Timothy Flint.

A condensed geography and history of the western states, or the Mississippi valley online

. (page 74 of 85)
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the footsteps of general Putnam and Di; Cutler. They,
were both mea of establi^u^d character, whpse words and
opinions wrought con^dence* Dn Cutlep was a man of
extensile and various leaming. He was particularly do*
voted to the study of natural history ^ and was among the
first, who began scienti^Uy to explore the botany of oof
country. He had great efficiency, in founding the upper
settlement on Ohio; and bis descendants are among the
most respectable inhabitants of the country at present

General Rufijs Putnam had been a reputable and un-
blemished officer in the war of the revolutioiu He emi«
grated from Iieicester, in the county of Worcester, Mas«^
aachusetts* He was, probably, the member <^ the CMiia
company's purchase, who had the greatest inftience, in
imparting confidence to emigration from New England to.
Ohia When he moved there, it was one coaipaci and
boundless forest He saw that forest &II on all sides un*
der the axe; and in the prog^'ess of improTement, com^
fprtable, and then splendid dwellings rise around hira.
He saw his fiivorite settlement sustain an immdatioooC
the Ohio, which drowned the cattle, wafied away tha
dwelUngs, and in some instances the inhabitmis in then,
He saw the setdement survive the accumulated hocrore oC
an Indian wan . He saw its exhaustless fertiliQr, and its
natural advantages triumph over all He saw Marietta
making advances towards an imion of interest with tb^
gulf of Mexico, by floating down to its bosom a number
of sea vessels, built at that place. He saw such aprodi'^



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great mi combined operatioiis are often determined bjF
elements, beyond the reach of human foresight Clear as
his vision was into the fbtare^ he little foresaw the fo*^
tore value and consequence of these lands. Ptirchasers,
with a ken still more limited had not the courage, nor
forecast to make him sufficient payments Uy meet the
great expenses of his speculations^ He was unques*
tionably fitted in a high d^reeta become the fester &th«
er to a new colony. He possessed ar sound under*
standing, great firmness of purpose, and was a man of in«-
dustrious habits, and devoted to business ; and bad not the
slightest touch of the hunter and caureur du hms^ whidi
so strongly marked the first settlers of Kentuc^ and Ten-^
nessee, in hischaracten He was a zealous patron of th^
industrious and enterprising; and all, thi
to secure the countenance and support ot
was to convince him, that the man was c
and disposed to exert himseIC It was a
in his character, that he viras a real and (
the poor. Many amiable eccenuricities
character^ and among other traits, that i
foreign to his industrious, calculating an(
its, was, that he was a writer of verses, of
ous proofe, as well as honorable to his muse, remain. The
names of his chief associates in the settlement of the Mi*
ami country will naturally be interwoven in these annak
Among th^rn was colonel Israel Ludk>w,oneof the first
settlers, a man of great amiaUlity of character, and whose
early decease was considered a deep loss to the country.
Exploring parties had made temporary residences on*
the north shore of the Ohio, previous to the establishment
of uiy permanent settlement, and boats, ascending and
descmiding the river, had had rencontres widi thelndians,
in wlfich many of those thriHiDgand terrible advattoreftr



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#kioh ^1^ lAve already related to repettdiHi, wel^ com*
moa Weread of the oocorrence of <»ie in the autumn
of 1776, as related by Mn Patterson, who was ascending
the Ohio in a boat with six or seven companions^ and
who wasfired upon by the Indiana A partof the com-
pany were killed, and the remainder wounded. Th^
were an hundred miles from settlements or relief; lying
tn theur wounds and blood, exposed to therainand ele-
ments. One only was able to travel, and he was woun*
ded. He proceeded up the river to the nearest setdement,.
procured l^p, and carried off his wounded companions,
who recovered. The narrative <^ the sufferings of tfiift
company is one of harrowing interest Nothu^ that hu-
man nature can sufibr, was wanting to their jnisery; and
their case furnishes an impressive proof, throng how
much misery and suflfering man can survive. We oould
easily fill up copious annals of these desperate rencontres,
and hair breadth escapes and recov^es fit>m wcAinds,
which would be deemed utterly hopeless in the view of
ihe best surgical aid, and all the paUiations erf* the comfort
and aid of society. But, however impressive these nar-
ratives, the brevity of our plan excludes them, and we
commence these annals with the first permanent settle-
ment of Ohio.

