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moderating power decide between us, and do not suffer southern prejudice to
weigh heavier in the balance than the. northern.'"

"On June ninth Gates took leave of absence and left the department. . . . Gen-
eral Gates took command of the Northern Department Aug. 19, 1777. Congress
clothed him with large powers and conceded to his demand all for which General
Schuyler had in vain made requisitions. His communications were also made
direct to Congress, over the head of the Commander-in-chief" — ("Battles of the
Revolution," by Henry B. Carrington, M.A., LL.D., Colonel U.S.A.).

"Schuyler in anticipation of Burgoyne's advance from the North .called
for an army of 15,000 men with a further condition that the bulk of the troops
should be men of the South, that is, Philadelphia or Virginia. His request was
not granted; he was instructed to raise and equip locally as many regiments as
possible. To his call the New England States turned a deaf ear. Their mutual '
jealousies and long-standing animosities, added to the antipathy entertained
toward Schuyler personally, caused recruiting to be very slow and the quality
of the recruits, officers as well as men, poor" — ("First American Civil War, First
Period, 1775-1778," by Henry Belcher).

Burgoyne's Proclamation, 1777.

This proclamation is seldom given by historians; yet it explains largely why
the lories who joined Burgoyne in his expedition from the north are said to have
doubled his force and were the cause for nearly half of the American army desert-
ing; of these two Massachusetts regiments deserted in a body.

The Gentleman s Magazine and Historical Chronicle, \JJJ, pages 398-402, con-
tains a very interesting account of the capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point
by General Burgoyne, in June, 1777.

Proclamation — By John Burgoyne, Esq; &c. &c.

Camp at Putnam Creek.

June 29, 1777.

"The forces entrusted to my command are designed to act in concert and upon
a common principle with the numerous armies and fleets which already display

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Vol. X


in every quarter of America the power, the justice, and, when properly fought,
the mercy of the King. . . .

"Animated by those considerations, at the head of troops in the full powers
of health, discipline and valour, determined to strike where necessary and anxious
to spare where possible, 1 by these presents invite and exhort all persons in all
places where the progress of this army may point; and, by the blessing of God,
I will extend it far to maintain such a conduct as may justify me in protecting
their lands habitations and families. The intention of this address is to hold
forth security, not depreciation, to the country.

"To those whom spirit and principle may induce to partake the glorious task
of redeeming their countrymen from dungeons, and re-establishing the blessing
of legal government, I offer encouragement and employment; and, upon the
first intelligence of their associations, I will find means to assist their undertakings.

"The domestic, the industrious, the infirm, and even the timid inhabitants,
I am desirous to protect, provided they remain quietly at their houses; that they
do not suffer their cattle to be removed, nor their corn or forage to be secreted
or destroyed; that they do not break up their bridges or roads, nor by any other
acts directly or indirectly endeavour to obstruct the operations of the King's
troops, or supply or assist those of the enemy.

"Every species of provision brought to my camp will be paid for at an equitable
rate, and in solid coin. In consciousness of Christianity, my Royal Master's
clemency, and the honour of soldiership, I have dwelt upon this invitation, and
wished for more persuasive terms to give it impression; and let not people be led
to disregard it by considering their distance from the immediate situation of
my camp. I have but to give stretch to the Indian forces under my direction,
and they amount to thousands, to overtake the hardened enemies of Great Britain
and America. I consider them the same, wherever they may lurk.

"If, notwithstanding these endeavours and sincere inclination to effect them,
the phrenzy of hostility should remain, I trust I shall stand acquitted, in the eyes
of God and man, in denouncing and executing the vengeance of the State against
the wilful outcasts.

"The messengers of justice and of wrath await them in the field; and devas-
tation, famine, and every concomitant horror that a reluctant but indispensible
prosecution of military duty must occasion, will bar the way to their return."

From Washington's Counter Proclamation to that of General Burgoyne.

