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Ulysses Orange Cox.

A syllabus of elementary physiology, with references and laboratory exercises online

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PREFACE.

The outlines and laboratory exercises here pre-
sented are the outg-rowth of the work in Physiology
in the author's classes, and it is at the request of
several fellow teachers that they now appear in print.
The work has been with pupils who hav^e not had
previous training- in the other science subjects. Logi-
cally, Physiology should follow the work in Zoolog}',
Physics and Chemistry, in a course of study, but, at
present, most schools require that this study be pur-
sued early in the course, consequently it is necessary
that a little Chemistry and Physics, and Zoology and
Anatomy precede the real work in hand, and this ex-
plains why the introductory chapter presents what
it does. It will be found desirable to do the work in-
dicated in this chapter and, if the students cannot be
taken into the chemical laboratory to perform the
experiments individually, they should be made be-
fore the class by the teacher. Whenever possible,
each student should do the laboratory work for him-
self.

It is thought that the outlines are so general that
they may be used with almost any text, but the}^
follow more closely the works of Dr. Newell Martin
than any other. The outlines are not intended to be
exhaustive but rather suggestive, and the student is
supposed to elaborate on the various subjects as far
as the time will allow. On the other hand, some of



IV PREFACE

the subjects ma}- be too complex for beg'inning' classes,
and in such cases they ma}' be omitted.

The dissections and experiments should all be
carefully made, so far as the apparatus and other
conditions will permit, since the subject is one especi-
ally suited to laboratory methods. No effort should
be spared to secure the additional apparatus and ma-
terial for the work as suggested. Text-book work
alone in Physiolog"}' is ver}' unsatisfactor}'.

Each student should keep a neat note-book in
which drawing's are made and the results of all ex-
periments and observations recorded, as well as ex-
tracts of articles read in reference books.

At the close of the pamphlet will be found a list
of standard reference books on the subject, together
with a few of the more common text' books now in
use. To economiije space, each reference work has
been given a number and these numbers occur in bold
faced type throughout the text, followed, usually, b}-
the page on which the information is to be found.
In case the number of the reference alone is given,
the student should consult its index. It is not sup-
posed that every school will posses all the works of
reference included in the list, but every school should
have some of them. Nothing can be more unsatis-
factory in a subject like Phj^siology than to confine
the student to a single text-book.

Individual members of the class should be assign-
ed subjects for investigation, reports on which ma}'
be made either orally or in writing. Such investi-
gations should include as much reference work as
possible, as well as laboratory observation.



PREFACE V

If this pamphlet should help some teacher to
teach or some student to pursue the subject of Phjsi-
olog"y according- to modern scientific methods, it will
have served its purpose. The author invites critic-
isms and sugg-estions from fellow teachers for the
improvement of future editions. A few typographi-
cal errors have crept in, but none, so far discovered,
are of a serious nature.

I wish here to acknowledg-e my obligations to Mr.
Carl J. Ulrich, mj assistant, who has aided in the
preparation of some of the outlines and laboratory
exercises, and to my wife who has assisted in reading
the proof.

