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Military notes on the Philippines. September 1898 online

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lastly, the bastion of San Gabriel, which terminates the line
of fortifications along the river. Joined to this bastion on the
exterior side is found the Plaza Nueva. Still following the
trace from the bastion of San Gabriel, one arrives at the g-ate


of Parian, through which it is necessary to pass in a northerly-
direction to reach the bridge of Pasig. Leading south from
this gate, is a heantifully paved highway of great breadth,
and to the southeast is the bastion Diablo. South of this
point is the postern of Recoletos and just beyond, the bastion
of San Andres. Thence, to the southwest, is situated the royal
gate, and, as has been stated, the extreme southern point
is defended by the bastion of San Diego protected by the
battery of San Gregorio, which is built on the exterior line
in the angle of the plaza.

Many of these works have deteriorated with time, and the
expenditure of a little money and labor, especially at the
strategic points of Santiago Point, Restinga Point, and Cor-
regidor, would be of great benefit. The streets are straight,
well leaved, and illuminated. Prominent among its buildings
are the governor's palace, the royal court of chancery, and
the convent of San Agustin, with its handsome church;
the church and convent of the Recollects of San Francisco,
whose buildings occupy an immense space ; the royal college
and pontifical university of St. Thomas, which is spacious,
well constructed, and possesses a notable physical laboratory ;
the municipal atheneum, in charge of the Jesuits, with a
physical laboratory, natural history museum, and a magnif-
icent apparatus for astronomical observations ; the military
hospital, with room for 1,000 beds, and the spacious and well-
attended hospital of San Juan de Dios. Among the buildings
ruined in the earthquake of 1863, some of which are being re-
constructed and others already so, are the large and well-con-
structed cathedral, the customs building, etc.

Within the fortified city reside, generally speaking, the
authorities of the archipelago, who have the same mission
and the same hierarchy as those of Cuba.

The real nucleus of the population of Manila is in its
suburbs. These comprise the pueblos called Binondo; San
Jos^; Santa Cruz, with 15 wards; Quiapo, with 2 wards; San
Miguel, with 7 wards; Sampaloc, with 39 wards; and Tondo,
with 18 wards. The neighborhoods of these suburbs are de-
lightful and picturesque, with their rivers, lagoons, creeks,
islands, quarries, and little hamlets. Good bridges facilitate
communication between Manila and its suburbs. The suburb
of Binondo is the most mercantile of the archipelago; here
are the central administration of revenues and monoiDolies,


general tobacco warehouses, and the administration of
finances of the province. Its streets are narrow and the
houses tastefully and solidly built. On the breakwater of
the jetty extending out into the bay is a third-class light-
house, and the steamers which perform the service of the bay
and make periodical trips to the provinces of Cavite, Batangas,
Bulucan, and Pampanga, close in along the river.

North of Binondo, separated by a river spanned by several
bridges, is the suburb of Tondo, extending to the west of the
bay, on flat, sandy ground. The houses are in general con-
structed of cane and nipa (a species of palm with feathery
leaves) ; the streets are narrow, and there is a handsome
church, a small theater, and a good market place. North-
east of Binondo is the suburb of Santa Cruz, with good
buildings, a flower market, theater, public jail, leper hospital
under the Franciscans, and a cemetery for Chinese or Sangley
infieles (infidels).

Northeast of Manila and at the extremity of the suburb of
Santa Cruz is the suburb of Quiapo, Avith good houses, hand-
some and well-aligned streets, and a pretty market place.
There are the tribunal of the natives, an elegant and solid
structure; the well-built suspension bridge over the Pasig,
measuring 350 feet long by 23 feet wide; the magnificent
market of the Quinta, and the spacious and pretty San Sebas-
tian street, with elegant buildings and convenient porticos,
at the end being the sanctuary of San Sebastian under the
Agustin Recollects.