"To all Americans as well as Indian Chiefs," one paragraph is worthy a space
in all records as a noble expression of character, consistency and faith:

"Harassed as we are by unrelenting persecution, obliged by every tie to
repel violence by force, urged by self-preservation to exert the strength which
Providence has given us to defend our Natural rights against the aggressor, we
appeal to the hearts of all mankind for the justice of our Cause. Its events we
leave to Him who speaks the fate of Nations, in humble confidence that as His
Omniscient Eye taketh note even of a sparrow that falleth to the ground, so
He will not withdraw his Countenance from a people who humbly array them-
selves under His Banner in defence of the noblest principles with which He has
adorned Humanity."

Letter from General Washington to Governor Clinton.

"Camp Middle Brook, July 1, 1777.
"From intelligence just received from the Northward, there can be little
doubt that the enemy are operating against Ticonderoga and its dependencies,


and from the evacuation of the Jerseys, and the reason of the thing itself, there
can be little room to doubt that General Howe will co-operate with the northern
army, and make a sudden descent upon Peekskill in order, if possible, to get pos-
session of the passes, before the troops to defend them can be reinforced by this
army. Indeed I am this moment informed that all the enemy's tents were struck
today at 8 O'clock, and it is supposed that they have all embarked as the ships
have all sailed out of Prince's Bay, where they lay, so that you may probably
have a very hasty visit. The urgency of the occasion, and the necessity of em-
ploying all the resources to baffle the first attempts of the enemy, obliges me to
request in the strongest terms, that you will exert yourself to call forth a respect-
able body of militia of your State, to strengthen the force at Peekskill and its
appendages. No time should be lost in doing this; the call is to the last degree
pressing; and the least delay may be productive of the most fatal consequences.
Let every nerve be strained to forward your preparations, and put you in the best
posture of defence possible. I am, d'r sir,

"Your most obdt. servt.

"George Washington."

"General Burgoyne met with but little resistance. Gen. St. Clair abandoned
Fort Ticonderoga, July 6th, retreating to Fort Edward, from which place the
American forces retired, crossing the Hudson River at Saratoga, falling back to
Stillwater. On this day Burgoyne reached the Hudson." "Mr. E. F. deLancey
states that in July Schuyler had only 2500 men under him at Ft. Edward and
that after the Americans retreated from Ticonderoga his numbers increased by
the retreating force (Gen. St. Clair) were only 4500, of whom 2500 were Conti-
nentals or regulars and the rest militia; of these two Massachusetts regiments
deserted in a body" — (Belcher).

"The Tories who joined Burgoyne in his expedition from the North are
said to have doubled his force" — (From "The Loyalists of America and Their
Times," by Egberton Ryerson, D.D., LL.D., Chief Superintendent of Education
of Upper Canada, 1 844-1 876).

The Fall of Ticonderoga.

"Albany, July 7th, 1777.

"'Both Ticonderoga and Mount Independence are in the enemy's possession.
Part of our troops are at Skenesborough to which place the enemy have pursued.
It is therefore now become necessary that every man of the militia should turn
out and without a moment's delay; you will therefore issue your orders accord-
ingly, and hope to see you with them.'" The foregoing is an extract of a letter I
have just received this moment from General Schuyler, dated this day from Still-
water on his way to the northward, and do myself the honour to transmit you.
I have only time to add, that agreeably to his requisition, I have issued my orders
for the whole militia of my brigade to march to Fort Edward with all possible
expedition, and to submit to you the necessity of leaving part thereof, and what
number you judge will be requisite at this place; as we are surrounded with dis-
affected persons and have about one hundred confined in the jail of this city.

"I am, sir,

"Your most obdt. servant,

"Abm. Ten Broeck.
" Honble. Pierre Van Cortlandt."

From Stillwater, July 7th, 1777, Schuyler wrote Van Cortlandt:
"I have not a doubt but that a very considerable part of the garrisons of
Ticonderoga and Mount Independence are in the enemy's hands. I have not


above seven hundred Continental troops, and I fear not twice that number of
militia, to oppose the enemy, and not a single piece of artillery. In this situation
my prospect is not very agreeable. I wish for all the militia from every quarter to
come up with all expedition. If the Council of Safety, or at least a part of it,
were immediately to repair to Albany, it might have a good effect, as I have hardly
anybody to assist me."

