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Tom S Wotton.

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DICTIONARY

OF

FOREIGN MUSICAL TERMS

AND

HANDBOOK

OF

ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTS

BY



i



TOM S. WOTTON



i




LEIPZIG

BREITKOPF & hARTEL

1907







Berkeley 5 Califori



A

DICTIONARY

OF

FOREIGN MUSICAL TERMS

AND

HANDBOOK

OF

ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTS

BY

TOM S. WOTTON




LEIPZIG

BREITKOPF & HARTEL
1907

t^ted in Gennaaf:



Y

RY

UNiVi-'i/iTYOF
CAL-FCRNtA



Published April 1907.
privilege of copyright in the United States
reserved under the Act approved March 3,
1905, by BREITKOPF&H ARTEL, Leipzig.



1^6



PREFACE.



In these days of inexpensive full-scores, when almost everyone,
with any pretence to be considered musical, possesses copies of
their favourite works in the original orchestral form, some such
dictionary as the present seems necessary. The previous dic-
tionaries of musical terms were published before the cult of the
"miniature" score began, and before the employment of musical
directions in the composer's own language became so universal,
and thus, many orchestral terms were omitted, as not being of
sufficient general interest, and the explanation of many German
indications (now in everyday use) was considered unnecessary.
Even in Italian (the musician's language until recent years),
alterations have taken place, which existing dictionaries have not
noted, and hence while Clarino, for example, is explained as being
a name for a trumpet, nothing is said as to the word being now
employed in modern Italian scores as equivalent to ClarinettOy
and terms such as Clarone are not mentioned at all.

The original idea of the present work was to include simply
orchestral terms and instruments, but as it was obvious that for
the proper understanding of a full-score, translations of indica-
tions of tempo and expression were necessary, these were added:
thus the book, it is to be hoped, will prove as serviceable to the
pianist and vocalist as to the reader of full-scores, or the player
on some orchestral instrument. Obsolete terms are not given
as a rule, although in many cases they have been introduced,
either the better to explain their modern meaning, or because,
although obsolete in general use, they are to be found in scores,
which are still living. That every term employed in modem
music is included, can scarcely be expected: many composers,
fearful lest their ideas should be misunderstood, mark some fresh
indication every few bars, and so, even if the number of musical



— IV —

works were less than it is, the number of musical expressions
would still be enormous.

Owing to various reasons, the chief of which being perhaps
the translation of foreign musical works into English by persons
ignorant of musical technicalities, certain errors of nomenclature
have crept into even our standard English treatises, and there-
fore occasional divergences may be discovered between the
explanations given in the following pages and those found in one
or other of these standard works. It is almost needless to state,
that these variations from consecrated meanings have been given
only after due consideration, and a careful collation of the various
authorities, with an ultimate appeal to the scores themselves.

I here take the opportunity of tendering my best thanks to
my friends Ad. Schloesser and Walter F. H. Blandford not only
for many helpful suggestions, but for having been good enough
to undertake the ungrateful task of overlooking the proofs.

Londbn, 1907.

TOM S. WOTTON.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS OF REFERENCE CONSULTED.



BERLIOZ, H.



CORDER, F.
DAY, C. R.



GROVE, G.



HILES, J.

HOPKINS, E. J.
KAPPEY, J. A.
MACFARREN, SIR G. A.
NIECKS, F.
PROUT, E.



SCHUBERTH, J.
STAINER, J. &
BARRETT, W. A.



Works in the English Language.

Treatise on Orchestration (translated by
Mary Cowden Clarke; revised by Joseph
Bennett).

The Orchestra.

Catalogue of the Musical Instruments in
the Royal Military Exhibition, London,
i8go.

Dictionary of Music (ist edition); ditto
(2nd edition, edited by J. A. Fuller-
Maitland).

Catechism of the Organ.

Dictionary of Musical Terms.

The Organ.

Military Music.

Six Lectures on Harmony.

A concise Dictionary of Musical Terms.

Harmony, Counterpoint, Fugue, 6-. (se-
parate volumes).

The Orchestra.

Musical Handbook.

Dictionary of Musical Terms.



Encyclopcsdia Britannica (loth edition).
Standard English Dictionary (Funk cS-
• W agnails).

Works in the French Language.



BERLIOZ, H.
DELVEDEZ, E. M. E.
GEVAERT, F. A.

