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WAR DEPARTMENT. - - ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE.



No. XX.



MILITARY NOTES



THE PHILIPPINES



/^36<r



September, 1898.



WASHINGTON :
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.



MILITARY NOTES



The Philippines




WASHINGTON:

GOVERXMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1898.



WAR DEPARTMENT,
Adjutant General's Office.

Documt-nt No. 81.
Miliiarv Information Division.



4^^ LL.S. ^M^^' i



INTRODrCTOKY NOTE.



These notes have been compiled from the best available data, and while
kno\Ani to contain inaccuracies, it is believed that they can be readily
amended as American reports are received. It is to be regretted that
greater notice- conld not have been given the sti'ictly military features.
The notes are supplemented by the military map of the island of Liizon,
prepared in the Military Information Division ; plans of cities, and charts
of bays, harbors, etc., taken from the publications of the hydrographic
offices of various countries.

The following works and reports have been consulted and extracts from
them freely made :

"Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas," Madrid, is97.

"Espaiia, Sus Monumentos y Artes. Su Naturaleza e Historia, Cula,
Puerto-Rico y Filipinas," 1887.

"The National Geographic Magazine." June, 1898.
■Anuario del Comercio de Espafia " 1896.

••Revue des Deux Mondes." 1897 and 1898.

•'The Earth and Its Inhabitants," 1890.

' ' Encyclopedia Britannica. '

"Guia Geografico-Militar de Espaiia," 1897.

"Statesman's Year-Book," 1898.

"Chronicle and Directory of China, Japan, Philippines, etc.," 189-1.

"British Adiniralty Reports, Rydrographic Office," 1890.

"Travels in the Philippines," Jagor, 1875.

United States and Foreign Consular Reports, to date.

Also information furnished by the Naval Intelligence Office and by
Professor Moselev. of Ohio.



Washington, Septembev, 1S9S.



(:n)




TABLE OF CONTE^^TS.



ixtropuctory notes iii

The Philippine Islands 1

(xeneral 1

Extent - - - - 1

Boundaries - 1

Numbers and area .- 2

Coast line - 8

Topography and orography - 3

Geology G

Hydrography 9

Harbors 12

Roads 12

Climate 12

Gales - 14

Typhoons 15

Currents 17

Tides L 19

PopiilatioiVand inhabitants. 20

Agriculture, manufacture, and trade 22

Vegetable kingdom 23

Animal kingdom 22

Minerals 23

Trade 23

Exports 24

Imports 25

Revenue 25

Communications .. 25

Administration 27

Military and ppljtical divisions 28

Religion and ecVication 30

Table showing provinces, with their population and capitals. ._ 31

Island of Luzon 35

Itinerary of coast of Luzon 35

Province of Manila 96

Manila (City) ..- 96

Manila Bay 101

Cities and towTis 102

Province of Abra 103

Cities and towns 103

Province of Albay 104

Cities and towns 104

(V)



VI CONTENTS.

Island op Luzon — Continued. Pa":e.