This communication from Pierre Van Cortlandt, president of the Council, to
Governor Trumbull of Connecticut reads as follows:


"The Council of Safety had directed me to transmit to your Excellency
the enclosed extract of a letter from Major General Schuyler. The Condition
of the northeastern department has become alarming and critical. The evacuation
of Ticonderoga was a very unexpected event, and has been attended with an
unhappy influence on our affairs. The people are disgusted, disappointed and
alarmed. The Council are constrained to observe that it is not in their power to
afford General Schuyler much aid. Five counties of this State are in the possession
of the enemy; three others are disunited by malcontents who meditate a revolt and
are attempting to avail themselves of the present troubles, to advance their in-
terested purposes, insomuch that all order of government has ceased among them.
Of the remaining six counties, a third part of the militia of three of them, namely
Orange, Ulster and Dutchess, have been in actual service since last May and are
yet in the field. Westchester has been so harassed by the incursions of the
enemy from New York, that during the last winter, and almost ever since, their
militia have been obliged to provide for their own defense. A third part of the
County of Tryon are ordered to embody without delay; and a considerable pro-
portion of Albany are already marched or marching to the fields; add to this the
number of inhabitants constantly employed on the communications in transporta-
tions and the still greater number who are tempted by prospects of ease or profit
have quitted this invaded State, and sought inglorious ease among our more peace-
ful neighbors and your Excellency will perceive how greatly our strength is ex-
hausted. Heaven has blessed us with a plentiful harvest, and it deserved con-
sideration that other States besides this will be affected by the loss of it. It is
unnecessary to observe to your Excellency that the destruction of this State will
bring the horrors of war to the doors of many who now seem idle spectators of it.
We hope that the State of Massachusetts Bay will on this occasion exert herself
in a manner becoming to the character she has heretofore sustained, in the scale of
American importance, and that New York will not be left unsupported in this day
of trials" — (From the "Journal of the Council of Safety).

The Sad Condition of Gen. Schuyler's Army.

Moses Creek, four miles below Fort Edward.

July 24th, 1777.

"Sir — It is with great pain that I am under the disagreeable necessity of
advising you that our affairs in this quarter daily put on a more gloomy aspect.
It was evident that, if we had not consented to suffer part of the militia to return
to their habitations, in all probability we should lose the whole. It was therefore
resolved in full council of general officers, that half should be permitted to leave
us, provided the others would remain three weeks. These conditions were ac-
cepted by them, and one thousand and forty-six, officers included, the militia of
this state, remained; but not above three hundred out of twelve of those from the
County of Berkshire in the State of Massachusetts, and out of about five hundred
from the County of Hampshire in the same state, only twenty-nine commissioned
and non-commissioned officers and thirty-four privates are left, the remainder
having infamously deserted, and out of one hundred from Connecticut, who had,


like those from Hampshire, just arrived here, very few, if any, remain; and part of
that half which remained from this State; so that we have not now above thirteen
hundred militia on the ground. I wish we had the most distant prospect to
detain one half of these about five or six days. Our Continental force is between
twenty-seven and twenty-eight hundred; with this small body we have to encounter
a more numerous body of the enemy, well appointed, flushed with success, and
daily increasing by the acquisition of tories.