This commenced at Marietta, April 7th, 1788, under
general Rufiis Putnam, as ag^it for theXMiio companyi
The company, that came widi him, consisted of fortynaev-
en persons^and were firom Massadiusetts, Rhode Island^
and Connecticut Their first business was to build a
stockade fort of efficient strength to secure them against
any desultory attacks of the savagea These were all la-^
borious men, who thought much more of the plough and
hoe, than the rifle and gapie. They were delighted with
(he appearaoctd of the rich alluvion,, and the iuunense



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treesand grapevines, that roaefimn it; and treaied Aem*
selves to the jests, which had been drcalated in their uk
tive regions, respecring pumpkin vwes, that ran across the
Ohio, and bwe pmnp^ns of asiaeto furnish space, m
wMch sows might litter. The exuberant gmndeur of the
wild vegetation migfat well justify extravagant e:q)ectaiieMB
firom the fertili^ of the soil Theydeadeoed the treea,
and plansed fifty acres of com. Intbe aataBin, tweaiy
more fimdilies joined them* They were chiefly revolmioiH
ary soldiers, who had been used to face danger and hard -
ships of all sorts, and to give »id receive blows. Their
vigilance and boldness of eounienance appear lo have
awed the Indians, so that they molested them very littla
"Wliile these prudoit and bborious men tttled their
grounds, they bad always some one of their number sta-
tioned upcHi a high smmp, or elevated pmnt of ground, to
fiM-ewarn them of the approach of the foe. Game of all
sorts abounded m the woods,and fish in the rivem I'te
fields yidded die most ample abundance of return for
whatever they had planted ; so that abundant submtenee
was obtained with ^ greatesteasa

(Six years afterwards, in 1794, the settlenientsof Bdle-
pre and Newbury, the one fifieen miles, and the ^Aef
twenty miles below, on the river, were comnenoed. In
eaeh of diese plaees stockade forts, to which the people
oouM retreai in case of alarm fiwn the savages, were Mh^
aocwding to the invariable custom in all the new weatem
settlementsL The strongest of these received dM appro-
priate name of the ^fiutner's casde.'

In ITfH, Indian hostiNties commenced upon these set*
dementa The Ohio company orgamaed, and kept ih eon*
aiant empteyment a small company of spies^ whose imy
it was to perambulate thesetdemeia When these rangess
diseovered footsteps, or othw indicttiOiisof the eeoiigui^



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OBio. 309

f^^ ike suTages, Aey were to give verbal notice; or if
the emergency ci alarm was lungent, to fire «^ml guns.
On receiving tbeae ^giiala» it vras the duty of the settlers
IfQinediately to retreat to their stockades, and the soldiers
lo repair to their posts of defence. The unsleeping and
untiring vigilance of these settlers did not at all match with
Indian notioes t>f attack, who always seize the moments of
eardessness and the ui^arded point of weakness for the
hour of assault That this settlement suflEsred so much less,
than those, that preceded it, under the sune circum^au-
ces, in the western countty, may be solely attrifauted-to that
habitual watchfulness and unremittiBg posture of defenceL

Between 1791, and 1795, major Goodall, a most valua-
ble member of the settlement, and three others were killed.
To have right estimates of this comparatively small
amount of suffering fit>m Indian warfare, it must be r^
membered, that this settlement stood alone on ifae north
shore of the Ohio; wasa frontier to the moat numerous
and powerful Indian villages in the western country, and
the object of th^r bitterest enmity and most concentered
eflbrts. In addition to the m^i, mentioned above, one
woman and her two children were skua Another in&nt
in her arms was tomahawked, but was rescued by the in-
habitants, and recovered from its wounds.

