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Military notes on the Philippines. September 1898 online

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miles up to a bluff, Kamboloton, and thence forms a wide but
shallow bay, fronted by the island Baliu, and terminated by
Point Kago, 4|- miles south of the bluff. This bay, which is
named Bankul, has only 1^ fathoms depth at high water, and
at low water several sand banks appear, which block the
passage to the three rivers that fall into it.

Balin or Binuluangan Island is 3^ miles long, low and of
irregular shape ; it has a surrounding reef with several rocky
islets on it; the channel between the south point of Balin
and Point Kago is 1^ fathoms deep.

Kalagnan Island is separated from Balin by a channel 7
cables wide at the northeast end, but almost closed at the


southwest; it is 3|- miles long, NE. and SW., and 3 miles
wide, and of regular height. The east coast is clear and
steep, but the northeast point has several rocks around it;
the western side contains several bays of no importance,
because of the little depth of water in them. Three and
one-half miles east of the north point of the island there is
a patch of 6 fathoms, surrounded by 14 to 17 fathoms.

Cauas is a little island off the east coast of Kalagnan ; it is
-f mile long, east and west, of middling height, and clean, with
7 to 11 fathoms at 1 cable from its east side, and 2f to 3| at
the same distance from its west side. The soundings in the
channel between it and Kalagnan are 7 to 11 fathoms, and in
the channel between it and the northwest point of Sikogon,
11 fathoms.

Sikogon, 6 cables SE. of Kalagnan, is high and of 2^ miles
length, NE. and SW. The northeastern part has a reef of 2
cables width, on which is a little islet, steep on the outside ;
this reef fringes the island on its northern and western sides ;
the east coast is clean and steep. At 2^ miles east of the little
islet on the north side is a patch of -If fathoms, surrounded
by 9 to 20 fathoms.

Carmencita Shoal is small, of sand and rock, with 5 feet
least water on it, and 4 to 6 fathoms at the edges. It bears
S. 42° E. 1 mile from the east point of Caiias, and is 9 cables
from the north coast of Sikogon.

Sikogon Channel, between Sikogon and Kalagnan, is ^ mile
wide and 7 to 12 fathoms deep; it is clear and safe, and is the
channel recommended for vessels making for Iloilo Strait.

Coast. — South of Point Kago the coast forms a little shoal
bay and then the anchorage of Estancia, of 2^ to 5^ fathoms,
between the little island Luginut (SW. of Kalagnan) and the
Bayas Isles. The town of Estancia is a mile inland, and
there is a good road to it from the coast. From there the
coast is foul, and should be avoided till off the island Raga-
lumbi, which is high ; it then forms two bays, clear and deep,
giving fair shelter and anchorage in westerly winds to the
strait between Tagil Island and the coast of Panay.

Bayas Isles are a group of four islets, of little height, near
the coast, 3f miles SE. of Point Kago. They extend If miles
from east to west and are surrounded by sand banks and
rocks, with no passage between them. At 1 mile west of the
south point of the largest isle is a shoal awash at low water,


and between Bayas and tlie island to the northward, Luginut,
is another x)atch of ^ fathom.

Anchorage. — Small craft can find anchorage, sheltered from
all winds, between Bayas and Lnginut, in 2^ to 7 fathoms.
H. M. S. Nassau anchored in December, 1871, in 13 fathoms,
mud, with Culebra Island S. by E. ^ E. and the right tangent
of Sikogon E. -^ S., the weather being thick and dirty, and
night coming on.

Culebra. — Midway between Sikogon and Pan de Azucar
is a small island about 200 feet high, surrounded by a reef of
sand and rock, which extends 6 cables to the westward, with
1-^ fathoms at its extreme western edge, and 11 fathoms at a
short distance from the island and from the reef.