Provinc-e of the Caniarine.s (North and South) 106

Cities and towns 106

District of Ambuniyan 108

District of Apayos 108

Province of Bataan 108

Cities and towns - - 109

Province of Batangas 109

Cities and toA\nis - 110

District of Benguet Ill

Cities and towns - - 111

District of Binatangan 112

Province of Bontoc - 112

Cities and towns 113

Province of BrJacan - - 114

Cities and towns 114

District of Cabugaoan - 115

Province of Cagayan 116

Cities and towns ..- - 116

Province of Cavite ..- 117

Cities and toA\nis .- 118

District of Cayapas 118

Province of Eocos Norte 119

Cities and towns - -.. 119

Province of Ilocos Snr 120

Cities and towns - 120

Province of La Infanta. 121

Cities and to\\nis 121

Province of Isabela de Liizon 122

Cities and towns 122

District of Itaves 122

Province of Laguna .-. 123

Cities and towns .- - 123

Province of Lepanto 125

Cities and townis 125

Province of Morong 126

Cities and towns - 127

Province of Nueva Ecija 127

Cities and towns 128

Province of Niieva Vizcaya 129

Cities and towns - - 129

Province of Pampanga - - 129

Cities and towns 130

Province of Pangasinan 131

Cities and towns . 131

Province of El Principe - 133

Cities and towns 133

District of Quiangan - - - 133

Province of Tarlac 134

Cities and towns - 134



CONTENTS. VII

Island of Luzon— Continued i^'is*'-

Province of Tayabas 134

Cities and towns -.. 18o

District of Tiagan l;J6

Cities and towns - 136

Province of La LTiiion 136

Cities and towns -. 137

Province of Zaniljales 137

Cities and towns 13H

Isla:!JD of Mindanao 141

Itinerary of coast of Mindanao 141

District of Basilan 174

District of Cottabato .- 175

Cities and towns 175

District of Dapitan 175

Cities and towns 175

District of Davao 175

Cities and towns 175

District of Matti 170

Cities and towns 170

District of Misaniis 170

Cities and towns 170

District of Snrigao 178

Cities and towns 17S

District of Zamboanga 179

Cities and towns 179

Adjacent Islands 181

Island of Balabac. 181

Province of the Batanes Islands 181

Cities and towns 181

District of Biirias 183

Province of Calamianes 183

Province of Corregidor __ 183

Province of Masbate and Ticao 183

Cities and towns 183

Mindoro Island 183

Itinerary of coast of Mindoro 184

Cities and towns 308

Island of Paragua (Palawan) 309

ViSAYA Islands 311

Island of Panay 311

Itinerary of coast of Panay _ 311

Province of Antique 333

Cities and towns . 2d3

Province of Capiz 234

Cities and towns 334

Province of lloilo 335

Cities and towns 330

Province of Boliol 337

Itinerary of coast of Bohol 338

Cities and towns 241



VIII CONTEXTS.

ViSAYA Islands— Continued. Page.

Island of Celm. 243

Itinerary of coast of Cebvi _ 243

Cities and towTis 257

District of Concepcion 259

Cities and towns 259

Province of Leyte 259

Itinerary of coast of Lej-te 259

Cities and townis -. 265

Island of Negros 267

Itinerary of coast of Negi'os 267

Province of Western Negros 272

Cities and towns _ - . 272

Province of Eastern Negros 273

Cities and towns 273

Province of Romblon 274

Cities and towns 274

Province of Samar 275

Itinei'ary of coast of Samar 275

Cities and towns 283

The Sultanship of Jolo 285



LIST OF CHARTS.



Page.

No. 1. Siial Port, Lingayen Gulf _ - _. 35

No. '2. San Fernando Port 37

No. 3. BolinaoPort 41

No. 4. Silanguin and Siibic ports 46

No. o. Ca vite Arsenal and Port - . - 40

No. 6. Looc Bay, Luban Island 55

No. 7. Romblon Port. Roniblon I.sland 67

No. 8. San Vincente Port 84

No. 9. Dimalansan Port 8G

No. 10. Bikobian Port _ -._ 86

No. 1 1 . Rio Grande de Mindanao, month of 116

No. 12. Gabo Port, Dinagat Island 141

No. 13. San Pio V Port, Camiguin Island 14-^

Nc. 14. Catarin an Anchorage, Camignin Island 149

No. 15. Balingasac Anchorage 149

No. 16. Opol Anchorage 150

No. 17. Alnbigit Anchorage 150

No. 18. Murcielagos Islets 153

No. 19. Panabutan Bay 156

No. 20. CanitBay 157

No. 21. Masingloc Anchorage 157

No. 22. Banga Port, Sibugtiey Bay 158

No. 23. MaligayBay 160

No. 24. Sambuiauan Port. Illana Bay 161

No. 25. Tigiima Port and Bay. Illana Bay 161

No. 26. Pn.iagaBay 173

No. 27. PollokPort 175

No. 28. SurigaoPort 178

No. 29. DalauanBay, Balabac Island 181

No. 30. Strait between Ibugos or Baslii Island and Saptang Island.. 181

No. 31. Santo Domingo de Basco Port. 181

No. 32. San Jose de Ibana Anchorage 181

No. 33. Culion Port Calamion or Culion Island 182

No. 34. Nin Bay and Mandao Port, Masbate Island 183

No. 35. Kataingan Port. Masbate Island 183

No. 36. PalanogPort. Masbate Island 183

No. 37. LoogPort, Tablas Island 194

No. 38. Paluan Bay, Mindoro Island 195

No. 39. Sablayan Port, Mindoro Island 196

No. 40. Busuanga Island, harbors on south side of 202

No. 41. Aguirre or Kababawan Bank. Cabucan Island 206

(IX)