The suburb of San Miguel is situated to the east of Manila
on the opposite bank of the Pasig River, being connected with
Quiapo by a good wooden bridge ; it has good buildings and
a comfortable and well-ventilated barracks. Along the river
are a number of villas, the last one being called Malacamang,
the residence of the supreme authority of the archipelago. It
consists of an elegant palace divided into two parts, sur-
rounded by gardens, with good wharves on the river. On the
island of San Andres^ situated in the center of the river
Pasig, is the convalescent hospital, spacious and with good
hygienic conditions, the San Jose poorhouse, and the insane
asylum. To the east of the island are the San Andres and
San Rafael batteries, the southern part serving as support to
the bridge uniting the suburb of San Miguel with San Miguel

100 .MAMl.A — CITY.

To the iiortlieast of Manila, adjoining it and fronting on
tlie river bank, is tlie jjlace known as arroceros (rice mills), a
much frequented spot, where are located the tobacco factories,
in one of which over 7,000 female laborers are constantly oc-
cupied ; also the botanical garden, the barracks of the regi-
ment of i^eninsular artillery, the Si^anish theater, the Kiosko,
designed for public dances, and the slaughterhouse.

A mile and three-quarters south of Manila, on the banks of
the bay, is the pueblo of Malate. It is crossed by the highway
from the capital to Cavite ; it has a fine church, an infantry
barracks occupied by a regiment of that arm, and a cavalry
barracks, quartering the lancer squadron of Luzon ; both are
good and spacious.

On the shores of the Pasig is the paseo (promenade) of Ma-
gallanes, on which is erected an obelisk dedicated to the mem-
ory of the illustrious mariner, Magellan. On the paseo del
malecon (dike promenade) is another monument recalling the
patriotism of the oidor (judge) Anda. There are cock pits
and luxurious cafes, the Spanish recreation club, a military
library founded by royal order of February 15, 1846, and out-
side the town a riding school and race course.

The garrison of Manila and its suburbs was composed of 3
regiments of infantry, a battalion of artillery, the squadron
of cavalry, and a regiment of veteran gendarmery (guardia

The general postal service of the north comprises the pro-
vinces of Bataan, Zambales, Pampanga, Tarlac, Pangasinan,
Union, Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, and the districts of Lepanto,
Bontoc, Benguet, Tiagan, Porac, and Corregidor.

The cross-country line comprises the provinces of Bulacan,
Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Isabela, Cagayan, and the
districts of Principe and Saltan.

The general service of the south comj^rises the provinces of
Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro, Tayabas, Camarines Norte,
Camarines Sur, Albay, and the districts of Moring, Masbate,
and Ticao, and Infanta and Burias.

That of Cavite (two expeditions daily).

That of Pampanga, Bataan, and El Corregidor.

That of Bulacan, Pami)anga, and Nueva Ecija.

That of La Laguna (by steamer).

That of Laguna, Batangas, and Mindoro, river route.

That of the interior of the provinces of Manila.

That of the Batanes Islands.


That of Balabac, Laucan, Puerto-Princesa, Zamboanga, and

Ill the maritime provinces of the archipehigo the arrivals and
departures are uncertain, the service being performed 1)y coast-
ing vessels.


The general map of the island of Luzon shows, in general
outline, Manila Bay and Cavite, the port and marine arsenal
of Manila, oif which the engagement of May 1 took place.
Manila Bay is about 30 miles in extent each way. The land
on both sides of the entrance is high and covered with vege-
tation, while the shores at the head are low, marshy, and
intersected by numerous small rivers, estuaries, and tide lakes.
Fortifications were erected commanding the opening of the
bay with the additional protection of submarine mines ; depth
of water, from 16 to 17 fathoms.

