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Military notes on the Philippines. September 1898 online

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ago are raised here. The population is 8,000.

The capital is Davao. It is situated at the head of Davao
Bay and opposite the island of Samar.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Baganga. — Population, 2,700; situated 160 miles by water
from Davao.

Bago. — Population, 7,000; situated 15 miles from Davao.



COTTABATO, DAPITAN, DAVAO. 175

DISTRICT OF COTTABATO.

It is bounded on the north by the districts of Misamis and
Surigao, on the east by Davao, and on the south and south-
west by the Celebes Sea and the Bay of Illana. It is a mili-
tary establishment.

The capital is Cottabato, with a population of 3,000. It is
situated 138 miles from Manila.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Pollok (ch. 27, p. 175). — Population, 3U5; situated 10 miles
from Cottabato.

Tamontaco. — Population, 1,900; situated 3 miles from
Cottabato.

DISTRICT OF DAPITAN.

Situated in the northern part of the island of Mindanao, it
is bounded on the north by the Visayas Sea, on the east by
Misamis, on the south by Zamboanga, and on the west by the
Visayas Sea. The area is -4 square miles and the population
12,615.

The capital is Dapitan, with a population of 3,955. It is
situated 190 miles from Zamboanga.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Dipolo. — Population, 4,611 ; situated 9 miles from Dapitan.
Hay a. — Population, 1,099.

Liubungan. — Population, 5,157; situated 20 miles from
Dapitan.

DISTRICT OF DAVAO.

It is bounded on the north by the District of Surigao, on
the west by that of Cottabato, and on the south and east by
the Pacific. The country is very mountainous and covered
with forests ; all vegetables grown in the rest of the archipel-
ago are raised here. The population is 8,000.

The capital is Davao. It is situated at the head of Davao
Bay and opposite the island of Samar.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Baganga. — Population, 2,700; situated 160 miles by water
from Davao.

Bago.— Population, 7,000; situated 15 miles from Davao.



176 MATTI AND MISAMIS.

Caraga.— ^Population, 4,000; situated 175 miles Ijv water
from Davao.

Luzon. — Population, 7,477; situated 45 miles from Davao.
Quinablagan. — Pojmlation, 500.

DISTRICT OF MATTI.

Situated in the northern j^art of the island of Mindanao, it is
bounded on the north by Surigao, on the east and south by
the Pacific, and on the west by Davao. The population is
9,764.

The capital is Matti, with a jjopulation of 600. It is sit-
uated 375 miles from Zamboanga.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Baganga. — Population, 1,114; situated 50 miles from Matti.

Caraga. — Population, 8,690; situated 65 miles from Matti.

Cateel. — Population, 3,500; situated 115 miles from Matti.

Dapuan. — Pojralation, 500.

Quinablangan. — Population, 290.

Sig-uboy. — Population, 900; situated 45 miles from Matti.

DISTRICT OF MISAMIS.

It is bounded on the north by that part of the sea which
separates Mindanao from the Visayas, on the east and south
by the District of Cottabato, and on the west by the District
of Zamboanga, This district includes the island of Camiguin,
situated to the northwest of Point Divata. Much rice and
cacao is raised. The country comprised in the District of
Misamis is mountainous, covered with thick forests, and very
fertile. There are some gold mines, but they are not worked.
The district is divided into 27 pueblos, 18 barrios, and 34
rancherias of subdued infieles. The population is 113,695.

The capital is Cagayan, with a population of 9,405,

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Agusam. — Population, 934 ; situated 15 miles from Cagayan.

Alorang. — Population, 2,700; situated 4 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Alubijit (ch. 17, p, 150).— Population, 6,716.

Balingasac (ch. 15, p. 149). — Population, 3,948; situated 8
miles from Cagayan.



misa:\iis district. 177

Catasman.— Population, 4,874; situated 50 miles from
Cagavihi.

Guim Liban. — Population, 1,875.

Guingoog. — Population, 1,433; situated G5 miles from
Cag-ayan.

Guza. — Population, 790.

Iligan.— Population, 6,020; situated G5 miles from Cagaj'an.

Initao. — Population, 3,412, the township having 3,402;
situated 45 miles from Cagayan.

Iponan. — Population, 5,58G; situated 10 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Jasaau. — Population, 0,444; situated 22 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Jimenez. — Population, 8,707; situated 75 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Ijangarang. — Population, 11,779; situated 138 miles from
Cagayan.

Layonlong:. — Population, 1,834; situated 30 miles from
Cagayan.

Loculan. — Population, 2,110; situated 80 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Maguinog. — Population, 4, G87.

