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KAGAWA

in Lincoln's Land



FRIENDS OF JESUS



Volume Vin July, 1936 No. 3



THIS occasional publication came into existence in response
to the need for an interpretation in the English language of
Dr. Kagawa's Christian message and the implications of his
message as applied to world-wide problems. The title is taken
from the name of the inner circle of Dr. Kagawa's disciples, of
whom there are about thirteen hundred men and women, mem-
bers of Christian churches of all denominations. It has been
published in Japan for several years.

The National Kagawa Co-ordinating Advisory Committee, or
its successor, is laying plans for the publication of frequent is-
sues in order to give information concerning the growth of the
movement and to reveal to America and the world the great
resources in the mind and spirit of Toyohiko Kagawa. Through
him the bond of brotherhood between the continents is being
greatly strengthened.

Helen F. Topping, who interpreted Kagawa to America and
took the responsibility for developing his itinerary in its initial
stages and who has been the moving spirit in the Friends of
Jesus publication from its inception, will continue her definite re-
lationship to the editorial policy. She will serve in the capacity
of correlating the program of the Japanese and American com-
mittees.

The recent issues of the Friends of Jesus include : The Chris-
tian Internationale, June, 1933, price 30c; The Economic Foun-
dation of World Peace, 1932, 30c; Shanghai Number, 1931, 30c;
Kingdom of God Number, 1930, 5c; Kagawa in the Philippines,
1934, 30c ; Kagawa in Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii, 1936,
30c; Christian Brotherhood in Theory and Practice, May, 1936,
30c; Kagawa in Lincoln's Land, July, 1936, 30c. Contributions,
including subscription, not less than one yen a year in Japan;
$1.00 in America. Single copies 30c by mail.



Kagawa

in Lincoln's Land



Compiled and edited by

Emerson 0. Bradshaw
Charles E. Shike

and

Helen F. Topping



Copyright, 1936
By J. Henry Carpenter



Published by the



National Kagawa Co-ordinating Committee

J. Henry Carpenter - - - Executive Secretary
Leslie B. Moss - - Chairman, Executive Committee
James Myers - - - Chairman, Program Committee
Blaine E. Kirkpatrick - Chairman, Educational Committee

285 Schermerliorn Street, Brooklyn, New York



MEMBERSHIP OF THE
NATIONAL KAGAWA CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE



A. E. Armstrong

Jesse Bader

Wade Crawford Barclay

Roswell P. Barnes

Chas. F. Boss, Jr.

E. R. Bowen

Emerson O. Bradshaw

Allene A. Bryan

H. Ross Bunce

J. Henry Carpenter

Frank T. Cartwright

Samuel M. Cavert

Allan Knight Chalmers

Ellis Cowling

James A. Crain

C. C. Cunningham

A. J. Dahlby

E. LeRoy Dakin

Markham Dana

Wilbur H. Davies

Mark A. Dawber

Henry M. Edmonds

Eugene Exman

E. C. Farnham

E. A. Fridell

Mrs. James T. Ferguson

Harold E. Fey

Harlan M. Frost

Owen M. Geer

Charles W. Gilkey

Mrs. Charles W. Gilkey

Roy B. Guild

William Halfaker

Martin L. Harvey

P. R. Hayward

I. H. Hull

Allen A. Hunter

Stanley A. Hunter



Paul Hutchinson
Orrin G. Judd
Blaine E. Kirkpatrick
Leon Z. Kofod
Benson Y. Landis
Gilbert Q. LeSourd
F. A. Lindhorst
Victor E. Marriott
Ralph C. McAfee
Roy McCullough
J. W. McDonald
George Mecklenburg
Walter R. Mee
Melvin G. Miller
H. M. Morse
Leslie B. Moss
Harry C. Munro
James Myers
Ray Newton
Grace Sloan Overton
Harry C. Priest
J. L. Reddix
Anna V. Rice
O. J. Ringle
Richard Roberts
Myron C. Rybolt
Robert W. Searle
Miss Anne Seesholtz
Ernest Shafer
Charles E. Shike
Alfred W. Swan
Alva W. Taylor
A. J. Thomas
Helen F. Topping
Florence G. Tyler
Dan West
Jay A. Urice



-t5 L I V^ CO \ iTs



FOREWORD

THIS volume grew as a result of independent consideration
on the part of several groups. Benson Y. Landis of the
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, and E. R.
Bowen of the Co-operative League of the United States collabo-
rated in the compilation of information relative to Kagawa's
departure from Japan and the early reports of his itinerary in
America.