Shoals. — There are three shoals northward and eastward of
Culebra. The northernmost is 2i miles N. 42° E. of Culebra,
of 1 mile extent, and 2 fathoms least water on its east side,
and 3| and 6 fathoms on the rest of the shoal. The eastern-
most is 4 miles ENE. of Culebra, and has If fathoms water
over it, and the southernmost is 2^ miles E. by N. of Culebra,
with 1^ least water. These three shoals all have 8 to 20 fath-
oms around them, which are the general soundings off the
northeast coast of Panay. Nearly 5^ miles SE. of Culebra,
and at the same distance to the east of Pan de Azucar, there
are two patches of 2f and 3f fathoms, surrounded by 14 and
15 fathoms.

Pan de Azucar (sugar loaf) is near the coast of Panay, and
is the largest of a group of five islands at the northern entrance
of Iloilo Strait. Its base is 4 miles in extent, and it has two
remarkable peaks; the highest is 2,037 feet. The north coast
sends out a reef to the northward, which terminates in a rock
at ^ mile from the island. The east coast is clear. Between
this island and Tagil, to the SW., is a narrow channel of 1 to
l-j fathoms. Bagaisi, 1 mile north of Pan de Azucar, is clear
and deep in its surroundings.

Naburut, 4 cables off the northwest coast of Pan de Azucar,
is clean.

Buglug, on the southeast coast of Pan de Azucar, is united
to that island by a stretch of land ; it is clear and steep on
the east side.

Midway between Pan de Azucar and the coast of Panay is
a small shoal, of 1 cable extent, awash at low water, there are
2^- fathoms between it and Pan de Azucar, and 1| fathoms
between it and Tagii.


Malaiigaban, 1^ miles soiitlieast of Pan de Azucar, is nearly
round; high, clear and deep off its western j)art. The little
islet close to its southwest part is also clear. The channel
between Malangaban and Pan de Azucar is 1|^ miles wide,
and 9 to 12 fathoms deep. Danao, between Malangaban and
Bulubadiangan, is small and surrounded by a reef; the chan-
nel l)etween it and Bulubadiangan has 3^ to 4 fathoms.

Bulubadiangan, 2 miles SSE. of the south point of Pan de
Azucar, is of triangular shape, of middling height, clear and
deep ; off its south point are two islets joined to the point by
a reef.

Baliguian, 9 miles east of Bulubadiangan, is a small islet,
150 feet high, surrounded by a narrow reef very steep-to,
around which there are 1 5 to 20 fathoms. This islet is a good
natural mark for vessels making Iloilo Strait from the north-
ward and from the eastward, to clear the numerous shoals
about the route.

Shoals. — The three nearest shoals are: One of 2^ fathoms,
lying south li miles of Baliguian; another of 2f fathoms,
lying NE. 3i miles; and another of 3f fathoms, NNE. i E.
4^ miles from Baliguian. The French charts show another
shoal 4 miles north of Baliguian.

A written description of all the other shoals which en-
cumber the channel north of Negros Island, between the
northeast part of Panay and the island Bantayan, would be
needless ; they can best be understood from the chart.

Tagil Island, between Pan de Azucar and the headland of
Bakahuan, is 3i miles in length from north to south and of
moderate height. The eastern shore is clear and steep, with
the exception of a small shoal that projects from the middle
of it. The western shore and the south point send out reefs,
and off the southwest point is a rocky shoal, awash at low
water. The passages which these reefs and shoal form with
the coast of Panay, have a depth of l^ to 24 fathoms.

Sombrero, i mile NW. of the northwest point of Bulubadi-
angan, is round, high, clean, and steep-to. At its southeast
part there is anchorage in 9 fathoms, mud, sheltered from
southwest winds. The channels between it and Pan de
' Azucar and Bulubadiangan are safe ; in the last the depth is
6i fathoms.

Bagabu is very near the south point of Tagil ; on its south
part a point of sand and rocks projects to a very short dis-
tance. The channel between this islet and Bulubadiangan is
14- miles wide and 7 fathoms deep.


Tugubanhan is a little more than a mile SE. oi Bakalian
lieadland on the coast of Panay, with which it forms the strait
named Apiton. It is 4 miles long, NNE. and SSW., and 2
miles wide ; high, clear, and steep-to.