U. O. C.
Mankato, Minn.,
December 16, 1899.



CONTENTS,



INTRODUCTION, - - - 1

Syllabus, _ . . i

Introducton' outline, - - 1

The cell, ... 5

Laboratory exercisls, - - - 7

Chemistry, - - - 7

The microscope, - - 14

Use of the microscope, - - 15

The cell, ... 18

SUPPORTING TISSUES, - - 23

Syllabus, - - - 23

Laboratory exercises, - - 31

Connective tissues, - - - 31

Cartilage, - - - 33

Bones, _ . . . 34

Joints, - - - 38

MOTOR TISSUES, - . . 40

Syllabus, - - - 40

Laboratory exercises, - - 43

Amoeboid cells, - - - 43

Ciliated cells, - - - 44

Striated muscle, - - - 46

Unstriated muscle, - - 49

Cardiac muscle, - - 49

Physiology of muscle, - - 50



CONTENTS VII

DIGESTIVE ORGANS, FOODS AND DIGES-
TION, - - - 55
SyllabUvS, - - - - 55
Alimentary canal, - - 55
P^ods, . - _ 60
Digestion, - - - 62
Labokatoky exercises, - - 64
Dissection of a mammal, - - 64
The human alimentary canal, - 69
Oesopliag"Us, stomach and intestine, 70
Foods, - - -70
Dig-estion, - - 74
CIRCULATORY TISSUES, - - 78
SyllabUvS, - - - 78
Labokatoky ExERCivSEvS, - - 83
The blood, - , - 83
The heart and blood vessels, - 86
Arteries, veins and capillaries, - 91
The circulation, - - . 94
RESPIRATORY TISSUES AND RESPIRA-
TION, - - - 102
Syi,i,abus, . - - 102
Laboratory exercises, - - 104
The air passag-es and the lungs, 104
Respiration, - - 106
EXCRETORY TISSUES, - - 109
Syi^eabus, - - - 109
Laboratory exercises, - 112
The kidneys, - - 112
The skin, - - 115



VIII CONTENTS

NERVOUS TISSUES, - - 117

Syllabus, - - 117

Laboratory exercises, - - 125

SPECIAL SENSES AND THE VOICE, 132

Syllabus, - - - 132

Special senses, - - 132

The voice, - - 139

Laboratory exercises, - - 140

The eye, - - - 140

The ear, - - - 147

Taste and smell, - - 148

Touch and temperature, - 149

The voice, - - 150

REFERENCE BOOKS, - - 152

Appendix, - - 155

Dissecting, • ^- - 155

Hardening and preserving fluids, - 155

Stains, - - - 158

Staining, - - - 159

Other Solutions, - - 160

Imbedding, - - 160

Sectioning, - - - 163

Mounting, - - 164

Injecting blood vessels, - 165

Preparation of bones, - - 166



INTRODUCTION



INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE.

Matter.
la. Inorg"atiic.
lb. Definition.

2b. Some studies treating- of.
Ic. Inorg-anic chemistry.
Id. Some elements common in animal bodies. 4,
9, 20; 16, 1-5; 2, 14.
le. Ox3^g-en. 4, 23-33.

If. Oxidation. 2, 78-82.
2e. Hjdrog-en. 4, 34.
3e. Nitrog-en. 4, 50.
4e. Carbon. 4, 125.
5e. Sulphur. 4, 157.
6e. Phosphorus. 4, 193.
7e. Chlorine. 4, 92.
Be. Sodium. 4, 326.
9e. Potassium. 4, 321.
lOe. Calcium. 4, 313.
lie. Mag-nesium. 4, 316.
12e. Iron. 4, 275.
13e. Others which are rare.
If. Fluorine. 4, 122.
2f. Silicon. 4, 184.
3f. Lithium. 4, 335.
4f. Mang-anese. 4, 295.
5f. Iodine. 4, 115.



INTRODUCTION

2d. Some of the common inorganic com-
pounds found in animal bodies,
le. Air (air is a mixture, however, and not a
compound).
If. Composition. 4, 82-84.
2e. Water.

If. Composition. 4, 40-43.
3e. Carbon dioxide. 4, 138.

If. Composition.
4e. Ammonia. 4, 52.
If. Composition.
2f. What is an alkali? 1.
5e. Acids.

If. What? 1, 4, 75.

2f. Hydrochloric. 4, 117.

Ig-. It is the only inorganic acid found
free in the body.
6e. Salts. 1; 4, 77.
If. Common salt.
2f. Calcium carbonate.
3f. Sodium carbonate.
4f. Sodium phosphate.
2c. Physics.

Id. Physical terms used in speaking of animal
ph3'siolog3\ 1 .
le. Force.
2e. Resistance.
3e. Gravitation.
4e. Pressure.
5e. Tension.
6e. Friction.
7e. Weight.
8e. Work.



INTRODUCTION 3

9e. Heat.
lOe. Conduction.
lie. Radiation.

12e. Dissipation (referring- to heat).
3c. Astronomy.
4c. Geolog-y.
2a. Organic.

lb. Definition.
. 2b. Study of.
Ic. Biology.

Id. Definition. 1.

2d. Some common studies treating- of.
le. Botan}-.
2e. Zoolog}'.
If. Definition.

2f. Animals studied as to chemical compo-
sition.

Ig. Organic chemistry.