As the time approached for Kagawa's visit to Illinois, the
Illinois Church Council and the Chicago Church Federation
sensed the intense interest of Kagawa in the great American
Emancipator. Dr. Kagawa himself enthusiastically entered into
the plans which these two organizations initiated to commemo-
rate his visit to Lincoln's land by the publication of such a
volume.

The Committee is indebted to The Illinois State Register, The
Abraham Lincoln Association, and. the State of Illinois for the
use of valuable cuts. Allene A. Bryan of St. Louis also gave
valuable assistance.

The National Kagawa Co-ordinating Committee, which co-
operated with Dr. Kagawa in arranging his American itinerary,
committed the compilation, organization and editing of the mate-
rials to Charles E. Shike, executive secretary of the Illinois
Church Council, Emerson 0. Bradshaw, secretary of the Depart-
ment of Christian Education of the Chicago Church Federation,
and Helen F. Topping, founder of the Friends of Jesus publi-
cation.



CONTENTS

Page

Kagawa at Springfield 5

An Open Letter to Kagawa, Illinois State Journal — Lincoln and
Kagawa at Springfield — Kipling, Kagawa, and Lincoln, Illinois
State Register.

Kagawa and Lincoln, Albert W. Palmer - - - - 10
The Log of Kagawa's Journey - - - - 12

Letters from Kagawa to America — Kagawa Leaves for America —
Kagawa Detained — President Roosevelt Requests Kagawa Be Ad-
mitted — White House Correspondence — Kagawa's First Message
to an American Audience — First Message Reported — Kagawa
Presses On.

Biographical Insights — Kagawa and Lincoln - - 18

How Kagawa Spent His Leisure Time in America — The Life of
Lincoln — Lincoln's Home — Biographical Data About Kagawa —
Within the Home Circle — Miss Spring Becomes Mrs. Kagawa —
"Of Such"— "The Story of My Life," Dr. Kagawa— Seeing Life
with Kagawa (a worship service).

Love, the Law of Life, Toyohiko Kagawa - - - - 34
Japan and America, Toyohiko Kagawa - - - 41
Kagawa Appraises Modern Japan, Wilbur LaRoe, Jr. - 44
Story of the Kingdom of God Movement in Japan,

Toyohiko Kagawa - - - - 46

Biblical Agriculture, Toyohiko Kagawa - - - - 51

Kagawa's Challenge to the Youth of America,

Toyohiko Kagawa - - - - 54

The Meaning of the Cross, Toyohiko Kagawa - - - 61
The Story of Brotherhood, Toyohiko Kagawa - - - 69
The Rochdale Movement - - - - - - - - 70

Christianity and the World Crisis, Toyohiko Kagawa - 72
Christianity and Social Reconstruction,

Toyohiko Kagawa - - - - 79

Development of Economic Activity (a diagram),

Toyohiko Kagawa - - - - 84

The Fourth Alternative, Edmund DeS. Brunner - - 85
Publications Interpreting the Co-operative Movement 92
Peace by World Co-operatives, Toyohiko Kagawa - - 93
The Christian Internationale and World Peace,

Toyohiko Kagawa 99

Forum Conversations with Kagawa in America,

Charles E. Shike - - - - 106

The Meaning of Kagawa's Visit to America,

Emerson 0. Bradshaw - 117

4



KAGAWA AT SPRINGFIELD



Dear Doctor Kagavva :

The city of Springfield has long been ac-
customed to entertaining distinguished visitors
from other lands. Paths converging at the
tomb of Abraham Lincoln have taken their
rise in most of the nations of the earth, and
over them have traveled king and commoner
to offer their tribute to our greatest citizen.
The routine of our civic hospitality has settled
into a fixed pattern : We welcome, fete, and take
leave of celebrities in due form. In the process
we have come to feel at ease with the great
and near great, and have found that they
are indeed human.



An Open Letter to Kagawa



You are the guest of Springfield today.
We take you into our confidence and tell you
frankly that we are not at ease in having
you in our midst. Our formal system of
entertainment for distinguished personages
must be discarded. You are of a different
brand and we are not in a mood to welcome
you by rote. We know that vve are in the
presence of one of the few spiritual peers of
the world, and our mood is reverential.