Corregidor, or Mariveles, and Pulo Caballo are islands
dividing the entrance of Manila Bay into two channels. Cor-
regidor, the principal island, 600 feet high, lies near the north
shore, and is 3 miles in length, east to west. There is a light-
house on its summit. On its north side is a small bay, pro-
tected by breakwaters, affording anchorage for small vessels,
and from Buri Point a reef juts to the southward toward
Caballo Island, on a low spur of which is a fixed light. It is
the channel between Caballo Island and the mainland which
was used by the United States squadron, and which was
apparently not defended at all.

Manila is about 25 miles from the entrance of the bay. A
telegraph connected Manila with Hongkong, the cable, which
was originally landed at Cape Bolinao, having been shifted
to the chief town. Manila's total export and import trade is
worth about six and one-half millions sterling. The length
of quayage in the river Pasig is 4,250 feet, but the river, the
average breadth of which is 350 feet, is too narrow to allow
vessels to turn. The longest vessel using the river regularly
is 231 feet. Larger vessels lie at anchor in the bay. Pasig
River, which is navigable for about 10 miles, is the principal
channel of communication with the interior ; there is a depth
of 11 feet on the bar at low water. It i^asses between the
commercial districts and the fortress of Manila. At its mouth
is a breakwater, and a battery is placed on the southern mole.


Cavitc (cli. 5, p. 49), wliicli stands on a low point of land, is
fortified, and more guns are said to have recently been placed
in position. The Spanish troops were in garrison there.
The whole number of officers and troops in the islands on
November 1, 1897, was about 46,108, having been largely
reenforced in 1896-97 to quell the revolution. At Cavite ves-
sels are built and repaired, the port having excellent conven-
iences. There is a slip with a cradle 270 feet broad, and
hydraulic power capable of drawing 2,000 tons. Workshops
contain appliances of all kinds. A dock for gunboats and a
larger private dock for vessels of 1,500 tons have been con-
structed. The harbor, or cove, is a good one, with shelter
from west and southwest winds, and a depth of water of 3^
fathoms. From Cavite to Manila by water is 7 miles, but by
road 15 miles. Large vessels generally anchor off Cavite
Harbor, about a mile from the shore, in 5 fathoms. Here
the Spanish flotilla was placed.


Caloocan. — Population, 9,843; situated 7 miles from Manila.
There are highroads to Manila, Novaliches, Mariquina, and

Dilao. — Population, 4,625; situated 3 miles from Manila.

Ermita. — Population, 4,726 ; situated 1^ miles from Manila.

Las Pinas. — Population, 4, 000 ; situated 8 miles from Ma-

Malate. — Population, 2,319; situated If miles from Manila.

Malibay. — Population, 2,890; situated 4 miles from Manila.

Mariquina. — Population, 10,313; situated 7 miles from
Manila. It communicates with Caloocan by a highroad.

Montalban. — Population, 3,055; situated 16 miles from

Muntinlupa. — Population, 5,068; situated 21 miles from

Navotas, — Population, 9,154; situated 6^ miles from Ma-

Novaliches. — Population, 1,871; situated 10 miles from
Manila. It communicates with Caloocan and Manila by high-

Pandacan. — Population, 2,446; situated 2 miles from Ma-


Paranaque. — Population, 9,8<:;3; situated at a distance of
G^- miles from Manila.

Pasig. — Population, 2-2,000; situated 7 miles from Manila.

Pateros. — Population, 2,842; situated 3 miles from Manila.

Pineda. — Population, 9,825; situated 3^ miles from Manila.

San Felipe Neri.— Population, 5,465.

San Juan del Monte.— Population, 2,011.

San Mateo. — Population, G,700; situated 17 miles from

San Pedro Macati. — Population, 3,921; situated about 3
miles from Manila.

Santa Ana. — Population, 2,194; situated about 3 miles
from Manila.

Taguig-. — Population, 9,6G2; situated 4 miles from Manila.