Ih. Albumens or proteids. *^, 15-16.
li. Serum albumen. 1 1 , V, 14.
2i. Fibrin. 1.1, V, 32.
3i. Myosin. 11, V, 30.
4i. Casein. 11, V, 20.
2h. Hydrocarbons or fats. 2, 16; 1 1,
V, 121-122.
li. Palmatin.
2i. Stearin.
3i. Olein.
3h. Carbohydrates or starches and
sugars. 2, 16.
li. Glycogen. 11,V, 95.
2i. Glucose or ' grape sugar. 1 1 ,
V, 102.



INTRODUCTION

3i. Lactose or milk sugar. 11,V,113.
3f. Animals studied as to structure.
Ig. Anatomy. 2, 1-2; 5, 5; 7, 9; O, 4.
Ih. Gross.

21i. Minute (histology). :^, 2.
31i. Comparative.
4f . Animals studied as to function of organs.
Ig. Physiology. 2, 1; 5, 5; 7, 9; G, 4.
Ih. Comparative.
5f. Animals studied as to healthy condi-
tions surrounding them.
Ig. Hygiene.
6f. Animals studied as to mental traits.

Ig. Psychology. 1.
7f. Animals studied as to development.

Ig. Embryology. 1.
8f. Animals studied as to classification.
Ig. Main groups.

Ih. Invertebrates. 1.

li. Definition.
2h. Vertebrates. 1.
li. Definition.

2i. Difference between vertebrates
and invertebrates (zoologies).
3i. Main divisions of.
Ij. Fishes.

2j. Batrachians or Amphibians.
3j. Reptiles.
4j. Birds.
5j. Mammals.

Ik. Groups of. J^*^; 1; *^().
■ 11. Monotremata (Duckmole).
21. Marsupials.



INTRODUCTION 5

31. Eutheria.

Itn. Edentates (Armadillo).
2m. Sirenia (Sea cows).
3m. Ung-Lilates.
4m. Cetaceans.
5m. Rodents.
6m. Carnivora.
7m. Insectivora.
Sm. Chiroptera.
9m. Lemuroidea )
10m. Anthropoidea j

Primates.

In. Marmosets. )
2n. Cebidec f

New world,
monkeys.

3n. Cercopithecida^ (Bab-
oons).
4n. Simiidze (Anthropoid

apes).
5n. Hominidec or men.
4i. Reasons why man is classed as a
vertebrate. 3, 5; 3, 2-5.
Ij. Arrang^ement of body cavities
and organs. 2, 4, 5, 6, 7;
8,2-7.
2j. Spinal column.
5i. Why classed as an Anthropoid?
3, 2.



THE CELL.

la. Definition. 1.

2a. History. ^O, under cell; 25, 22.



G INTRODUCTION

3a. Structure, 11,1,3-9; 12, 35-39; 15, 5-8; 17,

33-40; (), 9; 7, 10-14; 25, 22-28,
lb. The cell wall,
2b. The cell contents.

Ic. The chief cell substance (protoplasm), 22,26.
2c. Nucleus.
4a. Sixe. 0, 11.
5a. Shapes.

6a. Metabolism (assimilation). 6, 13.
7a. Catabolism (dissimilation).
8a. Reproduction. 1 7, 98.
lb. Direct division. 3, 18.
2b. Indirect division. 3, 19-22.

Ic. Karjokinesis or mitosis. 17,100-104.
9a. Physiolog-ical properties. 3, 22-28.
lb. Irritability.
2b. Conductivity.
3b. Contractilit3\
4b. Coordination.
5b. Spontaneity.
10a. Development of in the human body,
lb. Early stages of in the embryo.
2b. Differentiation of into tissues and organs, 17,
40; 3, 29.
Ic. Definition of tissue.
2c. Definition of org-an.
3c. Undifferentiated. 3, 22.

4c. Physiolog"ical division of labor. 2, 12; 3, 30.
*)5c. Chief g^roups of tissues and organs.



") In some respects this grouping is an arbitrary one made for
convenience only. All of the topics, except number gd, will be con-
sidered later. Some teachers believe that the order in which the
topics are discussed is of great importance, but since any one of the



INTRODUCTION 7

Id. Supporting-.
2d. Motor.