GUIRAUD, E.
JACQUOT, A.
KASTNER, G.



Traite d' Instrumentation et d' Orchestration.
Curiosites Musicales.
Nouveau Traite d' Instrumentation.
Cours Methodique d' Orchestration.
Traite pratique d' Instrumentation.
Dictionnaire des Instruments de Musique.
Manual g^ntral de Musique Militaire.



— VI



LAVIGNAC, A.
LAVOIX, H.

LUSSY, M.
MAHILLON, V. C.



PARES, G.
ROUGNON, P.
WIDOR, C. M.



La Musique et les Musiciens.

Histoire de V Instrumentation.

Histoire de la Musique.

Traite de I'Expression Musicale.

Catalogue descriptif et analytique du Musee
Instrumental du Conservatoire Royal de
Musique de Bruxelles.

Elements d'Acoustique.

Traits d' Instrumentation et d' Orchestra-
tion d I'usage de Musiques Militaires.

Dictionnaire Musical des Locutions etran-
geres.

Technique de I'Orchestre Moderne.



BERLIOZ, H.



BREMER, F.
HOFMANN, R.

KOCH, H. C.
LOBE, J. C.

MARX, A. B.
RICHTER, E. F.
RIEMANN, H.
WITTING, C.



Works in the German Language.

Instrumentationslehre (herausgegeben von
F. Weingartner); dieselhe (ergdnzt und
revidiert von R. Strauss).

Handlexikon der Musik.

Praktische Instrumentationslehre.

Katechismus der Musikinstrumente.

Musikalisches Lexikon.

Lehrbuch der musikalischen Komposition:
Instrumentation.

Musikalische Kompositionslehre.

Katechismus der Orgel.

Musik-Lexikon.

Worterbuch der in der Musik gebrduch-
lichen Ausdriicke.

Encyklopddisches Deutsch-Englisches Wor-
terbuch (Muret-Sanders).



GALLI, A.
LICHTENTHAL, P.
PROUT, E.
SANDI, F.



Works in the Italian Language.

Manuale del Capo-Musica,
Dizionario e Bibliografia della Musica.
Strumentazione (versione italiana di Ricci).
Trattato di Strumentazione Pratica.
Italian-English Dictionary (Millhouse 6-
Bracciforti).



The Catalogues of the principal English, French, German and
ItaUan makers of Musical Instruments have also been consulted, as
have numerous articles in EngUsh and foreign musical magazines.



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK,



Abbr


A bbreviation.


Lat.


Latin.


adj.


adjective.


masc.


masculine.


adv.


adverb.


past part


past participle


dat.


dative.


plur.


plural.


Eng.


English.


pron.


pronoun.


fern.


feminine.


Rem.


Remark.


Fr.


French.


sing.


singular.


Ger.


German.


Sp.


Spanish.


Gk.


Greek.


subs.


substantive.


It.


Italian.


Sup.


Superlative.



GENERAL REMARKS.



1. The part of the verb usually given is that which is ordinarily
met with in scores, although often it has been deemed advisable to
give the infinitive also. It is to be noted, that in many languages the
infinitive is at times used in the sense of the imperative, as:- prendre
la flute instead of prenez la flute.

2. Both in Italian and German (and more especially in the latter),
the spelling has been so altered within recent years that it is im-
possible to give all the forms of certain words. Where feasible, the
letters which are now usually omitted are placed between brackets,
thus:- get{h)eilt; in other cases, the two spellings are placed in
their alphabetical order, and occasionally, when in spite of differ-
ences {e. g. Controfagotto for Contrafagotto), the resemblance is such as
to lead to no misunderstanding, the altered spelling is omitted.

3. In modern German, Roman type is so often used that its
employment throughout this dictionary needs no apology. The
sign for the double 5 (^) has been frequently introduced, although
at the present time its use cannot be considered as universal.

4. Since in a work of this description it is impossible to enter
into the differences that are found in similar instruments of various
makers, it must not be taken that these differences do not exist or
that they are of necessity unimportant. Because a Heckelphon is
described as a baritone oboe, it must not be supposed that Heckel's
invention is identical with the Hautbois baryton of the French maker,
Loree ; and because a Pelittone is described as a saxhorn, that there-
fore Pelitti's instrument is precisely the same as that of Sax.