Mambajao. — Population, 18,000; situated 53 miles from
Cagayan.

Maria Cristina. — Population, 140.

Misamis. — Population, C,075; situated 85 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Mulugan.^Population, 1,044; situated 15 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Naanan. — Population, 890; situated 23 miles from Cagayan.

Orbquieta. — Population, 9,000; situated G2 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Pigtao.- -Population, 354; situated 8 miles from Cagayan.

Quiniquitam. — Population, 1,320; situated 50 miles from
Caga^'cin.

Sagay.— Population, 5,06G; situated 48 miles from Cagayan.

Salay.— Population, 1,81G; situated 27 miles from Cagayan.

Salvador. — Population, 2,845; situated 20 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Santa Ana. — Population, 881 ; situated 20 miles from Ca-
gayan.

Tagoloan. — Population, 3,378, the township having G,927.
It is situated 12 miles from Cagavan.



178 SURIGAO DISTRICT.

Talisayan.— Population, 1,G84; situated 55 miles from Ca-
gayau.

DISTRICT OF SURIGAO.

Situated in the northern part of Mindanao, it is bounded
on the north by the Sarigao Sea, on the east by the Pacific,
on the south by the District of Davao, and on the west by
the territory of the infieles. It is mountainous, but the
Christian population resides on the coasts and in the northern
point of the territory. The population is 95,775, distributed
among 45 pueblos, 10 barrios, and 30 rancherias of subdued
infieles. Abaca and palay are raised, and in the gold wash-
ings considerable gold of good quality is found.

The capital is Surigao (ch. 28, p. 178), with a population of
6,285. It is situated in the extreme north of the island, and
is the residence of the governor, judge, and a number of
officials.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Anao-Aon. — Population, G02 ; situated 10 miles from Suri-
gao.

Bacnag.— Population, 569.

Bislig. — Population, 7,583 ; situated 62 miles from Surigao.

Butuan. — Population, 10,543; situated 75 miles from Suri-
gao.

Cabuntog. — Population, 4,175; situated 78 miles from Suri-
gao.

Cantilan. — Population, 10,026; situated 27 miles from
Surigao.

Carrascal. — Population unknown ; situated 45 miles from
Surigao.

Catel.— Population, 1,861.

Dapa. — Population, 1,900.

Dapuan. — Population, 407.

Dinagat. — Population, 5,264; situated 12 miles from Suri-
gao.

Fabonga. — Population, 1 , 644.

Gigaquit. — Population, 7,116.

Ginatuan.— Population, 2,277.

Lianga. — Population, 6,340.

Mainit. — Population, 4,550; situated 70 miles from Suri-
gao.

Nonoc. — Population, 541.



No. 28



PUERTO DE SURIGAO.



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ZAMBOANOA DISTRICT. 179

Numancia. — Population, 4,111; situated 50 miles from
Siirigao.

Reunion.— Population, 2,272.

San Juan. — Population, 335 ; situated 75 miles from Surigao.

Sapao. — Population, 1,300.

Taganaan. — Population, 1,562.

Tago.— Population, 1,909.

Tandag. — Population, 5,210; situated 85 miles from Suiigao.

Tubay. — Population, 505 ; situated 70 miles from Surigao.

DISTRICT OF ZAMBOANGA.

Situated in the extreme southwestern part of Mindanao, it
is bounded on the north and west by the Sea of Mindanao, on
the south by the Strait of Basilan, and on the east by the dis-
tricts of Misamis and Cottabato. All vegetables peculiar to
the archipelago are grown, but there is no especial industry.

The capital is Zamboanga, with a population of 21,300.
It is a fortified place and a naval station, and has a fine bar-
racks and the castle of San Felipe, which dominates the town
and harbor.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Ayala. — Population, 1,900; situated 9 miles from Zam-
boanga, with which it is connected by highroads.

Mercedes. — Population, 2,372 ; situated 10 miles from Zam-
boanga.

Santa Maria. — Population, 2,200; situated 1 mile from
Zamboanga.

Tetuan. — Population, 5,643; situated 1 mile from Zam-
boanga, with which it is connected by highroads.



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ADJACENT ISLANDS.



ISLAND OF BALABAC.
(Ch. 29, p. 181).

A military establishment formed in 1857. Tlie island is
situated in the strait of its name to the southwest of Paragua.
It is 22 miles long, from north to south, and 14 miles from
east to west, and has a population of 1,100. The ground is
very irregular, the maximum altitude being 1,899 feet; tim-
ber abounds and there is plenty of good arable land.