3d. Those concerned in nutrition (assimilative),
le. Secretor}' (g-lands).
2e. Reception (alimentary canal).
4d. Circulatory (heart and bloodvessels).
5d. Respiratory (lung-s, air tubes and capil-
laries).
6d. Eliminative (kidneys, skin, etc.).
7d. Irritable and conductive (nervous system).
8d. Special sense (sight, hearing-, smell, taste,

touch and temperature).
9d. Reproductive.
10a. Bacteria. 17, lOS; 5, 144; 27; 28; 31; 34; 37.
lb. beneficial.
2b. Disease producing-.



LABORATORY EXERCISES.



CHEMISTRY.

Matkrials. Small quantities of each : potassi-
um chlorate; mang-anese dioxide; common salt;
hj^drochloric acid; sulphuric acid; mag-nesium
ribbon; phosphorus; sulphur; metal sodium; met-
al potassium; pieces of zinc; yeast, sugar; com-
mercial ammonia and common salt. An alcohol
lamp or gas burner. A number of test tubes;
two or three widemouthed bottles; some fine
iron wire, a pan or dish for water; pieces of
charcoal, coal, lignite and graphite; some lime

groups will depend more or less on the others there can be no great
objection to following the usual order.



INTRODUCTION



water; several corks; glass tubing-; red and blue
litmus paper.



1. Experiments. Fill a test-tube one-fourth full
with equal parts of potassium chlorate and man-
ganese dioxide which have previously been mix-
ed. Heat the tube gently over a flame and look
for bubbles of gas, oxygen, which will be given
off by the decomposition of the chemicals. In-
sert a splinter or match which has a spark on
its end into the mouth of the tube. What is
the effect? Has oxygen any color, taste or
odor?

2. Make some more oxygen, or if the laboratory
has an oxygen tank take it from that, and fill a
bottle. Since ox3^gen is heavier than air the
bottle may be filled by holding it mouth up-
wards and then allowing the oxygen to run in
through a tube connected with the test-tube or
gas holder. After the oxygen has been running
into the bottle for a moment, remove the supply
tube and prepare a fine iron wire by rolling up
one end and dipping it into powdered sulphur.
Ignite the sulphur. What is the color of the
flame? Insert the wire with the burning sul-
phur into the bottle of oxygen. Vigorous com-
bustion should follow and a part of the wire
should be consumed. Would iron burn under
ordinary circumstances in open air? The experi-
ment just made illustrates rapid combustion.
The same kind of combustion is illustrated by
the burning of wood in the stove and oil in the
lamp.



INTRODUCTION 9

What happens to a piece of polished iron if
put in a damp place? Iron rust is commonly
formed b}^ slow combustion.

What happens to damp straw when left in a
pile? Is any heat g-iven off?

Notice that two things always happen where
oxidation goes on, viz., new compounds are
formed and heat is given off. How do these
facts help us to understand the human body?

3. Put a few pieces of common metallic zinc
into a bottle or test-tube and pour on the same
a small quantit}^ of hvdrochloric acid. Notice
the bubbles of hyclrog'en that are generated.
Hold a test-tube, inverted, over the mouth of the
bottle until some of the hydrogen has been col-
lected in the inverted tube. Still holding the
tube inverted apply a lighted match to its
mouth. What follows? Hydrogen explodes
when mixed with air (oxygen.) It is rarely
found free, in nature and then only in very
small quantities. Determine from the above
experiment whether hydrogen is heavier or
lighter than air.

4. Fill a pan or dish with water and float on
this a slice of cork in which is fastened a piece
of crayon. Hollow out the top of the crayon
and in the hollow place a lump of phosphorus
the size of a pea. Have ready a six ounce
bottle with a mouth wide enough to easily pass
over the floating cork. With a hot wire ignite
the phosphorus and immediately invert the
bottle over the same. What did the bottle con-
tain before the experiment was performed? What



10 INTRODUCTION

element is necessary before combustion can take
place? What proportion of the air seems to be
' oxyg-en? Allow the bottle to remain in posi-
tion after the experiment until the white fumes
have been absorbed. The g"as that now remains
in the bottle above the water is nitrogen,
a very inactive gas when free. Insert a lighted
match into the bottle of nitrogen. Effect?