Apiton Strait is the southern termination of the inner route
to Iloilo Strait from the northward ; it is clear, with a depth
of 9 to 11 fathoms, and the coasts on either side are steep,

Anajuayan, 2 miles SE. of Tugubanhan, is 336 feet high,
and visible from a shij)'s deck 15 miles off. Between it and
Tugubanhan the depth is 12 fathoms.

Turia Rock is a dangerous rock 4 miles S. 44° W. of Ana-
juayan; it is about 100 feet in extent, with 5i feet water on
it, and 8 fathoms close to. From a position in 4^ fathoms,
220 feet north of the rock, the following bearings were taken :
Tangent of southeast part of Anajuayan N. 47° E., north part
of Calabazas islands N. 63° W.

Anchorages. — The Challenger, in October, 1874, anchored
for the night north of Anajuayan in 10 fathoms, with the
right tangent of Tugubanhan bearing N. and the left tangent
S. 53° W. There is also anchorage off the northwest side of
Tugubanhan, and off Bakahan bluff.


The north side of Apiton Strait is formed by a rocky head-
land (Bakahan Bluff), high, clear, and steep-to, with a little
islet joined to its southern jjart. On the south side of the bluff
is Abra de Apiton, a creek with an entrance channel 1 fathom
deep, close to the north shore and between that shore and a
bank in the mouth of the creek. Inside there is a depth of 3
fathoms, and anchorage for small craft near some rocks off
the beach.

TFaier.— There is a watering place on the north shore near
the first beach at the entrance ; water can also be obtained on
the south side, but not so good.

West of Abra de Apiton the coast forms a bay, Ajui, 3|-
miles wide, in which there is shelter from northeast winds.
The river Ajui, leading to the town of the same name, enters
on the north shore; it has a depth of 1 to 1^ fathoms at high

Binanan Islets are two small islets in the middle of the bay,
near the coast ; between them, and about them, the depth is
4| fathoms.


On the western shore are the towns Mangurukurn and Pili,
the last standing on a little heiglit on the western point of tlie
bay. Sal Islets are united to the coast off Pili hy a reef having
f of a fathom on it at low water.

Calabazas Isles are two islets of little height and extent to
the southward of Sal Islets, and f of a mile from the coast of
Panay; the southernmost has a steep beach of sand on its
northern side, where there is anchorage sheltered from the
southwest. The soundings on the outside of these islets are
44- to 8 fathoms ; between them S-i- fathoms, and between them
again and the coast of Panay, 5^ to 7 fathoms.

Pepitas Rocks, 1|- miles to the southward of the Calabazas,
are some black rocks 7 feet high, about 1 cable in extent;
vessels can pass between them and the coast, and also between
them and the Calabazas.

Coast. — Kulasi Bay and Canas Gulf offer no shelter. Baro-
tak Bay has a depth of 3 fathoms ; a river of the same name
enters it, in which boats can ascend at high water to the town
of Barotak. The point which separates this bay from the
next, Banate, is surrounded by rocks, steep-to, which continue
round the shore in front of the town, Banate. From here the
coast trends to the southward for 13 miles to Point Dumangas,
and then west 5 miles to the river Dumangas ; it is low and
covered by mangroves, and is unai^proachable on account of
shoal water, there being a depth of 1^ fathoms at a distance
of 3 miles in places. The rivers Anilao and Dumangas are
shallow, and boats can enter them at high water only.

Mounts Orok and Saligit are about equal in height, but
Mount Orok has a small sharp peak, and Mount Saligit a long
flat summit. When in line they serve as marks for the east-
ern end of Iguana Shoal. Mount Kolan, or Kolait, is low,
and not conspicuous until bearing west.

Tomonton Shoal, off Point Tomonton in Negros, stretches 2i
miles to the NW., and must be given a wide berth; it has 1^
fathoms at its end, and is said to be extending.