The cajntal is Balabac, with a population of 200. It is
situated on the Bay of Calandoran, and is surrounded by
mountains of from 900 to 1,300 feet in height. It has a bar-
racks, hospital, warehouse, armed fort, and pretty houses
along the seashore.

PROVINCE OF THE BATANES ISLANDS.

This group of islands is situated in the Japan Sea, north of
Manila and a few miles to the north of the Babuyanes Islands.
The principal ones are Itbayal, Basay, Saptaii (ch. 30, p. 181),
and Hugos. The area is 125 square miles and the population
9,4:5.

The capital is Santo Domingo de Basco (ch. 31, p. 181),
with a population of 2, 981. It was the residence of the politico-
military governor, a judge, and an attorney-general (promo-
tor fiscal). It is situated 504 miles from Manila.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

San Bartolome de Calayan. — Population, 1,722.
San Carlos de Marigatao. — Population, 1,229.
San Jose de Ibana (ch. 32, p. 181).— Population, 1,951;
situated 13 miles from Santo Domingo de Basco.
Santa Maria de Mayan. — PojDulation, 1,855.
San Vicente de Sap tang.— Population, 1,753.

(181)



182 BURIAS, CALAMIANES, CORREGIDOR.

DISTRICT OF BURIAS.

Situated on an island in tlie Strait of San Bernardino be-
tween Luzon and Masbate, it is bounded on the north by
Camarines Sur, on the east by the Strait of San Bernardino,
on the south by Masbate, and on the west by Tayabas. It is
34 miles long by 13 wide, and the population is 1,601, dis-
tributed among one pueblo and five barrios. The country is
mountainous, with much timber, but the latter is hard to cut
and bring to harbor; aome stock is kept.

The capital is San Pascual, situated 214 miles from Manila.

PROVINCE OF CALAMIANES.

The Calamianes Islands are situated to the southeast of Ma-
nila, and are composed of the islands of Busungan, Calamianes,
Linapocan, Cuyo, Dumaran, Agutaya, and the northern part of
Paragua, ceded by the Sultan of Borneo to Spain at the end
of the past century. They are bounded on the north and west
by the China Sea, on the east by the Visayas Sea, and on the
south by the island of Paragua. They have an area of 340
square miles and a population of 10,500. The island of Cuyo,
10 miles long by 4 wide, is surrounded by islets. It is thickly
X3opulated, and has a small but safe harbor, defended by an
armed battery. In Agutaya is another small fortress; the
inhabitants of this island receive arms and ammunition from
the government. Calamianes is 24 miles long by 11 wide, and
has one fortress. Coron is sterile, but has a source of wealth
in its edible birds' nests, for which the Chinese pay double their
weight in silver. In Paragua reside the governor, the judge,
the promotor, and a disciplinary company. Spanish authority
is recognized only by the inhabitants who live within 62 miles
of the coast, the remainder living miserably in a savage state.

The capital is Cuyo, with a population of 8,258. It is sit-
uated on the island of Paragua.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Agutaya. — Population, 2,046; situated 12 miles from Cuyo.
Culion (ch. 33, p. 182).— Population, 3,500.
Taytay.— Population, 2,331.

PROVINCE OF CORREGIDOR.

It is situated to the west, south, and east of Manila, at the
very mouth of Manila Bay, and between the provinces of






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MASBATE AND TICAO, AND MINDOKO. 183

Cavite and Bataaii, and is about 'i miles long by 1 mile,
wide. The ground, tliougli high and broken, holds good veg-
etation, and game is abundant. There is a semaphore station
and a lighthouse, the employees of which constitute the greater
part of the inhabitants, although there was a small military
and naval garrison. There was a politico-military governor.
The area is 16 square miles and the population 5(i9.

The capital is San Jose, with a population of 514. It is
situated 27 miles from Manila.

PROVINCE OF MASBATE (clis. U, 35, and 86, p. 188) AND TICAO.

It is composed of the two above-named islands, situated to
the south of Luzon and north of Visayas. The former is 62
miles long by 20 wide and the latter 27 miles long by 13 wide;
both are mountainous and very fertile, good tobacco and other
products being raised. There are gold mines, abundant tim-
ber, resins, gums, rattan, etc. There is considerable gold in
the river sands. The area is 123 square miles and the popula-
tion 26,497, divided among 10 pueblos and 15 visitas.

The capital is Masbate, with a population of 2,345.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Baleno.— Population, 923 ; situated 10 miles from Masbate.

Lauang.— Population, 1,294; situated 9 miles from Mas-
bate.

Milagros.— Population, 1,789; situated 13 miles from Mas-
bate.

Mobo. — Population, 1,896; situated ^ mile from Masbate.