5. Examine pieces of hard and soft coal, char-
coal, lignite, graphite (the lead in your pencil),
burned bread, in fact any charred substance.
These substances are carbon. Nearly all
organic substances contain this element.

(). Examine some powdered and stick snlplmr.
Has it any odor? Burn a little sulphur and
notice the odor.

7. Examine phospliorns as it is kept in a
bottle. Why must it be kept under water?
Never under an}- circumstance touch phos-
phorus with the hands. It will ignite at the
temperature of the body and its burn is serious.
With forceps put a small piece of phosphorus on
a hard surface then rub it with a hard object.
Why does it take fire? What is the chief source
of commercial phosphorus? 4, 193. Where do
animals get their phosphorus?

S. Fill a test-tube one-sixth full of manganese
dioxide then add a little hydrochloric acid.
Warm the tul)e gently and look for the appear-
ance of a yellowish green gas, chlorine.
Notice the odor, 1)ut do not take too much of it
into the nose.



INTRODUCTION 11

9. Examine some metal sodium as it is kept
under kerosene in the bottle, cut off a piece the
size of a g-rain of wheat and drop it into a g-lass
of water. What follows? Sodium combines
readily with the oxyg-en of the water and ox-
idizes. Save the water in the glass for experi-
ment 17.

10. Treat a small piece of metallic potassium
in the same way that you did the sodium in
experiment 9. Do they act exactly alike? Did
either burn and explode and if so why? Save
the water for experiment 17.

11. Examine lime stone, bone, clam or snail shells,
marble and "Plaster of Paris." These all con-
tain calcium. If the laboratory contains any
metallic calcium it should be examined.

12. Hold a short piece of magnesium (ribbon)
in a pair of forceps then ignite the magnesium
by holding it in the flame. What is the color
of the flame? What kind of a substance is left
after oxidation has taken place? This experi-
ment furnishes another illustration of rapid

oxidation.

13. Heat a piece of charcoal red hot and then
hold it in a bottle filled with air. After a few
minutes, remove the charcoal and insert a
lighted match. Why does it not burn? The
bottle contains carbon dioxide gas. Pour
a little lime water into the bottle containing
the carbon dioxide. Shake. Result? This is
a common test for carbon dioxide.

14. Put some lime water into a clean bottle and
breathe into it through a glass tube. Effect?



12 INTRODUCTION

What is present in your breath?

15. Put some small lumps of marble or limestone
into a flask. Add some diluted hydrochloric
acid, and close the flask with a cork fitted with
a bent glass tube. When the action seems
vigorous, let the gas escape into an empt}^
bottle until 3'ou think it is full. Insert a light-
ed match into the bottle. Effect? Pour in a
little lime water. Effect? What gas was given
off from the limestone?

16. (This experiment may be made by one pupil
for the class, or by the teacher). Into a bottle
fitted with a cork and a delivery tube put a
strong solution of sugar, and then add a little
yeast. Let the deliver}- tube connect with a
bottle filled with water inverted in a pan of
water, then set the whole in a warm place. After
a day or two examine the gas that has collected.
Test with a lighted match, also with lime water.
What gas was produced? The process that pro-
duced it is called fermentation.

17. Half fill a small test tube with commercial
aininoiiia and heat gently. Observe the
escaping gas, its color and odor. Moisten a
strip of red litmus paper and hold it in the
escaping gas. Effect? This is the test for
alkalis, and is called an alkaline reaction. The
gas that was produced was aiiiiiioiiia, which
is an alkali. Test with red litmus paper the
water left from experiments 9 and 10. Result?

18. Put a small amount of common salt into a
test tube and add some sulphuric acid. Observe
the color and odor of the escaping gas, hydro-



INTRODUCTION



13



chloric acid. Hold some moistened blue lit-
mus paper in the g-as. Effect? This is an
acid reaction.




A COMPOUND MICROSCOPK.



14 INTRODUCTION



THE MICROSCOPE.



A good compound microscope is indispensable for
thoroug-h work in practical physiology. The stu-
dent should have access to one equall}" as good as that
shown in the cut. It should be fitted with two ob-
jectives, a one inch and a one-fourth or one-sixth inch,
and one or two e3^e pieces. A simple instrument is to
be preferred for beginners and the extra high powers
are not desirable, although it is well to have one
instrument fitted with high power objectives for the
use of the teacher in demonstrations.