Iguana Bank is a long spit of sand in the middle of the
eastern entrance of Iloilo Strait, between Point Dumangas
and the island Guimaras. The shallowest part of the bank,
on which the least water is 1^ fathoms, is i mile in length,
ENE, and WSW., and 3 cables wide. From it Dumangas
Vantay bears N. by E., and the largest of the Siete Pecados
NW. by W. i W. A patch of 2 fathoms lies 8 cables NW.


of this ])usitio]i, and the part of tlie bank covered with less
than 4 fathoms water lies between the bearings S. 20° E., and
S. 53° W. from Dumangas Vantay, and S. 53° E. ami S. ?3°
E. from the largest of the Siete Pecados. On this arc of 20°
the light on Siete Pecados shows a red sector. Mounts Orok
and Saligit in line over Dumangas Vantay, bearing NNW. f
W., clear the eastern end of this shoal.

The channels between this limit of 4 fathoms round the
bank, and the same depth off the coast, are about a mile
wide. In the northern channel the least depth is 4^ fathoms,
and in the southern 6^ fathoms at their eastern entrance.
The tidal streams set with great force over Iguana Bank.

Siete Pecados is a cluster of rocks lying in mid-channel off
the north of Guimaras. The highest, from which a light is
exhibited, is 25 feet above the sea, and all of them are steep ;
but on the ends of the shelf on which they stand, and which
measures about ^ mile, NE. and SW., there are rocks with
very little water on them. A rock with 4 feet of water over
it, on which the Marquis de Victoria struck, lies 270 feet from
the northwest islet of the group ; it is a pinnacle with 8 and 9
fathoms all round it, and lies out of the usual track.

The channel between the Siete Pecados and the coast of
Panay is i mile wide and 9^ to 20 fathoms deep ; the channel
between them and Guimaras is of the same Avidth, and 7 to 10
fathoms deep. Both are clear, but the northern is preferable.
Vessels should keep nearer the islands than to the coast of

From this to the port of Iloilo the course is clear.

Light on Siete Pecados.- — An iron light-house, 29 feet high,
colored bluish gray, is erected on the southern cliffs of the
largest islet of this group, in the northern part of Iloilo Strait,
exhibiting a fixed white light showing a red sector through
an arc of 20°, or between the bearings of N. 74° W. and N.
54° W. (covering Iguana Bank) ; it is raised 98 feet above the
sea, and should be visible in clear weather from a distance of
11 miles.

Currents. — The flood tide in Iloilo Strait passes to the north
as far as Pan de Azucar, approximately, where it meets the
other branch of the flood tide coming from the northward.
The ebb stream runs in the opposite direction, /. e., to the
southward in Iloilo Strait, and to the northward north of Pan
de Azucar. The velocity in the strait reaches 4 to 5 miles an


General directions from Verde Island Passage to Iloilo,
eastern route. — The directions for Verde Island Passage as far
as Dumali Point have been given in the last chapter. From
a position 4 miles NE. of Dumali Point a southeast course
will lead between Dos Hermanas and Maestro de Campo
Islands and south of Simara ; then Cobrador Island should be
steered for until the channel opens between Romblon and
Tablas Islands. After rounding the northeast point of Tablas
a south course takes a ship in mid-channel and clear of all
danger. The light of Port Romblon is badly placed, and
scarcely discernible ; it is not an official light. By night this
south course should be kept for 14 miles, then a SE. | E. course
leads 2 miles south of the southern end of Cresta de Gallo Reef
and midway between Jintotolo Island and Zapato Mayor. If
the weather is misty, the first land seen will probably be the
high and conical hill of Olutaya, on the northern coast of

From 2 miles south of Jintotolo Island a course SE. by E.
Y E. should be steered for 9 miles until the peak of Pan de
Azucar bears S. by W. ^ W., and then a south course toward
the highest hill of Sikogon Island. This will lead between
Balbagan and Tulunanauan Islets, in depths of 7 and 8
fathoms, and ^ mile east of the 2f-fathom patch between
Balbagan and Lulugban islets.