Kings and their ambassadors have come
and gone. They symbolized material empires,
many of which have passed away as is
"the fashion of this world." You come to
us as the authenticated representative of the
King of Kings, plenipotentiary extraordinary
of the Kingdom of God. Your credentials bear
the insignia of the Cross of Christ. We
know that you are close to the throne of
Grace, that you are a confidant of the God
of Jesus, that it_ is your habit to walk with
the King in spirit and purpose. Knowing all
this you seem to us to be an awesome in-
dividual. We recognize your authority to
interpret for us the mind of Christ and the
heart of God.

But you have done things. Christianity
by preceot was not enough to complete your
conception of a Christian's privilege — you
have supilemented principle with example.
In the face of doubts concerning the validity
and practicability of Christian princioles and
ideals for today you went out into the thick
of life where conditions were most difficult and
demonstrated them successfully. In other
words, you have paid_ the price by yielding up
your life to be a living sacrifice and witness.

It is indeed fortunate that you are spending
the day with youth. There is promise and
great possibility in that group. They respond
to heroic adventure, loyalty to a cause or
principle, and the challenge of the realities of
Christianity. The o'der crowd will, of course,
be interested in seeing you as a phenomenon
— some one who has done what they once
honed to do and perhaps in half-hearted effort
attempted ; but our boys and girls will see
you as the Truth, made flesh — the proof that
they, too, can be Christlike. — Cotirtesv "Illinois
State Journal." February a. 1936.




Lincoln at Springfield



"I think the authors of that notable instrument [the Constitution] intended to include
all men as equal in all respects. They did not mean to say that all men were equal ia
color, size, intellect, moral development, or social caoacity. They defined with tolerable
distinctness in what respects they d^d consider all m=n created equal — equal in certain
inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. This they
said and this they meant.

"They meant to set up a standard maxim for free society which should be familiar
to all and revered by all — constantly looked to, constantly labored for, and even though
never perfectly attained, constantly approximated ; and thereby constantly spreading and
deepening its influence land augmenting the happiness and value of life to all people, of
all colors, everywhere."










Kagaiva at Springfield



"Springfield is the holy land of America. Here lies the great soul of the Emancipator
of the slaves. Here T think the ages are waiting for the emancipation of the twentieth
century. I sincerely believe that the domination of the white race must not be with the
sword. The white race has the power when the white race will serve others through
serving of humankind. With the spirit of Abraham Lincoln the white race has power
in human history. So I sincerely ask you, please extend the spirit of Abraham Lincoln
who lies in Springfield. Let us revive his spirit in this age. Let us apply his spirit in
this age. Let us apply his principle to the management of industry and to the problem of
international peace." — Kagau'a in Springfield, Illinois, February 7, 1936.



KIPLING, KAGAWA AND LINCOLN

"0, East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet,
Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God's great judgment seat."

— Ballad of East and West.

IN these words, the late Rudyard Kipling expressed the fa-
miliar Western attitude and conviction toward the Eastern
or Oriental peoples. Was Kipling correct or was the recent visit
of Toyohiko Kagawa to the home city of Abraham Lincoln and
his interpretation of Lincoln a refutation of the Kipling position?

Undoubtedly the traditional British Empire concept of Asiatic
nations is altogether at variance with the Kagawa attitude
toward Western nations. "Take up the white man's burden"
has never been a welcome song among the great Asiatic peoples.

Kagawa stands as one of a half dozen most remarkable per-
sonalities in the world of today. As an interpreter of Asia, as
one who understands the younger civilizations of Europe and
America, as a savant worthy to sit among the most erudite, he
compels attention and respect.

His knowledge is amazing, his breadth of reading and observa-
tion unusual. In one address it would appear that his special
field is economics. Hear him again and he is equally at home
among the most learned physicists, astronomers and biologists
of the past and present generations. Listen to him in a mission-
ary address and he is the peer of Stanley Jones, Albert
Schweitzer, Bishop Brent and others of the most eminent in that
field. Hear him discuss comparative religions, or history of
literature — Western history and Western literature — and the
impression is the same. He is very much at home in discussing
philosophy. Biblical research or the political sciences.

But in all his thinking and in all his interpretation of religion
and life, there is a central core of truth — "Love, the Law of
Life." The symbol of such transforming love is the Cross —
vicarious suifering manifest in all the processes of reconstruc-
tion and in all the purposes of God. His practical common sense
and his abounding compassion for the underprivileged and the
disinherited give him contact with the millions of lowly people
in every land. And yet the universities and the political leaders
of the nations listen to his message, knowing that the "old order
changeth" and that, to quote Lowell —

"New occasions teach new duties.
Time makes ancient good uncouth;
They must upward still, and onward
Who would keep abreast of truth."