"Happy I should still be, in some degree, if I could close the melancholy
tale here; but every letter I receive from the County of Tryon, advises me that
the inhabitants of it will lay down their arms, unless I support them with Con-
tinental troops. From what I have said, you will see the impossibility of my
complying with their request. The district of Schohary has also pointedly in-
timated, that unless Continental troops are sent them, they will also submit
to the enemy. Should it be asked what line of conduct I mean to hold amidst this
variety of difficulties and distress I would answer to dispute every inch of ground
with General Burgoyne and retard his descent into the Country as long as possible,
without the least hopes of being able to prevent it ultimately, unless I am rein-
forced from General Washington, or by a respectable body of the militia; the former
I am advised I am not to have, and whence to procure the latter, I know not.
I have written to the eastern states, but do not expect timely succours from thence.
I must therefore look up to you; but though I am under the fullest conviction
that you will readily afford me every aid in your power, yet I fear it cannot be
much. In this situation you will be pleased to permit me to observe, that I
think the Council of Safety ought to press General Washington for an immediate
reinforcement of at least fifteen hundred good Continental troops. Those from
our own state, if possible, if not, from any of the southern colonies; one thousand
to reinforce me, and the remaining to be sent to Tryon County. That the most
immediate and pressing application should be made by you to the Eastern
States (Connecticut in particular from which we have not had above one hundred,)
for a respectable body of militia; that part of what militia may come from thence
be also sent to Tryon County, and part here; that the greatest number possible
of the militia of this State should be sent both ways, and that it should be, in the
strongest terms, recommended to the gentlemen of easy fortune to turn out.
It is not only mortifying but extremely discouraging to the lower class, and preju-
dicial to the public, to see so few men of note step forth when their Country is
in danger. I may seem to labour under ideal apprehensions, I believe they are not
so. They are found, on a reflection that if General Burgoyne can penetrate to
Albany, the force which is certainly coming by the way of Oswego will find no
difficulty in reaching the Mohawk River; and that being arrived there, they will
be joined not by tories only, but every person that finds himself incapable of
removing and wishes to make his peace with the enemy and that by the whole
body of the Six Nations. These, forming a junction with Burgoyne, whilst General
Howe presses up the River, it will either put General Washington between two
fires or drive him to the necessity of filing off" into New England. These, Sir,
are my conjectures. I sincerely wish they may never be realized, although I
cannot think they are ill found. I have thus ventured freely to give my senti-
ments. I hope they will not be thought to arise from a principle which would
disgrace a soldier, I assure you they do not; and I hope my Countrymen will
never have occasion to blush for me, whatever may be the event of the cam-
paign " — (From the "Journal of the Council of Safety" and "Clinton Papers,"
Vol. II, p. 144).

"There were soldiers of the Revolution who deserted in parties of twenty
and thirty at a time, and several hundred of these who then abandoned the cause
fled to Vermont and were among the early settlers of that State. A thousand
men the date of whose enlistment had been misplaced perjured themselves in a
body as fast as they could be sworn, in order to quit the ranks in which they had


voluntarily enlisted" — ("Loyalists of the American Revolution," by Lorenzo
Sabine. Vol. I, p. 118).

Albany's Appeal.

In every country, in every great war, there is always some event that is
strikingly pathetic, standing out in its forecast so forcibly as to appear almost
supernaturally inspired. The Albany Committee of Safety appeals to New
England, August 1, 1777. While its words are almost pitiful, no language could
express more forcibly the dangers our country was then facing. The prediction
of what would happen in case of defeat then most threatening has been fully
confirmed by students of history. The reprimand for desertions as to commands
most just. "Let us consider is this the time to divide ourselves? Are we now
to censure our Generals and tamely to remain at home with our hands crossed?"

John Adams wrote in 1777: "I am worried to death with the wrangles be-
tween military officers high and low. They quarrel like cats and dogs. They
worry one another like mastiffs, scrambling for rank and pay like apes for nuts"-
(Lorenzo Sabine. Vol. I, pages 139-150). This is an absolute statement of
just what was occurring at the time. The surrender of General Burgoyne at
Saratoga confirmed exactly what would happen. "Let us entreat you dear
Countrymen to step forth and make one glorious Effort to crush the base Invaders
of your Country and transmit Inviolate to your Posterity the Freedom and
Liberty that God and Nature have bestowed upon you." Never have we seen
this most inspiring appeal published in our histories or even mentioned. Who
wrote it is lost to history and yet his name should be engraved high on the roll of

Albany Appeals to New England.

A pen-picture of the distress and horrors that would confront the Colonies
were Burgoyne successful.

"August 1st, 1777.