In 1790, a settlement was commenced at the forks of
Duck creek, twenty miles up the Muskingum, at the site
of the present town of Waterfbrd ; and another fifieen
miles hi^er on the same river at Big Bottom, and a third
atWolf creek, near the forks. These settlem^Hs were
on a tract of 100,000 acres of land, laid off into fiurms of
106 acres each, called ^doni^on lots,' which were gra^^
tuitoudy asffl^ied to actual settlera At the close of 1790,
these settlements contained 447 men, of whom 107 had

vol* IL 47



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fiimiiies^as^kif^denioiBitriltionaf ttora}»^ inamMnf
population even amidst the daqg^s of aa Indian iwai;

The Mttlemaflt at Big Bottom wasdeBtroyed by ^ In-
dians, January 3d, IKQl. Fimmom persons mem kiUedi
and fiveiak^i prisonerg* This fatal aasaolt Wtt made i^
^ibe Indiani with their usoal guile ^and nreadiwy. Th^
'had Jcept4ipashow of ftariiness and friendship towards
these people, which had iuHed Aem to aitiinow secori^;
Vnperceived hy the people, thelndiaos watdhed diesetde-
:^inent fronh the summit of a&a4|aoenthilL TbeiirfialRtaniB
were returning from <their labors^at ^eireidng twilight to
didr supper. Thelndians, preceded hy a huge Mohawky
rudied in upon the garrisofi, and inflicted an imresiBted
inassajcte. 'One woman ^nly ^Mmtended, and she inflicted
a wound upon the Mohawk, befive she was Idled A boy
^as spared, and oarried captive lo DetnHt

The settlement at Wolf ctwk was iframed ^f its im*
pending danger by two men of the name of Bqllafd, vfbo
escaped from the massacre of Big Bottom. Next morn-
ing the Indians ^arrited to ihe assault of that pl^e; but
finding theinhabitanis^pprised of their attack, and in rea»
dtness for them, they decamped withom any serious at-
tempts upon it Some murders were committed at Wa-
terfordand Litde Wolf^^reek, in 1994, and 179& Al-
though Marietta, fr<Hn its vigilance and preparation, was
considered by the enrages impregnable, ihe tsdwa c^ the
settlement often came in widi arrows slicking in "dmr bo-
dies, as prodi of the goodwill of itke Indians to iiyiiie
daenv, w^*e it in their power.

The escape of die late R J. Meigs, Esq^ afterwards
governor d* Ohio, and Fostiftmster general, fir<nn variow
circumstances, merits anelatioa He was raturaing at
night from the labors of the field, in company with Mr.
fiymonds and a black boy. The Indians firod upoaSym-



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373 <wia

ti^nst the Indiaii Ullage at Little Piefcaway. The town
was destroyed ;bul the retarning party sufl^ired severefy
from the Indians, ^nd lost ten of their number. He gain-
ed, however, an accorate knowledge of this fertile and in-
teresting country, and the positi^ and force of the Indiaci
towns contiguous to it.

Between the years 1780, and 1782, general Oark con-
ducted a tai^r force against the Indians of that region, in
which Old and New Pickaway nitages were buned In
1784, our government ^^ted a trea^ with them, in
which, by certain mutual stipulations, they ceded to the
United States the country lying upon die Mudungum, Sci-
oto, . and the Little and Great Miami.

The ^ Ohio company' wa»ofgani2ed at Boston, March
Isl, 178& It was composed of revolutionary o&o&tsaod
soldiers, to whom congress assigned a mihtary grant of
land north-west of the Ohio. The grant consisted of a
million and a half of acres* General Putnam made the
settlement, which we have just been contemplating, under
this grant; and this was the germ, from which has grown
up this great and populous community. In 1788, congress
passed an ordinance, estabUshing a territorial government
over the North-western Territory* Arthur St Chdr was
appointed governor. In September^ 1788, the first judi-
cial court was holden in the territory. The first political
object with the governor was to estabUdi a peace with the
various hostile tribes, contiguous to the territory. The
chiefe met at fort Harmar, at the mouth of the Muskin-
gum, and agreed upon a former treaty, which had been
settled at fortMTntosh, in 1785, and which was now re-
newed in 1790.