Among the great throng of notable men and women from
every land who have made their pilgrimage to the home city of
Lincoln, no one has been more reverent than Kagawa — or more
appreciative of the great Emancipator who is peculiarly Spring-
field's own son and who, in the language of Stanton, "belongs to
the ages." They have much in common — Lincoln and Kagawa.
They have vastly more in common than have Kipling and
Kagawa.

The slums of Kobe, the tragic gaiety of the little geisha girl,
his mother, and the ancestral culture of the Samurai blend like
mighty streams in the personality of Kagawa. The culture of
old England, the Puritan idealism of New England and the
pioneer simplicity of Kentucky and Illinois "poor folks" blend
in another mighty stream of personality — Abraham Lincoln.
— Courtesy "Illinois State Register," February 10, 1936.



KAGAWA AND LINCOLN

By Albert W. Palmer

TT is interesting to note certain striking parallels between the
-*■ life and character of Toyohiko Kagawa and Abraham Lin-
coln. Of course, there are obvious differences, differences in
race, in education, in cultural background, in vocation, in oppor-
tunity, and in stature and physical appearance. But beyond
these differences there are also striking likenesses.

Both men lost their mothers at an early age, but while Lin-
coln's stepmother was a beneficent guiding influence, Kagawa
suffered from harsh and unsympathetic surroundings in his
childhood. The fact that both are orphans is a superficial like-
ness but the real point is that both had to struggle with adverse
childhood conditions — Lincoln with poverty and the backwoods,
Kagawa with neglect and dislike in a highly sophisticated society.

Adolescence is a time for significant decisions and both Lin-
coln and Kagawa clearly indicated certain definite trends while
yet in their teens. Lincoln revolted against slavery in the raw
as he saw it at New Orleans and Kagawa at fifteen became a
Christian and at nineteen resolved to preach the gospel and
abolish poverty.

These two men had very different educations, yet in a very
real way both were essentially self-educated. Lincoln, unable
to go to Illinois College, studied law alone, but learned even
more from struggle and poverty and keen insight into the people
round about him. Kagawa studied theology but longed for a
larger range of education which was denied him and learned his
deepest lessons in his struggle with disease. Incidentally, it
should be observed that the intellectual outlook of both men ex-
tended far beyond their formal training. Neither was confined
to any narrow "field." Kagawa indeed, with his interest in
science, economics, poetry, psychology, international affairs and
religion, may well be described as having a universal mind.

One of the greatest parallels between Kagawa and Lincoln is
that both have loved and served the common people. Lincoln
at Salem and as a circuit lawyer and finally as the great Emanci-
pator, and Kagawa in his little room in the slums of Kobe and
his deep interest in the downtrodden rural population of Japan.
Both men have sought to set men free. Lincoln abolished Negro
slavery, believing that the nation could not endure half slave and
half free, while Kagawa seeks to abolish poverty, believing that
no people can endure half pauperized and half free. Kagawa's

10



immediate method for combating poverty is the organization of
people into co-operative groups for all sorts of common economic
and social ends. These co-operatives have not only immediate
value in helping any particiular group buy more cheaply or pool
their common credit resources, but they have an important
secondary value in that they provide an opportunity, within the
framework of capitalism, to explore the possibilities of a co-
operative as over against a competitive regime. Thus you can
begin building up a better social order without having to tear
down the present one. Doubtless Lincoln, also, would have pre-
ferred to free the slaves gradually and without the violent con-
vulsion of war, could he have had his way.

Deep beneath the exterior objectives of their lives, Lincoln
and Kagawa are alike in that both have believed in love rather
than hatred as the controlling motive of their lives. When
others were singing bitterly,

"We'll hang Jeff Davis to a sour apple tree,"

Lincoln had only words of sorrow and gentleness. He loved
both North and South. And those of us who have read his books
or heard him talk about "creative love, preservative love, and
redemptive love" know how the spirit of love is at the heart of
all Kagawa thinks or does.

Nor is it without significance to note that both of these men
have been sustained by a keen sense of humor. Lincoln's stories
are proverbial, and no one can be long with Kagawa without
noting his joyousness and radiance and the play of humor over
his outlook on life. He might well have been a great scientist or
a great humorist, had not religious leadership claimed his first
attention.