X LIST OF CHARTS.

Page.

No. 42. Ymihit Port, Parugua Island ... - _.. 209

No. 43. Talindac Port, Paragiia Island . 209

No. 44. Batan Port, Panay Island. 220

No. 45. Slbonga Port, Bukas Island 254

No. 46. Saniar Island, south part of 277

No. 47. Tulayan Island Anchorage 285

No. 48. Tacut Pabunnan Shoal - - 285

No. 49. Banciingan I.sland Anchorage - 285

No. 50. Capnal Island Anchorage 285

Index map 1







fN!



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.



GENERAL,



The Philippine Ishiiicls fonn a great part of the vast archi-
pelago lying southeast of Asia. They were discovered by
Magellan in 1521, but it was not until 156i that the group
received its present name, in honor of Pliilij) II. In many
respects these islands are Spain's best possessions, due to the
abundance and variety of products, numerous and good ports,
character of inhabitants, and on account of the vicinity of
certain countries of eastern Asia, which are now entering
upon a stage of civilization and commerce. The group is
composed of some 2,000 islands. Many of them are very
small, but others are important on account of their size,
resources, and population.

From the year of discovery until 1542 several expeditions
from Spain attempted to gain possession of these islands, but
all failed. In 1564 another expedition, commanded by Miguel
de Legaspi, was dispatched and a footing established in Cebu ;
the headquarters were later transferred to Luzon, and in 1581
the city of Manila was founded.

Various attempts to drive out the Spaniards were made
during the following years by the Portuguese, Dutch, and
Chinese, but all failed. In 17(32 Manila was taken and held
by the English for a ransom of 1,000,000 pounds sterling.
This, however, was never paid, and the islands were finally
returned to Spain.

EXTENT,

The archipelago extends from o° 32' to 19° 38', north lati-
tude, and from 117° to 120°, east longitude. It thus covers
about 1,000 miles north and south and 000 east and west.
(See index map, opposite page 1.)

BOUNDARIES.

On the north and northwest the islands are separated from
China l>y the China Sea and the Indo-Chinese Peninsula.
Toward the east is the Pacific. On the north a number of
small islands stretch out toward Formosa ; on the south, while

(1)



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.



GENERAL.



The Philippine Ishiiuls form a great part of the vast arclii-
pehigo lying southeast of Asia. They were discovered hy
Magellan in 1521, but it was not until 156-1 that the group
received its present name, in honor of Philip II. In many
respects these islands are Spain's best possessions, due to the
abundance and variety of products, numerous and good ports,
character of inhabitants, and on account of the vicinity of
certain countries of eastern Asia, which are now entering
upon a stage of civilization and commerce. The group is
composed of some 2,000 islands. Many of them are very
small, but others are important on account of their size,
resources, and population.

From the year of discovery until 1542 several expeditions
from Si)ain attempted to gain possession of these islands, but
all failed. In 1564 another expedition, commanded by Miguel
de Legaspi, was dispatched and a footing established in Cebii;
the headquarters were later transferred to Luzon, and in 1581
the city of Manila was founded.

Various attempts to drive out the Spaniards Avere made
during the following years by the Portuguese, Dutch, and
Chinese, but all failed. In 1702 Manila was taken and held
Ijy the English for a ransom of 1,000,000 pounds sterling.
This, however, was never paid, and the islands Avere finally
returned to Sx)ain.

EXTENT.

The archipelago extends from 5° 32' to 19° 38', north lati-
tude, and from 117° to 126°, east longitude. It thus covers
about 1,000 miles north and south and 600 east and west.
(See index map, opposite page 1.)