The east point of Canas Islet in line with same highest hill
of Sikogon will clear that 2f patch. When east of the north
point of Kalagnan Islet steer for the middle of the channel
between Kalagnan and Sikogon, south of Cailas. This channel
passed, steer S. by W. ^ W. to clear the reef of the island
Culebra ; when west of that island steer to pass between Bug-
lug on the southeast coast of Pan de Azucar and Malangaban,
then between Bulubadiangan and Sombrero, which is I mile
to the NW. of it, then through Apiton Channel between the
coast bluff and Tugubanhan, and enter the Strait of Iloilo.
All these channels are clear, and the least depth is 7 fathoms.
After Apiton Channel the Calabazas Islands and Pepitas
Rocks, which are safe, will be passed at 1 to 2 miles distance.

Vessels drawing less than 13 feet can pass between Point
Bulakau and Manigonigo Islet, but this channel is not recom-

If it is proposed to pass outside the island, after passing be-
tween Balbagan and Lulugban when abreast of Tulunanauan


steer S. 27"^ E. until Baliguian Islet bears south ; a course south
for that islet will then lead half way between the patches of
2f and 3f fathoms. From Baliguian a course SW. ^ W. will
lead between Anauayan and Ilakaon on the north coast of
Negros, taking care to avoid Turia Rock. To clear this rock
a vessel should not pass west of the south point of Tugubanhan
until the southern extremity of Calabazas bears WNW. ; she
can then steer WSW.

If it is preferred to pass northward and eastward of the
Gigantes, North Gigante should be passed at the distance of
1^ miles, and either the Sikogon and Apiton passage may be
taken, or the Anauayan Channel.

From Apiton Pass or Anauayan Channel, whichever has
been taken, a course should be steered to pass 3 miles from
Tomonton Point in Negros, and then a SW. by S. course
should be shaped for 12 miles, keeping a lookout for the reefs
off the coast of Panay. When the highest of the Siete Peca-
dos bears W. i N., a course should be steered for it, gradu-
ally approaching the fishing stakes on the Panay side ; this
will lead clear of the shoal water off Point Dumangas and
that extending WNW. of Iguana Bank. These fishing stakes
are generally in 2 fathoms water, and at 1 or 2 cables from
them the depth is 9 to 11 fathoms.

Directions for Iloilo Strait. — Coming from the eastward
and passing north of Siete Pecados, vessels should round
Dumangas Point at a distance of 1 mile, and keep within the
white light of Siete Pecados, avoiding the red sector. From
abreast the light, a mid-channel course should be maintained
to Kabugao Point, when the red light at Iloilo may be steered
for, keeping rather to the Guimaras shore.

To pass southward of Siete Pecados, the light should be
approached bearing about NW., avoiding the red sector and
the bank extending about 1 mile northeastward of Nabalus
village. A small shoal lies in the mid-channel about south
from the light, which will be avoided by keeping more toward
the light when it approaches the bearing of north. When
westward of the light, proceed as directed before.

Northward from Port Iloilo, leaving Iloilo by the eastern
channel, the Pecados Rocks, in line with a fall of the hills in
the back range of Panay Island, bearing W. \ N., will lead
between Iguana Bank and the shoal water off the northern
shore; and when mounts Saligit and Orok are in line, bearing


NXW. f W. and Point Tomonton NE. i E., a NNE. course
may be taken.


Situated south of Luzon, it is bounded on the north by
Cai^iz, on the south by Mindanao Sea, on the east by Iloilo and
Capiz. and on the west by the Sea of Calamianes. The coun-
try is mountainous and covered with forests, which afford
good timber, resins, pitch, wax, etc. The principal industries
are stock raising and the manufacture of fabrics. In the
mountains are mines of various metals and hard coal, and
(|uarries of marble. The area is 839 square miles, and the
population 9,356, divided among 20 pueblos, 51 visitas, and 74:
rancherias of infieles.

The capital is San Jose de Buenavista, with a population
of 5,621. It is situated 262 miles from Manila, and communi-
cates with the other provinces of the island by means of regular
highways in dry weather, but these are impassable in rainy
weather. In general, traveling is done by sea.