In the winter of 1786, Mr. Sates of RedstMe, now
Brownsville on the Mommgahela, presented iomsdf be-
fore congress, then sitting in New Yoiii, vrith a view to



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OHIO. 373



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974

About ihB ctMMMMMBQt of Ae yew 1790^ fwnl
lodiow, wbOr A^l^ ^ deftdi of Mr. FiboD, became a
joim partoer wiil» Jifr.Dmmaii.aiid PUter^
Cmciimatv left limeiloiie^wiifr a oompaay of aearty twen-
ty pecaons^ to eommeme ibe secdieraent oC their purcfaaae.
Tbe town was fint named LoaimtivUle.^ As town making
became afterwaids,.iD the progress of tbe western coantry
in population, a regular busioess^aml tbe invwtion and
ooiningof namesfor towns no^meairsmdyri^ wilt beamu-
mag lo oonader the* li^fBnuiiy of this &r fetebed name.
The town was commenced oppositis licking rives in Ken-
Hicky. The name of the town took the initial of that
river for its fifsi letter. It borrowed 09;r the mouth, from
the Laun ^ onHf opposite, fhun the Greek,, and t>iUe,a city,,
from tbe French. Hence we have Lesanti ville, a eky 0p-
posUe the mouth of iMSsmg^^ in a news^par looted
at Leanngton in Kentucky,^ the Qrpe^ appearance and print-^
log of which smacks strongly of tbewnpliei^andeearso*
ness of the olden time ianow to^ bo seeQt die ordinal advep-
tiaement of tbe saleof the lots in Ai» city dien covered
with'a heavy growAof timber. The newspi^r isshovn^
as a curiosity in M n Letton^s museum in Cincinnati. Mr.
Ludlow on his arrival with his pany eommenoed ckNuring
near the present corntf of Front and Main snceeta. Three
m* four log cabins were buik on what is now Main street,.
Mr. Ludlow surveyed, and laid ont tbe town, diniiBg the
winter* The courses of Ae streets were marified on Ae
trees of the heavy and dense forest. The dbnndanee oT
game and fish left littlediffieol^ of subsistence,. and even;
the Indians, though hostile, did not mmoy tfaem.

Mr. Symmes with the small force at his disposal^inFob^
ruary, 1789, descended the river fifteen mifas to Nordi
Bend, which he deemed the best situation for a tewn.
But neither that place, nor Columtna, above Cincinnati^



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oHia 37S



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376 OBM.

Cinciimaii, changed ibe name of LogantiTille to its presem
name. In the following spring, Mr. Dunl^p and associateB
laid out the station of Colerain oa the Great Miami, seven-
teen miles north-west of Cincinnati, and Ludlow^ Gar-
rard^s, Covalt's, Whitens and Round Bottom stations were
commenced. At each of these points general Harmar
stationed a small number of regulars for defence; and
whoever rashly ventured beyond this line of defence was
exposed to be murdered, or at least to receive a shot from
the hostile Indians, who were constantly prowling round.

Forty &milies were added to Cincinnati this year. As
many cabins and the first two frame houses were erected,
^ven mechanics were numbered among the Inhabitanta
Fifteen or twenty of the new settlers were murdered by
the Indians, and Mr. Span^r, at present a distinguished
citizen of the place, then a boy, was carried into captivity.
On the application of his father, he was ransomed by the
governor of Upper Canada, for the sum of 120 dolbu%
The issue of the unfortunate campaign of general Har-
mar, which took place about this time, has been related
in anoflier place.

Twenty acres were planted with com in different parts
of the towa The grinding was with hand mills. Flour
and bacon, now in such abundance, were th^i imported
from the older settlements. The tables were of spUt
planks, and the dishes were of wood. The dress oi the
men was hunting shirts of domestic fitbric This drees
was bound with a belt, or girdle, in which were a knife
and a tomahawk. The lower part of this dress was deer
skin, and after the Indian fashion ; in fact the dress of the
backwoods people in Illinois and Missouri at the present
day. The women, too, were as yet content with dresses of
their own fabric The old inhabitants at that time, who
still survive, look back from the squares and streets, die



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•pulttiiW^ pfitf^ boMtesB and c^tfapedfion of the pttosiM
difjr 4d those primitive tmies of lb|g cabins, forefamity and
i^fectknH bemeiiled by ixMidMHi wai^ and dangers, as ifatf
gbl^R age 6f dnehunti.