5. As it is often convenient to represent the pitch of notes other
than by music type, it is as well to give here the method adopted
in the following pages, adding in brackets some other methods of
designating the notes of any particular octave.



8^» bassa...

Wotton, Dictionary.



C2 to B2. (32ft octave; CCC to BBB.]



— 2 —



C|; Cito Bi. {i6ft octave; Contra octave; CC to BB,

' *^* \ ! ■ In English organ mus: ~~

Hi dr" to the octave above.)



In EngUsh organ music, CC, DD, EE & FF refer



z: to



9* — ^ C to J5. (8ft octave; Great octave.)



5tto
to



9* J I c to h. (4ft octave; Small octave.)



I



J I c' to h\ (2ft octave; one-lined or once accented
1 octave; c to b.)

•^ to



to JL

p — c" to 6". (ift octave; two-Hned or twice accented



Cp I octave; c to b.)



to



I



Y: y - c'" to h'". (6 in. octave; three-lined or thrice ac-
- cented octave; c to b.)



to r:



I



ip '- c"" to h"", (3 in. octave; four-lined or four times
- accented octave; c to b.)



Note. Expressions not found under the initial word of the sen-
tence will often be found under one or other of the prin-
cipal words of the phrase.



A. The 6th note of the normal scale of C major; in Fr. and It.
it is called la. The highest string of the violoncello and viola,
and 2nd string of the violin.

A A. Sometimes found for Ai.
AAA. Sometimes found for A 2.
A (Fr.). To, at, in, with, etc.

A chaque accord. With every chord; direction for using the

damper pedal in piano playing.
A cylindres. With cyhnders. v. Valves.

A defaut de. In the absence of. A dSfaut de clarinette basse, in
the absence of a bass clarinet.

demi jeu. j wjth half the power of the voice or instrument.

A deux, a 2. In two parts. More often used in the contrary
sense, and meaning that 2 instruments of a kind (2 flutes,
2 bassoons, etc.) are to play the same part.

A deux cordes. On two strings.

A deux huit. In Vs time.

A deux mains. For two hands.

A deux quatre. In 2/4 time.

A deux temps. In 2/2 time, or, generally, in any binary rhjrthm,

A grande orchestre. For full orchestra.

A la, a r. To the, etc: often meaning "in the style of".

A recossaise. In the Scotch style.

A la corde. The bow kept well on the strings ; legato.

A la demi ere mesure. At the last bar.

A la fin. At the end.

A la mesure. In time.

A la pointe d'archet. With the point of the bow.

A la polonaise. In the Polish style ; in the style of a polonaise.

A livre ouvert. (Playing) at sight.

A mesure (battue). In strict time.

A peine entendu. Scarcely heard.

A pistons. With pistons, v. Valves.

A premiere vue. At first sight.

A quatre mains. For four hands.

A six temps. In 6 time.

A un quart de voix. Sung as softly as possible, v. Quart.

A un temps. In one beat.

A voix sombre. In a gloomy voice.

A volonte. At will, at one's pleasure; ad libitum



— 4 —

A (Ger.). The note A. Ajf is Ais; A I? is As.

A dur. A major.

A moll. A minor.

A-Saite. The A string.
A (It.). To, at, with, etc.

A ballata. In the ballad style.

A battuta. In strict time.

A bene placito. At pleasure, ad libitum.

A cappella, a capella. (i) In the style of church music. (2) Com-
positions are so designated, which are either for voices alone,
or in which the instrumental accompaniment is in unison
or octaves with the voices. (3) A term sometimes used for
alia breve.

A capriccio. At pleasure, capriciously.

A cinque. In five parts.

A due, a 2. In two parts. More often used in a contrary sense, and
meaning that two instruments play the same part. cf. A deux.

A due corde. On two strings.

A due mani. For two hands.

A due voci. For two voices.

A man(o) dritta. For the right hand.

A manjo) nianca. / p ^^ j ^ ^ ^ ^

A man(o) sinistra, j

A mezza forza. With half the power of the voice or instrument.

A mezza voce. With half the power of the voice or instrument,
but more soft than loud.

A mezzo manico. In the middle of the fingerboard.

A piacere. U^ pleasure, ad libitum.

A piacimento. ( ^ '

A poco a poco. Little by little.

A prima vista. At first sight.