BOUNDARIES.

On the north and northwest the islands are separated from
China Ijy the China Sea and the Indo-Chinese Peninsula.
ToAvard the east is the Pacific. On the north a number of
small islands stretch out toward Formosa ; on the south, Avhile

(1)



2 NUMBERS AND AREA.

a double connection is formed Avitli Borneo by tlie lines of the
Palawan, Balabac, and Suln islands, the basin of the Celebes
Sea extends for a distance of 300 miles between its sonthern-
most island, Mindanao, and the Celebes. Though forming
({uite a distinct group from Indonesia, from which they are
sejiarated by two marine abysses (one nearly 2,500 fathoms
deep and the other over 2,500 deep), the Philippines are con-
nected with the southern lands by three long ridges, partially
covered by water. Of these the northwestern is the most reg-
ular and best developed. From Mindoro to the northwest
point of Borneo, the deepest part of the sill (between Balabac
and Bangney) does not exceed 25 fathoms. Balabac Strait,
between Paragua and Borneo, is filled with reefs formed by
the marine current, which, under the influence of the south-
west monsoon, sets strongly toward the Sulu Sea. The second
isthmus is formed by the Sulu Archipelago connecting the
northeast point of Borneo with the western extremity of
Mindanao; Here the shallow channel, through which there is
communication from the Sulu to the deeper Celebes Sea, is trav-
ersed by a system of alternating currents, over 250 fathoms
deep. East of the trough of the Celebes Sea, the peninsula of
Minahassa with the Sanguir Archipelago and other islands
form a third isthmus, sweeping around to the southernmost
l)oint of Mindanao. This ridge is broken by many open-
ings, the broadest and deepest of which lies off the coast of
Mindanao.

NUMBERS AND AREA.

The number of islands is not definitely known, but is vari-
ously estimated at from 1,200 to 2,000. New ones are being
continually added to the maps. Some meml)ers of the vast
archipelago, as well as the more remote districts in the larger
islands lying beyond the direct control of the Spanish, have
remained unexplored. Even the regions governed l)y the
Europeans are still but imperfectly known, no methodical
and detailed study of the Philippines having yet been made.
Present maps and charts are extremely defective, except for
the seaboard, in the survey of which the leading maritime
nations have cooperated.

The principal islands are Luzon, Mindanao, Palawan (Para-
gua), Samar, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Negros, Cebii, Masbate,
Bohol, Catanduanes, Polillo, Marinduque, Tablas, Burias, and
Ticao.



COAST l.INE, TOPOGKAl'HV, ETC. 3

Luzon, tlie largest, has an area of about -41,000 square miles;
Mindanao, the next, about 37,500 square miles; and the five
next in size have an area of over 10,000 square miles each.
The most reliable estimate places the aggregate land area of
the group at 11-4,350 square miles, or equal to the area of Ari-
zona. Luzon, upon which the city of Manila is located, is
equal in area to the State of Virginia.

(OAST LINE.

The coast line of all the islands is very irregular and
broken, the ocean cutting in and forming many gulfs, bays,
isthmuses, and peninsulas. There are long stretches of canals
and passages between the islands, but these are not always
navigable. Although situated in the region adapted to the
growth of corals, the scarcity of this formation is accounted
for by the presence of volcanic fires and the occasional deluge
of hot water, which prevents the growth of the polyps.

TOPOGRAPHY AND OROGRAPHY.

The whole surface of the Philippines is essentially moun-
tainous, the only plains that occur being alluvial districts at
the river mouths and the spaces left by the intersection of the
ranges. The principal ranges have a tendency to run north
and south, with a certain amount of deflection east and west,
as the case may be, so that the orograi:)hic diagram of the
archipelago, as a whole, has a similarity to a fan, with north-
ern Luzon as its center of radiation. The three lines of par-
tially submerged ridges, before mentioned, stretching from
Indonesia tow^ard the Philippines, running north and south,
continue their main axis, and strike the southern part of the
same region at the Saragani Volcano. East of this range is
found a broad chain, occupying all the eastern section of
Mindanao, which borders on the Pacific.