Tambobong. — Population, 25,000; situated 3 miles from


Situated in the northern part of the island of Luzon, it is
bounded on the north by the provinces of Ilocos Norte and
Cagayan, on the east by Isabela and part of the district of
Bontoc, on the south by the districts of Bontoc and Lepanto
and part of Ilocos Sur, and on the west by Ilocos Sur. Its
rugged and volcanic surface is covered with rich vegetation,
the oak, pine, and strawberry tree abounding. Among the
game are buffalo, deer, wild boars, monkeys, etc., and in the
valleys are grown vegetables, maize, tobacco, and palay. The
area is 3,280 square miles, and the population 49,702, distrib-
uted among 9 pueblos and 40 rancherias.

The capital is Bangued, with a population of 13,417. It
is situated 236 miles from Manila. It has a telegraph station,
and was the residence of the politico-military governor.


Alfonso XII. — Population not known.

Bacay. — Population, 2,4G1; situated 11 miles from Ban-

Dolores. — Population, 2,970; situated G^ miles from Ban-
gued. There are highroads to Taynud.

La Paz. — Population, 2,869; situated 8 miles from Ban-


Pidigan. — Population, 2,142; .situated 3 miles from Ban-

Pilar. — Population, 4,107; situated 3 miles from Bangued.

San Jose. — Population, 1,285; situated 17 miles from Ban-

San Gregorio.— Population, 1,429; situated 4 miles from
Bangued. It lias a post office.

San Quintin. — Population, 725 ; situated 8 miles from Ban-
gued. It is on the liigliroad from Bangued to Vigan.

Tayum. — Population, 3,436 ; situated 2 miles from Bangued.

Villavieja. — Population, 859; situated 20 miles from


Situated in the extreme southeast of Luzon, it is bounded
on the north and east by the Pacific, on the south by the
Strait of San Bernardino and the Sea of Visayas, and on the
west by Camarines Sur. It is a broken volcanic country;
there are several extinct volcanoes and one in activity called
Mayon or Albay, being high and of dangerous ascent. There
are impenetrable forests of very rich timber, and much large
and small game. Numerous rivers Avater delightful valleys,
in which all products of the country are grown. There are
good highways. The natives are very industrious, and on the
coast there are many dockyards where good vessels are con-
structed. The area is 2,262 square miles and the population

The capital is Albay, with a population of 14,000, the town-
ship having 34,000. It is situated on the bay of the same
name and at the foot of the Mayon volcano, and was the resi-
dence of the alcalde mayor, the promoter fiscal, and a number
of public functionaries.


Bacacay. — Population, 1 0, 547 ; situated 1 1 miles from
Albay, on the bay of the same name.

Bacon. — Population, 13,013; situated G miles from Albay.

Bagamanog.— Population, 1,209.

Barcelona. — Population, 1,567; situated 62 miles from

Bato. — Population not known ; situated 29 miles from Albay.

Bulan. — Population, 11,000; situated 21 miles from Albay.

Bulusan. — Population, 5,230 ; situated 82 miles from Albay.


Cagsaua. — Population, 20,449 ; situated 2 miles from Albay.

Calolbon. — Population, 4,382.

Camalig-. — Population, 14,868 ; situated 7 miles from Albay.

Caramoan. — Population, 908.

Casig-uran. — Population, 8,662; situated 22 miles from Al-

Castilla. — Population, 2,353; situated 18 miles from Albay.

Donsol. — Population, 5,500; situated 16 miles from Albay.

Gubat. — Population, 13,359; situated 52 miles from Albay.

Guinobatan. — Population, 20,500; situated 11 miles from

Irocin. — Population, 5,224; situated 62 miles from Albay.

Jovellar. — Population, 5,279 ; situated 10 miles from Albay.

Juban.— Population, 6,000.

Legaspi.— Population, 6,017; situated ^ mile from Albay.

Libog. — Population, 6,569, the townsliip having 4,000. It
is situated 8 miles from Albay.

Liibon. — Population, 4,125; situated 22 miles from Albay.

Ligao. — Population, 17,371; situated 19 miles from Albay.