A prime tempo. In the first (original) tempo.

A punta d'arco. With the point of the bow.

A quattro mani. For four hands.

A quattro parti. For (in) four parts.

A quattro voci. For four voices.

A rigore del tempo. In strictest time.

A scelta del cantante. At the discretion of the singer.

A sola voce. With the voice alone, i. e. without an instrumental

accompaniment.
A suo arbitrio. j

A suo beneplacimento. > At one's pleasure, ad libitum.
A suo beneplacito. )

A suo com(m)odo. At one's convenience,
a t., a tem. Abbr. of a tempo.
A tempo. In time.

A tempo com(m)odo. In a convenient time, at a leisurely pace.
A tempo di gavotta, di minuetto, etc. In the time of a gavotte,

minuet, etc.
A tempo giusto. In exact time.
A tempo, ma un poco piii lento. In time (i. e. in the main time

of the movement), but a little more slowly.



A tempo ordinario. In ordinary time, i. e. in moderate time,

neither too fast nor too slow.
A tempo prime. In the first (initial) time.

A tempo rubato. Lit. "in robbed time", i. e. time in which,
while every bar is of its proper time value, one portion of it
may be played faster or slower at the expense of the
remaining portion, so that, if the first half be somewhat
slackened, the second half is somewhat quickened, and vice
versa. With indifferent performers, this indication is too
often confounded with some expression signifying ad libitum.
A tre, a 3. In three parts; or that 3 instruments should play

the same part. cf. A due.
A tre corde. For three strings. In piano music, contradicting

the use of the soft pedal, una corda.
A tre mani. For three hands.
A tre parti. In three parts.
A tre voci. For three voices.
A una corda. For one string, and on the piano, indicating the

use of the soft pedal.
A vista. At sight.
A voce sola. For voice alone.
Ab initio (Lat.). From the beginning.
Abbandonatamente (It.).
Abbandonevolmente (It.).
Abbandono (It.). Abandonment; abandon.
Abbassamento (It.). Lowering (subs.).

Abbassamento di mano. Lowering of the hand.
Abbassamento di voce. Lowering of the voice.
Abbassando (It.). Lowering, diminishing the sound.
Abbassare (It.). To lower. I Contrabassi abbasseranno d'un mezzo
tono la corda La, the double-basses must lower the A string a
semitone.
Abbellimenti (It.). Embellishments, ornaments.
Abbreviations. (Abbreviations of ordinary words and terms will
be found in their alphabetical order. The signs used in modern
music will be found under "Signs".)

To save the trouble of writing in full a passage which is imme-



Unrestrainedly ; with abandon.



diately repeated, it is often placed between double bars



or



his — written above it. In MS. music and in old engraved scores,
bars which occur later are often numbered, and on their repetition,
the numbers are alone written in the empty bars, with come sopra
(as above) sometimes added. The ordinary abbreviations will
Jbe understood from the following examples: —



Written, or or







Played.



^ffi



¥¥**



55



■0-0-0-







— 6



Written. or



or

1^



Played.



f4^ | jjjj'jjj i ^^j?1^ i



Written.



Played.



Written.



1^



^Me^



Played.



^:



^



d ' ^^ w^



Written.



Played.



(S^ri'c;irJJ^ I >-nri^crirjJ^ l r[j:j | rJJ^



Written.



Played on
the violin.



Played on
the piano.



;£r 4^ \ J J, J, J, J| J, J| J I J J - J^i 1 ^ ^ -



Abbreviaturen (Ger.). Abbreviations.
Abdampfen (Ger.). To damp, mute.
Abend (Ger.). Evening.

Abendgesang. Evening hymn.

Abendgottesdienst. Evening service; vespers.

Abendlied. An evening song.

Abendmusik. A serenade.
Aber (Ger.). But, at the same time. p. aber gut markierty p. but
well accentuated.

Aber bestimmt. But with decision.

Aber deutlich. But distinct.

Aber immer noch Halbe. But still (beating) minims.