Mogpoc. — Population, 5,214; situated 10 miles from Mas-
bate.

Palanas.— Population, 2,749.

San Agustin.— Population, 1,129.

San Fernando.— Population, 2,367.

San Jacinto. — Population, 2,459; situated 11 miles from
Masbate.

Uson.— Population, 2,105; situated 56 miles from Masbate.

ISLAND AND PROVINCE OF MINDORO.

The island and ^jrovince of Mindoro lies in the strait of its
name and south of Luzon. It has in the center an elevated
plain from which many sierras extend in different directions



MASBATE AND TICAO, AND MINDOKO. 183

Cavite and Bataan, and is about 'Z miles long hy 1 niih)
wide. The ground, tliougli high and broken, holds goc^d veg-
etation, and game is abundant. There is a semaphore station
and a lighthouse, the employees of which constitute the greater
part of tlie inhabitants, although there was a small military
and naval garrison. There was a politico-military governor.
The area is IG square miles and the population 5(i!).

The capital is San Jose, with a population of 514. It is
situated 27 miles from Manila.

PROVINCE OF MASBATE (clis. 84, 35, and 86, p. 188) AND TICAO.

It is composed of the two above-named islands, situated to
the south of Lnzon and north of Visayas. The former is G2
miles long by 20 wide and the latter 27 miles long by 13 wide;
both are mountainous and very fertile, good tobacco and other
products being raised. There are gold mines, abundant tim-
ber, resins, gums, rattan, etc. There is considerable gold in
the river sands. The area is 123 square miles and the popula-
tion 26,497, divided among 10 pueblos and 15 visitas.

The capital is Masbate, with a population of 2,345.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Baleno. — ^Population, 923 ; situated 10 miles from Masbate.

Lauang.— Population, 1,294; situated 9 miles from Mas-
bate.

Milagros. — Population, 1,789; situated 13 miles from Mas-
bate.

Mobo.— Population, 1,896; situated i mile from Masbate.

Mogpoc— Population, 5,214; situated 10 miles from Mas-
bate.

Palanas.— Population, 2,749.

San Agustin. - -Population, 1,129.

San Fernando.— Population, 2,367.

San Jacinto.— P()pulation, 2,459; situated 11 miles from
Masbate.

Uson. — -Population, 2,105; situated 50 miles from Masbate.

ISLAND AND PROVINCE OF MINDORO.

The island and province of Mindoro lies in the strait of its
name and south of Luzon. It has in the center an elevated
plain from which many sierras extend in different directions



184 MINDORO — NORTH COAST.

to the coast, making the latter rugged and dangerous. The
island is of an oval form, with a prolongation of the northern
portion toward the west. Though an easy day's sail from
Manila, it is one of the least populous islands of the archi-
pelago, being extremely mountainous, covered with dense
forests, and in the more level parts near the coast full of
marshes, and very unhealthful. The inhabitants of the coast
are Tagals, but in the interior there is a low tribe of the Malayan
race, probably the indigenes of the island, and called Mangui-
anos, speaking a peculiar language and living in a very mis-
erable manner on the products of a rude agriculture. There
are also said to be some Negritos, but of these very little is
known. There are many short streams. The island is 110
miles long and has an area of 3,087 square miles. The popu-
lation is 106,170. There is little known of the mountains of
the interior, as the inhabitants dwell mainly on the coasts.
Mindoro constitutes one of the provinces of the Philippines
under an alcalde.

The capital is Calapan, with a jDopulation of 5,585. It is
situated to the north, on the harbor of its name, defended by
a fort of regular construction ; it has about 500 houses, among
the notable stone ones being the parish, courthouse and jail,
and casa real. It is the residence of the alcalde mayor and
several public functionaries. The city is situated 9(3 miles
from Manila.

ITINERARY OF COAST OF MINDORO — NORTH COAST.

Mount Kalavite is a long-backed promontory, the western
slope of which forms Cape Kalavite, and the northern slope
Point del Monte; the summit, about 2,000 feet high, appears
dome-shaped when seen from the west, but from the north or
south it shows a long ridge fairly level; the western end of
this ridge is the highest part.

Binuangan Point, 3 miles NNE. of Cape Kalavite, resem-
bles it in appearance, and is bold to approach, the few rocks
interspersed along this part of the coast lying close in.

Anchorage. — South of Binuangan Point there is a small
bight with a sand beach, in front of which there is anchorage
during the northeast monsoon in 5^ fathoms, sand, at 1| cables
from the beach. A rivulet of good water enters here. There



MINDORO — NORTH COAST. 185

is another anchorage immediately north of Cape Kalavite, bnt
it is not so good.