Jahiiary 60^ 1791, H patty of ftmf pelrtoite^ who were
t^&tihg the connify ^ti^est of the Great Miami, were at*
taekedby the Indiaite. Onewaskflled; oiie taken, and
iki other twa Escaped to Cbterain station. The station
«SnMt^ of foorteeh inhabitants, and was defended by
^hte^n scMiera Two days after dieaitack upon the
fAifSoring pariyv the Indians camenpcm this stiuion, to the
liotliber of 90Qr They denlimded a surrender, wliich was
li^ i]^ a prompt refusal A fire was instantly Commenced
ihmi the garrisdn, ahd returned by the Indians. An
express was sent to Cincinnati for a reinforcemcafii; Und
fidxty^ree soldiers arrived next morning. But the Indi-
ans^iiad decamped, before their arrival During the at-
ttek, lead foiled for bullets. The wom^ of the ganrison
soiled the deficiency, by melting their pewter vessels,
iftMi mooldiiig balk Near the garrison was. found the
bddy of a prisonery whom die Indians ha4 shiin in the
disappointment of their defeat He appeared to have
been horribly mangled, aiid to have expired from thecon*
Burning Rte of a burning brand applied to his boWel&

An instance of the keenness of Indian ingenuity, in the
iiivemion of original modes of tormre u? given at diis tiqna
The Indians captured a young man of the name of Mo*
ses Hewitt, who lived on die little Hockfaocking, and was
a raembw of the Marietta seulement He was remark-
able for the suppleness of his Hmbs, and the swifoaess of
his running. The Indians tested him widi their champi-
m raeers, afid, ahbough he could not have run with mudbi
q>irit,ibMler his depre^ng circumstances, he easily van-
quished ^em all in swiiftness. They affected to be pl^aa-

TOL. Ik 48



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'8W OHsa

ed, but their^nvy was ^piqued. Tbey ^er^ defitkote ^
provisions, and wished to ^secure their swift fi>oted prison**
er, while they were occupied in 4heir hunt With this
view^and probaUy to torture bimat the same time, tbey
festened his wTists by crossing them, and Jbmding them
firmly with cord They then tied his arms to a stake, so
as partly to raise theupper part^of his body« They &&-
tened his legs in the same way, and partly cut off a youi^
sapling, bending it down, so that the weight of the lower
part of his body would be a counterpoise to the elastie
fierce of the curved tree. Thus was he partially raised
> by hi&hands and feet, in away most horribly ^painful; and
yet in a position, where death would be slow, in arrivii^ to
bis release. It was like the torture of killing by dropping
water on the head. Fortunately, the young man iiad re-
markably slender wrist bones. When left alone to medi-
tate upon his terrible situation, he contrived, 4iot without
disengaging^he skin and flesh from his wrists, to disentan-
gle his arms from their manacles and finally his legs.
He picked up a little of the scraps of jerked meat, which
the Indians had left. To baffleiheir pursuit and that of
their dogs, he ran on the bodies <)f ftiUen trees, and mean-
dered his course in every directioa Such was the adroit-
ness of his management, that he put them completely af
fiiult, and escaped them, and came in to the settlement of
Marietta, wounded, his flesh torn, and mangled, and ema-
ciated to a skeleton, and a living proof how much man
can survive, before he suffers the mortal pang. He had
been absent fourteen.day&

In the disastrous campaign ^f general St Clair, the is*

sue of which has been related in another place, a great

number of the inhabitants of Cincinnati were killed.

The event of the campaign had a discouraging effect up-

<on the fortunes of the settlement 'Severalof the inhab*



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fffl with fu}veBtiv)eis, were coMQii^ Cm^