A general survey of the entire orographic system shows
that, from the southern point of Mindanao to the northern
extremity of Luzon, the relief of all the islands is either in a
line with the southern isthmuses or parallel to them.

On the other hand the islands of Bohol, Cebii, Negros, and
Panay are disposed in a line with, or parallel to, the Sulu
Archipelago, while Mindoro and the main section of Luzon
form the northeast extension of Paragua and Borneo. Most



4: TOPOGRAPHY AND OROGRAPHY.

of the surface appears to he forined of old rocks, especially
schists, and, in the north of Luzon, granite.

While none of the mountain peaks greatly exceed 8,000 feet
in height, Apo, in Mindanao, is over 9,000 feet; Halson, in
Mindoro, is over 8,000 feet; and Mayon, in Luzon, over S,-20().
The latter is an active volcano, which has been the scene of
several eruptions during the present century. Extinct or
active craters are relatively as numerous in the Philippines
as in the eastern arcliipelago, and as a consequence of these
subterraneous forces earthquakes are frequent and violent.

In 1627 one of the most elevated mountains of Cagayan dis-
appeared, and on the island of Mindanao, in 1675, a passage
was opened to the sea and a vast plain emerged. The more
recent of the convulsions occurred in 1863 and in isso. The
destruction of property was great, especially in Manila.

The island of Luzon is traversed by the great ridge of the
Caraballos Mountains, the principal points of which are Lag-
sig and Cabalesian. The ridge is divided into tlyee branches.
The first, denominated Caraballo Central, or del IVorte, sep-
arates the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Ilocos Norte from
those Ojl' Cagayan and Abra, and terminates at the Cliina Sea.
To this branch belong the mountains Alipapu, Alumbubunig,
a:Ml Posdey. The second, beginning at Caraballo de Baler,
running in a northeasterly direction and terminating at Cape
Engaiio, is the most important ridge of the whole archipelago.
The volcano Cagua, with an altitude of 2jyo'2 feet, belongs to
this ridge. The third branch is the western one. It runs
toward the south, separating the ijrovinces of Nueva Ecija
and Laguna from the districts del Principe and Infanta, and
it stops at the strait of San Bernardino after having traversed
the territoi'ies of Tayabas, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur,
and Albay. The volcar -es Mayon and Bulasan are the most
important of this ridge.

Among the ridges of lesser importance, situated in the
island of Luzon, the following merit notice : The Sierra de
Zambales, ending in the north at the cape of Bolinao and in
the south at Mount Maribeles; and the Sierras Sungay and
Ma(|uilin, the most important peaks of which are Batulao.
Mapait, Ulila, and San Cristobal.

On the island of Mindanao there is a ridge running from
north to south, beginning between Surigao and Butuan and
reaching its highest altitude in ]\tount Catalan ; there is



Tt)P()(iRAPHV AND UKOGKAPHV.

another beginning at the Hingog Mountains, running par-
allel to the former during the first two-thirds of its course
and terminating at the cape of Sarangani, reaching its highest
altitude in Mount Pantadon; a third ridge beginning at the
volcano Apo, running in a northwesterly direction and ejuling
on the isthmus of Misamis orPanguil; and the fourth and
last, the most important of all, a ridge beginning at Point
Cauit, runs toward the west, joins the last-mentioned ridge
at the isthmus of Misamis, forms the peaks of Randaya, and
then branches off in different directions. To this ridge be-
long the mountains Cabigan; Tulangatura, Tinuba, Tarlin,
and Malandi.