Point del Monte, or Santo Tomas, is of sand, with a small
bank of 1 fathom water off it ; between it and Abra de Ilo, 15
miles to the eastward, the coast is high, thickly wooded, and
bordered by sand beaches. Point Bagalayag is girt with rocks
which extend a mile along the coast.

Abra de Ilo is a cove between two coast hills; the shore is
very low and sandy, semicircular in form, of 3 miles across,
but of little depth. Toward the middle there flows a river of
fresh water, which can only be entered by small coasters and
bancos at high water. The bottom is of sand, and the anchor-
age gives shelter to vessels of all sizes in southwest winds,
in 3 to 12 fathoms; but good ground tackle is required, as the
squalls offshore are very violent.

Coast. — From Abra de Ilo to Port Galera the coast can be
approached in safety to \ mile ; the coast is of moderate height,
and shows a few points separated by beaches. The high land
approaches the coast, and two water courses descend from the
ravine.

Point Minolo, 2 miles west of Port Galera, is covered with
trees ; on its eastern side is a beach, before which anchorage
can be had on sand and gravel. The shore is steep, and there
are 25 to 30 fathoms at 3 cables from it.

Port Galera is formed by a promontory from the coast
of Mindoro and the islets Medio and Panikian. These islets,
situated at the entrance of the bay, close it to the westward,
forming the port, which is a sort of canal, or silanga, with
two passages, one to the northward and the other to the north-
west, the opening between Panikian and the coast being a
blind lead (Boca falsa).

The flood stream passes into the port by the northwest chan-
nel and out by the north channel, and then follows to the east-
ward, the reverse taking jjlace with the ebb stream. This
fact must be remembered in making the port.

From Point Escarceo, the eastern point of the promontory,
to the north point of Medio, the shore presents a uniform
appearance, and the north channel is difficult to discover, biit
a signal post over the northeast point of entrance and a
remarkable white patch like a sail on the fall of the point are
marks which indicate it. The beaches are small, and the
land above covered with trees.



186 MINDORO — NORTH COAST.

Medio is about 8 cables in extent, NNW. and SSE., clean;
and the soundings round it show i fathoms at less than a
cable's distance in general ; the reef that fringes the northern
shore grows out but a very little way. The north point,
where there is a great tide race, is worn away and shows bare
rocks; from it to the SSW. the coast is high and jagged.

Panikian is a little over a mile long, north and south ; there
is a reef on its east side, and the soundings off it are 4 fath-
oms at less than a cable; the northwest shore is high and
rugged to the south ; it ends in a sandy point, forming with
Mindoro a channel ^ cable wide, closed by sand ; this is called
"Boca Falsa."

Directions — NortJi Channel. — After clearing the north
j)oint of Mindoro, keep in the middle of the channel, where
the depth is 6| fathoms, coarse -sand and rock ; it is a cable
wide at the entrance, biit lessens to ^ cable abreast of the east
point of Medio, which is low and bordered with a sand bank.
The tidal streams are strong enough to expose a vessel, badly
equipped, to being thrown on the rocks that terminate the
points.

Northwest Channel. — This must not be confounded with
Boca Falsa, south of Panikian. A vessel coming from the
westward should steer for the middle of Medio, and on nearing
it a clump of mangroves on the southwest point will be made
out ; she should then steer in that direction until the entrance
is opened, and then keep in the middle of the channel to the
anchorage. This channel is narrowed at the entrance to |
cable's width by the rocks off' the southwest jjoint of Medio,
but it widens inside to 2 cables ; the least depth is 6y fathoms
at the entrance, increasing inside to 15 fathoms.

During the northeast monsoon the north channel is the
best, but with sailing ships even that channel is dangerous,
as calms or baffling winds may be met, and then the vessel
would be at the mercy of the tide.

During that monsoon the anchorage at Varadero is prefer-
able, although for sailing vessels going out it would be diffi-
cult at that time.

Anchorage. — The available space inside the islands is con-
siderably reduced by projections from the promontory of
Mindoro of low land with shoal water between them, and by
a shoal that advances from the southern part, having on its
northeastern end rocks that wash at very low water. The



MINDORO — NORTH COAST. 187

anchorage is iu a confined creek in the southwest part ; at tlie
entrance, which is 1^ cables wide, the depth is 6^ fathoms,
shoaling toward the town at the bottom. At 1^ cables north
of the mouth there is another shoal with rocks awash at low
water on its southern part. Between this shoal and Boca
Falsa there is a space of 1^ cables width, and 7 to 10 fathoms



Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 18 of 31)