iiectiflVit i^egerv^ was r^i<Uy QtM w<^ people^ ebie^
Ippp CkiDi)M%u^ T)ie seitlfmef^iB brofuilened aiwl divctf^
ged from the Marietta seulement on the w^ie hvn^ «n4
4[^iQe|pptti on the ^thi^f, gia^ui^y adyaiiciiig firofn the
^^ores of t^ieOtiie fowafda the Height of Jam) between
the wf^tprsof the Ohio mnl the lake^. Thf extraordiiiary
fertility of the cei|Dtfy pn the Scfoto ^ym^ th^ heplw <^
>}iatri?er early fo ^ setded wiUi a cofiiiMi9^popi|lmioq»^
Theeouptry on t^ie GfpMliliium ^f9¥^ DJiytoB^Mpng tli?
eourses of Afad fivwy 8oo|i became pqwiMfi The eJD*
teat of theiBvaignt^on pon^ only be imagined by the m
keeper^) who Uv^d on d^gieat roads tQ the weetem ooim*
try,orbytheageiMaof t|ie)an4ofl|pe»orby the aftfoniah'
ing residtsof a censua For the lest, the setdera qoiedy
dropped ipK^ their forest nests, and die next inleiUg«K»^
them was by the passiAg traveller, who sp^^ nf their
wheat fields^ and commracing impro¥eqienia» ^erer
was trana^fbrmation front the silence of ^for^ to die ,
iesv)t£| of popfdatimi, towqs, villfiges, &m^ and aU tbf
fLCOpmpiiniHiepts c^ civilisi|tipn and municipal Ufe more
silent and imperceptible, and at tl^saime time more sqd*
den.

In four years from the treatjr of Greenville, to wjl, 19
1799, die terriiory passed to what has since been called^
the second grade of tenitorial go^mment, T^ l^gpsb^
ti Ye power, which in the first grad? beloi^;ed to ^ gwenh
or and judges, y/^ tran^ferted to a boop^ «f rfprepemat
tives elec^ ^ die pee|^ wd fi legisbdvet cwpieili apr
pointed by congress. A delegate was chesfNi to repKswt
die territory in the national legidatiwa In I'KBi^ CSncm?
nad contained 900 inbafailaiitfiu Inl8W^1M InlSOfs
960.



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wan. 861

TkB Jmitfi of Urn imiii&ry had hiiherta been Temmgh
i|i^imi)i4 4«mijkeliikeiPn themfd\ 4ie MiflBiwppi
eiilNif69t»»iulthe Ql)tQC(B|he aouth. TbeeTftentof
ifcm^ m» wfficieoi to fwwa Iwg^ ewpife. General
iSi C^air ffuwMaed gavereor. The ^rtt teriHofial legj»laf
tore m^ m C^Dfiinnati jn 1199. Repre^eptiitifea fiom
I>etrQit an4 Kaakaifl^a were prapepi; The two pointi
were disimtf by the travelled ranie^ not much fbort of
800 mileB. Poring diiaaeiBioi^ a diapnte arose between
the governor and 4^ two honws, tooching the power of
the gavemor to mwm^m wqnalified nega^va The le-
gislature remained maefisioQ three montha A atwdy
f^irit of indep^ence, and diiq[KmtioB to remonstrate
against refi or supposed grieynnees^ began early to man*
iS»at itsetf ill the leg^lattve meamresand enaotmmfa, Th^
nat sesnon was bald at QiiUieothe, in Norember^ }90(K
The differences between the fevemor and the l^slatfi^
manifested themselves imaw donag^aessioa

Pfeviousto this^ however^ a separate lerritorial gfweror
ment had been erected out of the country^ which now coiv
sdttttes Iqdiana and IIhnoi& The old territory consisted
of the present stateof Ohio a|idMi<^uganteititory. Tliia
divisi<Hi threw the Bliami ceontry and Cincinnati, the most
populoop and flooriflhiag village in the country, npon the
ijirep^wei verge of what woald opnsiitMe the «ew ^tate.
Feejings q( emalatioR and jealonqr had ariaen betw^eo
diflfer^s^QtiQW, paiiioaUvly between the Ifiamiw^ 8ci-
Qio i^ntryt in vi^eh were ik» moat ooiisiderable «ettle-
meiamf in theatata 9ome of th<we ac^ve and ioQnewtial
ipeib iwha naturally precede m prqjecta of this kind, be**
gant^tal^of aa^Mgorerpineni Totfeua 4ie gowmor
aiid a miyppity of the legialatafe were aTeiae. Tbiey ash
sig|ied,aareaaoaa, that the peopla w«»W derive no real
adyantaga firom ill The ftiiwwfftl a^jwotof th^ggvenh



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d62 <mf<y.

ment was not prosperous, although most of die puUic offi-
cers received thdr salaries from the United States, yfhea
erected into a state, the people- theihselYes would have to



Online LibraryTimothy FlintA condensed geography and history of the western states, or the Mississippi valley → online text (page 74 of 85)