Aber immer noch nicht so schnell wie zu Anfang. But still
not so fast as at the commencement.
Abfloten (Ger.). To play upon the flute.
Abgerundetes Spiel (Ger.). Finished execution.
Abgesang (Ger.). The last portion of a song.
AbgestoBen (Ger.). Staccato.
Abkiirzungen (Ger.). Abbreviations.
Ablosen (Ger.). To detach, separate; in piano playing, to take

off a finger.
Abnehmend (Ger.). Decreasing, diminuendo.
AbreiBen (Ger.). To break off.
AbreiBung (Ger.). A sudden pause.
Absatz (Ger.). An interval, a pause; a section, phrase
Abschnitt (Cxer.). A section, period.
Absetzen (Ger.). To detach, to play staccato; in piano playing^

to raise the finger.
Abspielen (Ger.). To play off. Vom Blatt abspielen, to play at sight.



AbstoBen (Ger.). To play a note in a sharp distinct manner; to
play staccato.

Abt(h)eilung (Ger.). Division, part, section.

Abwartsschreiten (Ger.). To descend (a note or an interval).

Abwechselnd (Ger.). Alternating, interchanging; changing (fingers):
alternate. In abwechselnden Choren, antiphonally ; mit abwechseln-
den Manualen, with alternate manuals; mit Althoboe abwechselnd,
alternating with cor anglais; mit Kl. Flote abwechselnd, inter-
changing with piccolo.

Abwechselung (Ger.). Alternation, change, modulation.

Abziehen (Ger.). To unstring a violin, etc. The opposite to auf-
ziehen.

Ace. Abbr. of accompaniment.

Accablement (Fr.). Dejection, depression.

Accarezzevole (It.). Fond, caressing, flattering.

Accarezzevolmente (It.). Caressingly.

Accel. Abbr. of accelerando.

Accelerare (It.). To quicken, accelerate.

Accelerando (It.). Quickening, accelerating (the tempo).

Accelerando bis fest in gewonnenem, lebhaftem Zeitmafi.

Quickening until the fast tempo is firmly established.
Accelerando sin'al fine. Accelerating until the end.

Acceleratemente (It.). Quickly, in haste.

Accelerato (It.). Quickened.

Accentato (It.). Accented.

Accent© (It.). Accent.

Accentuare, accentare (It.). To accentuate, lay a stress upon.

Accent(u)ato (It.), j Arrented

Accentue (Fr.). } Accented.

Accentui(e)ren (Ger.). To accentuate.

Acciaccato (It.). Literally "crushed", and applied to a note, which
is to be played as an acciaccatura {q. v.). The term is sometimes
used to signify that the notes of a chord on the piano are to be
played in rapid succession (considerably faster than an ordinary
arpeggio) for the sake of greater resonance: it is an effect which is
often abused.

Acciaccatura (It.). A term now used for a short appoggiatura {q. v.),
a note rapidly "crushed" into the principal note. Formerly it
meant a grace-note, which was played at the same time as the
melody note above, but which was instantly released after being
struck.

Accidentalen (Ger.). \

Accidenti (It.). I Accidentals

Accidentien (Ger.). ( occidentals.

Accidents (Fr.). /

Accolade (Fr.). A brace connecting two or more staves.

Accom., accomp. Abbr. of accompaniment, accompagnamento, &c.

Accompagnamento (It.). Accompaniment.

Accompagnare (It.). To accompany.

Accompagnateur (Fr.). An accompanist,

Accompagnato (It.). Accompanied.

Accompagnatore, -trice (It.). An accompanist.



— 8 —

Accompagnement (Fr.). Accompaniment.

Accompagner (Fr.). To accompany.

Accoppiamento (It.). The act of coupling; coupling.

Accoppiamento dell* O. C. (organo corale) all* O. E. (organo
espressivo). Choir coupled to swell.
Accoppiato (It.). Coupled.

Accord (Fr.). (i) A chord. (2) Method of tuning an instrument.
(3) Agreement in pitch. Tenir r accord, to keep the pitch: cet in-
strument est d'accord, this instrument is in tune.
Accord a I'DUvert. Chord on open strings.
Accord arpege, brise, or figure. A broken chord.
Accord de septieme. Chord of the seventh.
Accord de violon. The notes to which the strings of a violin

are tuned.
Accord parfait, A common chord.
Accordamento, Accordanza (It.). Agreement in pitch, consonance.
Accordando (It.). Tuning.
Accordante (It.). Harmonising, accordant.
Accordare (It.). To tune.
Accordato (It.). Tuned.