Anini. — Population, 4,802.

Antique. — Population, 1,236; situated 4: miles from San
Jose de Buenavista.

Barbasa. — Population, 3,231.

Bugason. — Population, 14,104; situated 24 miles from San
Jose de Buenavista.

Cagayancillo.— Population, 3,000; situated 95 miles from
San Jos^ de Buenavista.

Cavitan. — Population, 1,240; situated 30 miles from San
Jose de Buenavista.

Culasi. — Population, 10,553; situated 52 miles from San
Jost' de Buenavista.

Dao. — Population, T,948; situated 25 miles from San Jos^
de Buenavista. It has a highroad to Carabao.

Egana. — Population, 1,995, the township having 3,807;
situated 13 miles from San Jose de Buenavista.

Guisijan. — Population, 6,247; situated 26 miles from San
Jose de Buenavista.

Lunisijan. — Population, 2,962; situated 25 miles from San
Jose de Buenavista.

Nalupa Nuevo. — Population, 2,972.


Pandan. — Population, 13,737; situated 103 miles from San
Jose de Biienavista. It lias a liighroad to Patnongon,

Patnongon.— Poi)nlation, 5,011; situated 3 miles from San
Jose de Buenavista.

San Pedro.— Population, 7,3G6; situated 3 miles by wagon
road from San Jos^ de Buenavista,

San Remigio. — Population, 2,503; situated 11 miles from
San Jose de Buenavista.

Sebaste.— Population, 3,G76; situated 6G miles from San
Jose de Buenavista.

Sibalom. — Population, 11,675; situated G miles from San
Jose de Buenavista. It lias liigliroads to the latter place as
well as to San Pedro, San Remigio, and Egaiia.

Tibiao. — Population, 5,4:02; situated 44 miles from San Josd
de Buenavista.

Valderrama. — Poimlation, 4,372; situated 25 miles from
San Jos^ de Buenavista.


It is bounded on the north by the Archipelago Sea, on the
east by the District of Concepcidn, on the south by the ridge
separating it from Iloilo, and on the southwest by the moun-
tains separating it from the Province of Antique. Its very
high mountains are covered with luxuriant vegetation, and
give rise to many rivers which water the valleys of the prov-
ince. There are gold and copper mines, and much tobacco,
sugar, rice, and abaca is raised. During the year three fairs
are held, in which articles of the country are bartered. The
province is divided into two parts, called Ilaya and Aclan,
which aie irrigated by the rivers Panay and Adan, respec-
tively. The area is 1,543 square miles and the population
189,171, distributed among 36 pueblos and 287 barrios.

The capital is Capiz, with a population of 13,676. It is
situated 290 miles from Manila. It has a harbor for vessels
of ordinary draft, and highroads to Iloilo, Antique, and the
District of Concepcidn. There is a steamer kept by the state,
stopping at the harbor every 28 days and keeping up commu-
nication with Manila, Romblon, Iloilo, and Cebii.


Balate. — Population, 5,065; situated 40 miles from Capiz.

Banga.— Population, 9,127.

Batan. — Population, 12,908; situated 31 miles from Capiz.


Buruanga. — Population, 3,9G7; situated 80 miles from

Calibo. — Population, 10,815; situated -10 miles from Capiz.

Cuartero. — Population, 5, 175.

Dao. — Population, 8,785; situated 17 miles from Capiz,

Dumalag. — Population, 8,000 ; situated 26 miles from Capiz.
It has a road to Tapaz and one to Cuartero.

Dumarao. — Population, 5,085; situated 28 miles from
Capiz. It lias a telegraph station.

Ibajay. — Population, 11,351 ; situated 62 miles from Capiz.

Ibisan. — Population, 5,000; situated 6 miles from Capiz.

Jaguaya. — Population, 2,500; situated 31 miles from Capiz.

Jamindan. — Population, 5,000; situated 6 miles from

Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 23 of 31)