The chief parts of the microscope are the draw
tube, A, the eye piece, B, the objective, C, the
stage, I), the mirror, E, the line adjustment
screw, 7^ and the diapliragm, G.

The mirror is used to catch the light from some
window and to throw it through the object, the objective
and eye piece to the e^^e. Before trying to focus the
instrument the first thing to do, alwa3'S, is to adjust
the mirror.

Objects to be examined with the compound micro-
scope b}^ the ordinary methods must be ver}- thin so
that light can be transmitted through them. They
are generally placed on a clear glass slip, 1x3 inches
in si7.e, and then covered by a very- thin piece of glass
known as the cover glass. Nearly all objects need to
be mounted in water or some other transparent me-
dium to be seen to the best advantage.

The liigli and low power objectives can
easily be distinguished from the fact that the former
has a very much smaller lens than the latter. The
high power objective focuses much nearer the object



INTRODUCTION 15

than the low, is much more difficult to focus, it
requires more lig"ht and the object does not appear
so distinct as when under the low power.

The diaphrai^m, as usually arrang-ed, is a cir-
cular brass plate containing- holes of various sizes,
which may be revolved under the circular hole in the
stag"e and thus reg^ulate the amount of lig"ht that
is reflected throug-h the object. The more opaque
the object, g-enerally, the greater the amount of light
required. The hig-h power objective will require more
lig^ht than the low and on dark and brig^ht days the
lig-ht must be reg"ulated to suit the object.

In the instrument shown in the figure the draw
tube is made to slide with the hand. To focus upon
an object the tube should be pushed down until the
lower end of the objective nearly touches the g^lass,
then, with the eye looking- into the eyepiece, the tube
should be withdrawn, slowly, until the object appears
in view. Now with the fine adjustment screw move
the tube until the object is clearly in focus.



THE USE OF THE MICROSCOPE.

MatkriaLvS. a slide with the letter F or some
other letter mounted on it, or if this is not at
hand, cut from a paper some letters that can
easily be distinguished when inverted; a slide
with some wool fibers mounted; a slide with
cotton fibers; a slide with two colors of silk
mounted so that they cross each other; a slide
with mounted cats hairs; and a box with plain
g-lass slips and cover g-lasses. (See pag-e 14.)



16 INTRODUCTION

1. Examine the microscope and review its parts.
Make a roug"h sketch of it and name the parts.
Keep full notes and make clear and accurate
drawing's of everything* observed.

2. Place the slide of the letter F on the stag-e
of the microscope and fasten it with the clips.
Adjust the mirror with the low power objective
in position, slide the draw tube down until the
lower end of the objective is about one-fourth
of an inch from the object. Place the eye in
position and slide the draw tube up slowly
until the object is seen. Now with the fine ad-
justment screw focus until the letter appears
distinct. Whatis wrong with the letter? Have
you placed it in the microscope wrong-? Move
it a little while looking into the tube. What
happens? How is the letter inverted? (In how
many ways?) What does the microscope seem
to do to objects that are placed under it?

3. Place a slide of wool fibers under the micro-
scope and focus carefully on it with the low
power. Try with a smaller diaphram. Are
the fibers cylindrical? Are they smooth?

4. Place the high power objective in the micro-
scope and push it down very near the object
but do not touch the cover glass. While looking-
into the tube of the instrument run it up with
the fine adjustment screw. Work carefully. You
will need more light for the high power. Why?
After the fibers are in focus note the following":
Are they roug-h? Can you now account for the
sensation you receive when you touch wool?



INTRODUCTION 17

How? Can 3^011 disting-uish cells in the libers?
Draw two or three fibers.

5. Examine a slide of cotton fibers, first with
the low then the hig-h powder. Shape of the
fibers? How alike and how difi'erent from
those of wool? Draw\

6. Examine the colored silk fibers, first with the
low then the hig-h power. How alike and dif-
ferent from wool and cotton? Examine very
carefully and determine the order in which the
various colors are placed, (which is above and
which below? Do this b}^ focussing, carefuU}',
first on one and then the other). Make a draw-
ing- and indicate the colors and order.

7. Examine the hairs of the cat or rabbit. Com-


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