Accordati per quinta. Tuned to the fifth. (A direction sometimes
found in Timpani parts, where, when the notes are Bj; — F,
or C — F, some doubt might exist as to whether F were the
lower or higher note.)
Accordatura (It.). Same as the Fr. accord.
Accordeon (Fr.). An accordion.
Accorder (Fr.). To tune.

Accordion. A free reed instrument of oblong form, with bellows
worked by the left hand, with from 10 to 20 keys (or even more),
and with stops for producing "effects" or chords of several notes.
Accordo (It.). A chord.

Accord© consono. Consonant chord.
Accordo dissono. Dissonant chord.
Accouple (Fr.). Coupled. Tous les claviers accouplSs, all the manuals

coupled.
Accouplement (Fr.). Coupling.

Accrescendo (It.). Increasing, augmenting (the sound).
Accrescimento (It.). Augmentation.
Accresciuto (It.). Augmented. ("Augmented" when applied to

intervals is eccedente.)
Accuratezza (It.). Accuracy, care, attention.
Acht (Ger.). Eight.

Achte (Ger.). Eighth. Sometimes used for Oktave, an octave.
Achtel (Ger.). An eighth part. Usually employed for Achtelnote,
a quaver (the eighth part of a semibreve).
Achtelnote. An eighth note, a quaver.
Achtelpause. A quaver rest.
Achtelschlag. A quaver beat.
Die Achtel als vorher die Viertel. The quavers like the previous

crotchets.
Die Achtel bedeutend ruhiger als soeben die Viertel. The quavers
considerably more tranquil than the previous crotchets.



— 9 —

Die Achtel der Triolen etwas schneller als soeben die gewohn-
lichen Achtel. The quavers of the triplets somewhat faster
than the preceding ordinary quavers.
Die Achtel etwas langsamer als soeben. The quavers somewhat

slower than before.
Die Achtel etwas langsamer als vorher die Halben. The quavers

somewhat slower than the previous minims.
Die Achtel viel gemessener als soeben die Viertel. The quavers

much more measured (slower) than the previous crotchets.
Die Achtelschlage etwas langsamer als vorher die Halben. The
quaver beats somewhat slower than the previous minims.
Act (Ger.). Act. v. Akt. Aufzug is perhaps now the more ordinary-
word.
Acte (Fr.). Act.

Acte de cadence. The two chords forming the cadence.
Acteur (Fr.). An actor.
Action musicale (Fr.). Term used by d'lndy for his later operas

and corresponding to the Ger. Handlung {q. v.).
Actrice (Fr.). An actress.

Acutezza (It.). Acuteness; degree of elevation of a sound.
Acute, -a (It.). Acute, elevated. Voce acuta, a high voice.
Ad lib. Abbr. of ad libitum.

Ad libitum (Lat.). At the will or pleasure of the executant.
Adagio (It.), adj. Slow. Less slow than Largo and slower tham Andante.
Used also as a subs., as "an Adagio" of Mozart.
Adagio assai. Very slow.

Adagio con molt* espressione. Slow with great expression.
Adagio di molto. Very slow.
Adagio molto semplice e cantabile. Slow and in a very simple

singing style.
Adagio non troppo lento. Slow, but not too slow.
Adagio pesante. Slow and heavy.
Adagissimo (It.). Very slow: sup. of Adagio.

Additional accompaniments. Instrumental parts added to a score
by someone other than the composer, either for the filling-in of
the figured bass, or for merely "thickening" the accompaniment
in accordance with modern ideas, or for the simplification of
certain parts such as the extremely high trumpet parts of Handel
and Bach, or as substitution for parts written for obsolete instru-
ments. Although the result may be sometimes questioned, the
term is usually held to imply an artistic desire to fit an ancient
score to the requirements of modern days, and does not include
the introduction of extra brass instruments into a score of (say)
Mozart by a conductor suffering from "orchestral deafness".
Addolcendo (It.). Softening; gradually becoming quieter.
Addolorato (It.). Dolorous, sad, agonised.
Adirato (It.). Irritated, angry.
Ado. Abbr. of Adagio.
Adornamento (It.). Ornament.

Aehnlich, Aengstlich, etc. v. Ahnlich, Angstlich, etc.
.ffiolian Harp. An oblong box, serving as a sound-board, on which


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Online LibraryTom S WottonA dictionary of foreign musical terms and handbook of orchestral instruments → online text (page 1 of 22)