Magallanes. — Population, 2,377; situated 34 miles from

Malilipot. — Population, 5,995; situated 12 miles from Al-
bay. It has regular highroads, the means of transportation
being 4 and 2 wheel carts.

Malinao. — Population, 10,296.

Manito. — Population, 1,515; situated 1-| miles from Albay.

Matnog. — Population, 3,745; situated 53 miles from Albay.

Oas. — Population, 10,357; situated 22 miles from Albay,

Pandan. — Population, 2,143; situated 39 miles from Albay.

Payo. — An island with 2,800 inhabitants, situated at a
3 days' sail from Albay. It is composed of 8 j^ueblos.

Pilar. — Poi)ulation, 5,458; situated 21 miles from Albay.

Polangui. — Population, 10,050; situated 22 miles from

Sorsogon. — Population, 10,720; situated 14 miles from

Tabaco.— Population, 17,436 ; situated 16 miles from Albay.
It has a telegraph station and a post-office.

Tivi. — Chief town of a district of 10,215 inhabitants; situ
a ted 22 miles from Albay.

Viga. — Poimlation, 2,896; situated 21 miles from Albay.

Virac. — Population, 5,832.



Situated to the southeast of Manila, it is bounded on the
north by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Province of
Albaj^, on the west by the District of Ragay and the Pacific
Ocean, and on the east by the Pacific Ocean. The area is
3,829 square miles and the population 185,878.

South Camarines. — It is bounded on the north by North
Camarines, on the east by Albay, and on the south-southwest
by the Sea of Mindoro, and is crossed from northeast to south-
east by a great mountain chain, covered with impenetrable
forests of good building timber and inhabited by infieles. Its
lakes are Buhi, Bato, and Baaso ; in its extensive valleys are
raised cacao, rice, maize, abaca, sugar cane, etc. Industry
consists in the manufacture of fine clothes of simanay and
guimara. It is divided into 35 pueblos and 268 barrios.

North Camarines. — It is bounded on the north and north-
west by the Pacific and the Bay of San Miguel, on the south
by South Camarines, on the southwest by the Bay of Guin-
ayangan, and on the west by the Province of Tayabas, and is
covered with mountains and crossed by numerous rivers of
great volume. In the interior are virgin forests inhabited
by tribes of negritos, and there are unworked mines of gold,
silver, iron, copper, and lead. The rivers abound in fish and
there are good wagon roads. It is divided into 8 pueblos and
25 barrios.

The capital is Nueva Caceres, with a population of 11,550.
It is situated on the Naga River, navigable from the sea to the
capital by vessels of from 150 to 200 tons, and it is 207 miles
distant from Manila. It was the residence of the bishop of the
diocese, of the alcalde mayor, and of the chief of the com-
mand of gendarmery, and has a cathedral, a bishop's palace,
seminary for clergymen of the country, normal school, a
court-house, etc. There is a post office and a railroad and
telegraph station.


Baao. — Population, G,759; situated 17 miles from Nueva

Basud. — Population, 1,874; situated 11 miles from Nueva

Bato.— Population, 4,861.

Bombon.— Population, 2,656.


Buhi. — Population, 10,000; situated 34 miles froui Nueva

Bula. — Population, 2,800; situated 10 miles from Nueva

Calabanga. — Poi)ulation, 5,704:; situated 7 miles from
Niieva Ciiceres.

Calasagasan. — Population, 813; situated 49 miles from
Nueva Caeeres.

Camaligan. — Population, 5,049. There are highroads to
Callejcui, Nueva Caeeres, and Camaman.

Camaman.— Population, 5,959.

Capalonga.— Population, 1,692.

Caramoan.— Population, 6,697.

Daet. — Population, 10,650; situated 50 miles from Nueva

Gainza. — Population, 2,631.

Goa. — Population, 7,748.

Indan.— Population, 5,800; situated 55 miles from Nueva

Iriga. — Population, 17,094; situated 22 miles from Nueva

Labo. — Population, 4,213.