As to the less important islands very little can be said about
them. Paragua is traversed by a mountain ridge running
from north to south. Samar possesses a ridge running also
from north to south, and having a large number of ramifica-
tions, as well as the. following peaks: Curao, Capotaan, Pa-
lapa, and Matuguinao. The island of Panay has a large
ridge beginning in the northwest, terminating in the vicinity
of the city of Dumarao, its culminating j^oint being Mount
Opao. On the island of Mindoro there are three ridges, one
running from the northwest to the southeast, while the two
others are parallel to the eastern and western coasts. The
most important mountains are Calavite, Abra de Hog, and
Bacoo. The island of Leyte has a very broken terrain, with
a large ridge running from the northwest to the southeast,
with the following i^eaks : Calasi, Mandivin, Aslum, and
Sil)ugay. Negros Island has a high ridge traversing it from
north to south, with various branches: one of its highest
peaks is the volcano Canlaon. The island of Cebil is likewise
traversed by a low ridge running from north to south. The
island of Masbate has numerous tortuous ridges and the
mountains of Cavanan and Bagala""" i'. That of Bohol has
the following mountains: Bunucan, Mohangin, Carohabol,
Campusa, and others of less importance. The island of
Catanduanes has three ridges starting from one central
nucleus. Marinduque has a principal ridge running from
Mount Malindig to San Antonio, and has various ramifica-
tions. The i-sland of Tablas has the Palaopao Mountains;
Burias, the peak named Engafiosa ; and a line of mountains
crosses the island of Ticao.



GEOLOGY.



The general belief is that the Philippines once fovmed a part
of an enormous continent from which it was sejjarated by some
cataclysm. This continent probably extended from Celebes
to the farthest Polinesian islands on the east, to New Zealand
on the south, and the Mariana and Sandwich islands on the
north.

These islands, according to Ramon Jordana, are divided
into two volcanic regions, the eastern and the Avestern. The
principal point is the volcano Taal, located in the northeastern
portion of the province of Batangas. It is situated on a small
island in the center of the Bombon laguna, and has an altitude
of 550 feet above sea level. Its form is conical, and the rock
is composed of basalt feldspar with a small quantity of augite.
The crater is supposed to be 232 feet deep. Its sides are almost
vertical, and there are two steaming lagunas at its bottom.
Mount Maquilin is situated to the northeast of Taal. It is an
extinct volcano, w^liose crater is fully 824 feet deep. It is also
of conical form and covered with vegetation. Round stones
of augite with crystals of hornblende are found on the brow
of the mountain. To the east of Maquilin rises the volcano
Banajao, also extinct. The soil toward the north is formed of
lava. Close to the city of Porac, near the province of Pam-
panga, the soil abounds in feldspar sand, alternating with
layers of clay. Tophus and loam are frequently seen, espe-
cially in the province of Zambales. Around Santa Cruz, in the
direction of Pangasinan, are to be found rocks composed of
white feldspar with crystals of augite. In the region embra-
cing the provinces of Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, and
Pangasinan the soil is mostly composed of clay containing
remnants of sea shells, a circumstance which gives rise to the
belief that the coast of Manila has risen from the sea in not
so remote an epoch. Smooth, dark-gray tophus predominates ;
it forms the bed of the Rio Pasig, and rising forms hillocks
in the vicinity of the city of Binangonan. Farther on, tra-
chyte and banks of conchiferous sand predominate.

The vast plain of Pampanga extends to the north of Manila
Bay, to the south of which is situated Mount Arayat, of dol-
eritic nature.

Feldspar sand abounds around this mountain. The Cara-
ballo Ridge is composed in various sections of andesite rock,
succeeded by another, resembling greatly the diabase. At



the junction of Rio Magat and Rio Pinqniang there is a hill,
at the foot of which is an abundance of gypsum loam, inter-
mingled with feldspar rocks of volcanic origin. There are
also hills composed of trachyte and soil abounding in gabbro.
Tophus and loam containing fossil plants are abundant in the
vicinity of Galiano ; coral lime enters principally into the com-
position of the mountains surrounding the valley in which
the city of Trinidad is situated. Along the Rio Agno no
rocks but diorite are to be met with.

According to Doctor Drasche, there are five different kinds
of rocks in the northern part of Luzon :

1. Coral reefs and banks of coral lime with rocks of recent
volcanic origin.

2. Tophus and tophic gravel containing deposits formed by
banks of coral lime and loam with remnants of plants.

o. Rocks of modern volcanic origin.

•i. Rocks formed of coarse gravel proceeding from adjoin-



Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 1 of 31)