of Woolen Fabrics," "Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics," etc.



Authorities Consulted — Continued



WALTER M. GARDNER, F. C. S.

Professor of Chemistry and Dyeing in City of Bradford Technical College.
Author of "Wool Dyeing," etc.

ALBERT AINLEY.

Author of "Woolen and Worsted Loomfixing." •

G. F. IVEY.

Author of "Loomfixing and Weaving."

ERNEST WHITWORTH.

Formerly Principal of Designing and Cloth Analysis Department, New Bedford Textile School.
Author of "Practical Cotton Calculations."

^•
DAVID PATERSON, F. R. S. E., F. C. S.

Author of "Color Printing of Carpet Yam," "Color Mixing," "Color Matching on Textiles," etc



Introductory Note




HE Cyclopedia of Textile Work is compiled from
the most practical and comprehensive instruction
papers of the American School of Correspondence.
It is intended to furnish instruction to those who
cannot take a correspondence course, in the same manner as the
American School of Correspondence affords instruction to those
who cannot attend a resident textile school.

^ The instruction papers forming the Cyclopedia have been pre-
pared especially for home study by acknowledged authorities, and
represent the most careful study of practical needs and conditions.
Although primarily intended for correspondence study they are
used as text-books by the Lowell Textile School, the Textile De-
partment of the Clemson Agricultural College, the Textile Depart-
ment of the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic
Arts, the Mississippi Textile School, and for reference in the lead-
ing libraries and mills.

'L Years of experience in the mill, laboratory and class room
have been required in the preparation of the various sections of
the Cyclopedia. Each section has been tested by actual use for
its practical value to the man who desires to know the latest and
best practice from the card room to the finishing department.



^ Numerous examples for practice are inserted at intervals.
These, with the test questions, help the reader to fix in mind the
essential points, thus combining the advantages of a textbook with
a reference work.

^ Grateful acknowledgment is due to the corps of authors and
collaborators, who have prepared the many sections of this work.
The hearty co-operation of these men — manufacturers and educa-
tors of wide practical experience and acknowledged ability — has
alone made these volumes possible.

^ The Cyclopedia has been compiled with the idea of making it
a work thoroughly technical, yet easily comprehended by the man
who has but little time in which to acquaint himself with the
fundamental branches of textile manufacturing. If, therefore, it
should benefit any of the large number of workers who need, yet
lack, technical training, the editors will feel that its mission has
been accomplished.




Contents



VOLUME VI.

Technology of Fibers . . . Page* 11

Cotton Bleaching and Operations

Preliminary TO Dyeing . . " 55

Principles of Textile Coloring . "121

Application of Mordants . . "127

Natural Organic Dyestuffs . . "141

Chemistry and Application of

Artificial Dyestuffs , . "159

Miscellaneous Colors . . . " 215

Water in the Textile Industry . " 216

Textile Calculations . . . " 249

Dissecting and Analyzing . . "293

Review Questions . . . . "321



* For Page numbers see foot of pages.



CHEMISTRY AND DYEING.



TEXTILE CHEHISTRY AND DYEING.

1. One needs but a limited knowledge of tlie subject of

textile coloring to readily see that, no matter how luuch the

numerous processes maj' differ in principle or vary in detail, they

all involve two fundamental factors.

First: The Material to be colored.

Second : The Substances to be used as coloring agents.

2. To acquire a knowledge of the first, one must carefully
study the chemical and phj-sical properties of the various fibres
together with their action toward the different chemicals with
which they may come in contact during the process of manufac-
ture, and the subsequent dyeing and finishing. A thorough
knowledge of the second is necessary to the dyer, but it is only
when this knowledge is combined with a thorough acquaintance
with the first that proficiency is attained in the art of textile
coloring.

3. A thorough conception of these factors can be obtained
only after a careful preliminary study of Chemistry, and when
thus prepared the student is ready to take up the Study of Textile
Chemistry and Dyeing, which should include the following subjects:

1. Technology of the Fibres.

2. Operations Preliminary to Dyeing.

3. Water and its Application in the Textile Industry.

4. Mordants and other Chemical Compounds used in the Textile

Industry.

5. Theories of Dyeing.

6. Natural Coloring Matters.

7. Artificial Coloring Matters.

8. Machines used in Dyeing.

TECHNOLOGY OF FIBRES.

4. For convenience, fibres are divided according to their



origin into the


following classes :






1.


Vegetable.


3.


Mineral.


2.


Animal.


4.


Artificial



11



4 TEXTILE OHEMISTKV AND DYEING.

The third chiss, liowever, is of niiiioi- iiuitoitaiicc in lii»'
Textile Indnstiy.

5. nembers ■ Each Class. (M' n'Ufttdtle fibres^ cotton is
by far thr most iir.pitrtiiiit, then loUows linen, lienip, jute, China
Grass, or ramie, and a few otlu'is df h'ss impoi'tanee, such as
Manilla hemp, Suiui hemp, New Zcahiml llax and llie fdire
ol)tained from various palms.

The other vegetable snbstanees witli winch the dyer may
have to deal are straw for hats, vegetable ivor}- us(m1 for bnttons,
wood fibre, and paper pul]) which may consist of almost any
vegetable fibre or mixture of vegetable iil)res.

The oidy animal fihrcH of great importance are wool, and a few
varieties of hair, and silk. To this class also belong such sub-
stances as leather, feathers, horn and bone, all of which are some-
times colored.

Under the head of mineral jih re >< iwe included such substances
as glass wool, slag wool, asbestos, etc. 'J'hese are used in certain
chemical operations, and in covering steam-pipes, boilers, stean.i-
jacketed kettles and stills, on a(;count of being non-conductors of
he



Online Libraryties consulted in each volumeBe the first to writCyclopedia of textile work : a general reference library on cotton, woollen and worsted yarn manufacture, weaving, designing, chemistry and dyeing, finishing, knitting, and allied subjects (Volume v.6 → online text (page 1 of 24)