Lagonoy. — Population, 8,500. It is the capital of the dis-
. triet of the same name.

Libmanan. — Population, 14,512; situated 14 miles from
Nueva Caeeres, to which it is connected by highroads. It
has a post office and telegraph station.

Liupi. — Population, 765; situated 13 miles from Nueva

Mabatobato. — Population, 849.

Magarao. — Population, 5,744; situated 3 miles from Nueva

Mambulao.— Population, 1,182.

Manguirin.— Population, 1,300; situated 9 miles from
Nueva Caeeres.

Milaor. — Population, 5,120; situated 2 miles from Nueva

Minalabag.— PoiDulation, 3,869; situated 4 miles from
Nueva Caeeres.

Nabua. — Population, 17,789 ; situated 17 miles from Nueva


Pamplona-^Population, 3,G47; situated 5 miles from
Nueva C;'ieeres. It lias a post office.

Paracale. — Population, 3,211 ; situated 68 miles from NueYa

Pasacao. — Population, 1,548.

Pili. — Population, 3,635; situated 9 miles from Nueva

Quipayo. — Population, 1,703; situated 7 miles from Nueva

Ragay. — Population, 2,300; situated 38 miles from Nueva
Caceres. It lias a telegraph station.

Sagnay. — Population, 3,1)85; situated 13 miles from Nueva

San Fernando. — Population, 3,271. It has a highway to
the capital and one to Puscacao.

San Jose. — Population, 9,000 ; situated 24 miles from Nueva

San Vincente.— Population, 1,325.

Sipocot. — Population, 1,066; situated 22 miles from Nueva

Siroma. — Population, 679; situated 14 miles from Nueva

Talisay. — Population, 3,507; situated 52 miles from Nueva

Tigaon. — Population, 4,100; situated 5 miles from Nueva

Tinambag. — Population, 2,497; situated 19 miles from



This district is confined to the slopes of the Malaya Ridge,
and is bounded on the north by Tiagaii and Ilocos Sur, on the
east by Lepanto, on the south by La Union, and on the west
by Bengued. The population is 30,150.

The capital is Alilem, with a population of 8,014.


This district is situated north of Cagayan de Luzon, and
consists of some forty ranches. The population is 6,000.
The capital is Bugabagu.


. Situated in the center of the island of Luzon, it is bounded
on the north l)y Pampanga, on the south by the Bay of Manila,


Oil the east by Zambales, aud on the west by the China Sea.
The area is 1,023 square miles, and the popuhition 52,000.

The capital is Balanga, with a population of 9,000. It is
situated 31 miles from Manila, and has highroads to the
neighboring towns. There is a post office and telegraph


Abucay. — Population, 7,185 ; situated 3 miles from Balanga.

Bag-ac. — Population, 1,655; situated 8 miles from Balanga.

Dinalupijan. — Population, 738 ; situated 15 miles from Ba-

Hermosa.— Population, 2,649; situated 11 miles from Ba-

Mabatan.— Population, 1,766; situated 2 miles from Ba-
langa, to which there is a railway.

Mariveles. — Population, 1,429; situated 30 miles from Ba-

Moron. — Population, 2,622 ; situated 25 miles from Balanga.

Orani. — Population, 6,400; situated 7 miles from Balanga.

Orion. — Population, 10,373; situated 6 miles from Balanga.

Pilar. — Population, 3,471 ; situated 3 miles from Balanga.

Samal. — Population, 5,233; situated 6 miles from Balanga.


Batangas is an important province owing to its geographical
position, being situated south of Luzon and oj^posite Mindoro ;
its close proximity to the capital, and its easy communication
by land and sea. Within its boundaries is Lake Bingabon,
in the center of which rises the isolated cone of the Taal
Volcano, over 1,200 feet high. It is noted for its high moun-

Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 11 of 31)