Finally, the supreme resemblance between Lincoln and
Kagawa lies in the sense of mystical religion at the heart of
both men's lives. We know how Lincoln's religious life deepened
as his sorrows and burdens increased. "It was a kind of poetry
in his nature," Mrs. Lincoln has recorded. And no one under-
stands Kagawa or his power to labor and endure, without recog-
nizing the basic vital power of his religious faith and his con-
stant sense of communion with God. Religion is ever the
dynamic of great and heroic lives. Kagawa is a great social force
because he is also a great mystic. Personal religion and the
social gospel find their perfect union in his life and thought. — A
radio address given on Lincoln's birthday, WGN, Chicago, Feb-
ruary 12, 1936, auspices Chicago Church Federation.



11



THE LOG OF KAGAWA'S JOURNEY

LETTERS FROM KAGAWA TO AMERICA

I.

"You write of my proposed trip to America. I have been
doubtful as to whether I should go as early as December because
of the pressure of things here but I have decided that I must go.
After the Student Volunteer Convention, I plan to give about
four months to the work in America. As you know I am much
interested in the organization of co-operative societies, because
I believe that only through them can the necessary economic
foundation of world peace be laid. These co-operatives must be
imbued with the ideals of Christian love and service. It follows
then that I am interested in speaking to already existing co-
operative organizations as well as to church groups. Somehow
these two groups must be brought together to the end that the
co-operatives become Christian and that the churches become
co-operative.

"In these days of rampant militarism and nationalism in many
places in the world, we must do our utmost to lay a foundation
of Christian love for the building of international co-operation."
— To John R. Mott, August 6, 1935.

II.

"I thank you for your cordial expression regarding my ad-
dresses and articles regarding the co-operative movement in
Japan. I also thank you very much for your suggestion that in
1936 you will arrange a meeting with various co-operative lead-
ers of the United States for me. Such a meeting would be cen-
tral in my purpose in coming to the United States. The Japanese
government is interested in my meeting such leaders. I am
asked by the government to go also to England and Germany and
other European countries to learn all I can about the co-opera-
tives and mutual aid, and national health insurance also." — Writ-
ten to E. R. Bowen, secretary of the Co-operative League of the
U. S. A., February 14, 1935.

KAGAWA LEAVES FOR AMERICA

By the time these words are printed Kagawa will be in the
United States. He had a big send-off from Japan. The Co-
operative movement, the Friends of Jesus, his Japanese Chris-
tian friends, and the Kagawa fellowship, which is composed
largely of missionaries, were all represented at the train as he

12



left Tokyo and at the boat at Yokohama. Many Tokyo churches
availed themselves of Kagawa's evangelistic meetings just before
his departure and were not disappointed either in the size of the
audiences or in the results obtained. The Kagawa fellowship
held its annual meeting with "the little brother of the slums" at
an inn in the hills near Tokyo on November 28 and 29, and tried
to drink in enough of inspiration from him to last until his re-
turn to Japan some time next autumn. Kagawa says his chief
purpose in going to America at this time is to help co-operatize
the churches which are not yet sufficiently awake to the social
crisis confronting them, and to Christianize the co-operatives
which are making such progress of late, yet largely as a secular
movement. Together they may transform the world, he says.
We commend him to America as good medicine for a diseased
organism. — "Christian Century," January 15, 1936.



KAGAWA DETAINED

On December 19, 1935, the news agencies of the nation flashed
the word that Kagawa had been detained at San Francisco by
the health authorities. A dispatch appearing in the New York
Herald-Trihune read in part as follows :

"Dr. Toyohiko Kagawa, Japanese Christian leader, who ar-
rived here today aboard the Chichibu Maru to begin a nation-
wide speaking tour, was denied entrance to the United States
by immigration authorities.

"Examination at Angel Island, where passengers were placed
in quarantine, showed Dr. Kagawa was suifering from trachoma,
a severe eye infection, officials said.

"Dr. Kagawa contracted the disease while doing evangelistic
work in the slum district of Tokyo. He has been operated upon
thirteen times.

"There is no possibility that Dr. Kagawa can be allowed to
enter the United States unless he receives special authorization
from Washington, officials at Angel Island said.

"The bearer of a disease as serious as trachoma cannot be
admitted to the country under our immigration regulations. At
present it appears that Dr. Kagawa will have to return to Japan.

"American friends of the noted Japanese church worker ap-
pealed to Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins in an effort to
receive a special permit to allow him to land at San Francisco.

" 'I hope I shall be permitted to enter this country to lecture,'
Dr. Kagawa said. 'I am concerned with enlisting the aid of
Americans and particularly the American churches in the devel-
opment of consumers' co-operatives.' "

13



PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT REQUESTS KAGAWA BE!
ADMITTED

Less than two hours were required today for the Labor De-


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