"The alarming situation of affairs to the Northward obliges us to call on you
for the assistance that the Friends to America and Lovers of their Country ought
to call on each for. At a time when New England was invaded, no means were
left unessayed on our part to afford them every assistance in our power. Various
were the difficulties the Friends to their Country in those parts had to encounter,
surrounded by dependants on Government and their Emmissaries, our Vigorous
exertions were necessary to effect the much desired Union with our Sister States;
our arguments were grounded on the Unanimity, the Valour, the Virtue of New
England; the Enemies of America were Crushed, our Influence had the desired
effect — no Tory dared openly to speak or act unfriendly. Imprisonment or ban-
ishment were the Consequences.

"What arguments are we now to make use of?

"Our Country is invaded; great part of our Militia have Turned out; but
where are our Eastern Friends? What have we done to forfeit their esteem?
Is our Country to be laid waste, all to be sacrificed at a time when it is in our power
(if we will Unite) to crush the Invaders in such a manner that perhaps will prevent
their making any future attempts ? Can you expect to remain in quiet, if we are
destroyed? From the reciprocal Intercourse & Commerce between New England
and this State, the fall of the one, will much distress the other! Admit that the
evil was to stop here. Pray consider the great number of Savages that will Join
them? Should they take possession of this City, we are apprehensive the dis-
affected that will repair to them will not be few; the ravages will not Cease here;


Our Sister States will feel in Turn. Those who can now quietly rest at home and
hear of the Inhumanities Committed by those barbarians must be destitute of
Feelings becoming the Virtuous, the free born and the brave.

"We are informed that loud Complaints are made against the leaders of our

"Let us Consider, is this the Time to divide ourselves? Are we now to
Censure our Generals and tamely to remain at home with our Hands crossed?

"Are we not well assured that the Supreme Power of the Continent will call
to account and severely punish such as have in any respect betrayed their Trust,
or by their misconduct hurt their Country? We are well assured that could those
prejudices subside, could we Unite with that Spirit becoming to Men who are
determined to be free, who will not tamely suffer their wives to be ravished, their
Children to be murdered and Scalped, their Properties to be seized and disposed
of at the pleasure of Mercenaries & Savages, whose footsteps as they advance
in our Country, are marked with unheard of Horrors and devastations in open
Violations of the Laws of Civilized Nations, or the dictates of Humanity, we say,
could we step forth determined not to submit to such Men and Measures, a more
glorious opportunity never offered than the present.

"The Enemy are now advanced to Fort Edward; our Army have retreated
to Saratoga and brought their Stores, provisions, etc. with them, and to induce
the Enemy to follow them farther in the Country, so that their Retreat may be
cut off, if the People will but step forth they will in all probability retire to some
advantageous Post, still nearer this City.

"Let us entreat you, dear Countrymen, to step forth and make one glorious
Effort to crush the base Invaders of your Country and Transmit, Involiate to
your Posterity the Freedom and Liberty that God and Nature have bestowed
upon you.

"On our parts we are determined to leave no means unessayed to save our
Country from ruin. No distress, no loss of Property shall ever Shake our attach-
ment to so righteous, so just and so glorious a Cause. We renew our request
to Every Tie of love to your Country by your wives, your posterity and that all
that's dear and sacred to you, to unite and support the Cause you have so nobly
and so long Contended for — ("Clinton Papers," Vol. II, p. 158).

"The truth is, that although the circumstances of the New Englanders have
developed to a high degree many of the qualities that are essential to a soldier,
they have been unfavourable to others. To obey, to act together, to sacrifice
private judgment to any authority, to acknowledge any superiors was wholly
alien to their temperament and they know nothing of that passionate and all-
absorbing enthusiasm which transforms the character, and raises men to an heroic
height of patriotic self devotion.

"A. C. Flick."

Not Discouraged by Burgoyne's Success.

Washington strives to quell alarm in New York State, deplores the apathy
of New England, and expresses his faith to the Council of Safety.

"Headquarters, Philadelphia, August 4, 1777.

"I have been duly honored with your several Favours of the 26th, 27th and
30th of July.

" I he Misfortune of Ticonderoga has produced a very disagreeable alteration
in our Affairs, and has thrown a Gloom upon the favourable Prospect, which the

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