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Military notes on the Philippines. September 1898 online

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Jimeno. — Population, 3,278; situated 25 miles from Capiz.

Lezo. — Population, 5,500.

Libacao. — Population, 3,914; situated 47 miles from Cai)iz.

Loctugan. — Population, 3,475 ; situated 5 miles from Capiz.

Macato. — Population, 10,136 ; situated 45 miles from Capiz.

Madalag. — Population, 2,684; situated 48 miles from Capiz.

Malinao. — Population, 7,571 ; situated 22 miles from Capiz.

Mambusao. — Population, 11,000; situated 20 miles from
Capiz.

Navas. — Population, 5,257; situated 75 miles from Capiz.

Numancia. — Population, 6,123.

Panay. — Population, 15,484; situated 4 miles from Capiz.

Panitan.— Population, 10,020.

Pilar. — PoiDulation, 2,895, the township having 8,905; situ-
ated 30 miles from Capiz.

Pontevedra. — Population, 9,512; situated 32 miles from
Capiz.

Sapian. — Population, 4,803.

Segui. — Population, 3,802; situated 17 miles from Capiz.
There are highroads to Dao, Mambusao, and Ibisan.

Sigma. — Population, 1,000; situated 14 miles from Capiz.

Tangalan. — Population, 2,982; situated 51 miles from Ca-
piz.

Tapaz. — Population, 2,892; situated 22 miles from Capiz.

PROVIXCE OF ILOILO.

It is situated to the southeast of the Province of Capiz and
■west of Antique. The ground is generally level, and, being
irrigated bv numerous rivers, is fertile, so that tobacco, cacao.



236 ILOILO PROVINCE.

sugar cane, abacji, rice, and maize are grown; besides, tliere
is good pasturage for raising herds of cattle and horses, and
gold and other mines are known. The principal industry is
the manufacture of fabrics of sinamay, piila, jusi, etc., reciuir-
ing over 30,000 looms. The dimensions are 99 miles in length
by 27 miles in width, and the population is 472,728.

The capital is Iloilo, with a population of 10,380. It is
situated 355 miles from Manila, and is the residence of the
governor, captain of port, and a number of treasury, justice,
and foment© officials. It has a pretty cathedral, a seminary,
casa real, and court-house. It is one of the most mercantile
towns of the Visaya group, and has some industries, among
which are a machine shop and foundry, a carriage factory,
and a hat factory.

CITIES AXD TOWNS.

Alimodian.— Population, 11,837; situated 12 miles from
Iloilo.

Anilao. — Population, 2,099; situated 12 miles from Iloilo.

Arevalo. — Population, 3,594; situated 4 miles from Iloilo.

Banate. — Population, 6,764; situated 31 miles from Iloilo.

Barotac Nuevo. — Population, 11,805.

Barotac Viejo. — Population, 5,590; situated 32 miles from
Iloilo.

Buenavista. — Population, 3,497; situated 1 mile from
Iloil...

Cabatuan. — Population, 18,177; situated 13 miles from
Iloilo. It has highroads to Maasin, Janinay, Santa Barbara,
and San Miguel.

Calinog'. — Population, 8,800; situated 23 miles from Iloilo.
It lias a highroad.

Cordoba. — Population, 2,744; situated 2 miles from Iloilo.

Dingle.— Population, 11,000; situated 21 miles from Iloilo.

Dueiias. — Population, 7,130; situated 28 miles from Iloilo.

Dumangas. — Population, 14,114; situated -24 miles from
Iloilo.

Guimbal.— Population, 10,958; situated 18 miles from
Iloilo.

Igbaras.— Population, 12,140; situated 24 miles from Iloilo.

Janinay. — Population, 28,738; situated 3 miles from Iloilo.

Jarc— Population, 9,482.

Lambunao. — Population, 7,989; situated 21 miles from
Iloilo. It has a highroad.



BOHOL PROVINCE. 237

Leganes. — Population, 2,875; situated 6 miles from Iloilo.
It has a highroad to Iloilo to the south and to Zarraga to the
north.

Leon. — Population, 13,950; situated Ki miles from Iloilo.
It has liighroads to Cordoba and San Miguel.

Liucena, — Population, 0,511; situated 7 miles from Iloilo.

Maasin. — Population, 9,074.

Manduriao. — -Population, 0,749; situated 4 miles from Ilo-
ilo

Miagas. — Population, 22,100; situated 24 miles from Iloilo.

Mina. — Population, 4,357.

Molo. — Population, 9,547.

Nagaba. — Population, 8,000; situated 5 miles from Iloilo.

Oton. — Population, 13,303; situated 7 miles from Iloilo.

Passi.— Population, 13,802.

Pavia. — Population, 10,221; situated miles from Iloilo.

Paz (La). — Population, 3,041; situated i mile from Iloilo.
There are two highroads, one to Iloilo and one to Jaro, and a
post office.

Pototan, — Population, 14,512 ; situated 18 miles from Iloilo.

San Dionisio. — Population, 1,782.

San Enrique.^Population, 3,015; situated 27 miles from
Iloilo.

San Joaquin. — Population, 13,918; situated 34 miles from
Iloilo. It has a telegraph station.

San Miguel. — Population, 7,300; situated 9 miles from
Iloilo.

Santa Barbara. — Population, 13,000; situated 10 miles
from Iloilo. It has highroads leading to Cabatuan, Pavia,
San Miguel, Zarraga, and Lucena.

Sara. — Population, 10,950; situated 75 miles from Iloilo.

Tigbauan. — Population, 9,109 ; situated 7 miles from Iloilo.

Tubugan. — Population, 4,368 ; situated 31 miles from Iloilo.

Zarraga. — Population, 5,208; situated 8 miles from Iloilo.

PROVINCE OF BOHOL.

It is bounded on the north by the sea between Cebil and
Leyte, on the east by the Surigao Sea, on the south by the Sea
of Mindanao, and on the west by the channel separating it
from Cebii. The province is composed of the islands of Bohol
and Dauis. They are somewhat mountainous and well
wooded, and coffee, abaca, sugar cane, and tobacco are raised.



238 BOHOL — SOUTHWEST COAST.

In the mountains of Boliol game is plenty, and many coal and
phosphate of iron mines are supposed to exist. Manufactures
consist in fabrics of sinamay and other materials. The area
is 1,G17 square miles and the population 247,745.

The capital is Tagbilaran, with a population of 8,638. It
is situated 3G5 miles from Manila.

ITIN3RARY OF COAST OP BOHOL — SOUTHWEST COAST.

Kalape Island, lying near the coast, is of no great height ;
it is foul and surrounded by a steep reef. The little port of
Kalape, the entrance to which is very difficult and very dan-
gerous, is between the island and the coast.

Kabilao Island, separated from the coast islands Kalape and
Sandingan by a wide and deep channel, is 2-2- miles long, east
and west, and 1^ miles wide. On the southwest side it has a
small reef ; the western side is rocky, rugged, and steep ; the
northern and eastern sides present sand beaches and rocky
bluffs.

Tides. — The flood stream makes to the northward and the
ebb to the southward with great force.

Laon point and town, or the point of the mole, is termi-
nated by a sand beach, on which is a rampart ; it is foul and
surrounded by great detached rocks. The mole is 328 yards
long, and the town is reached by steps cut in the rock. Be-
tween this mole and Sandingan Island is a little bay, where
shelter may be had from N. to SE., through E., in 3^ to 9
fathoms, mud. The town is situated on the western slope of
the Kanmanok Hills at a good height, and presents from the
sea a very picturesque aspect ; it is defended by a fort with
bastions at the angles.

Point Cruz, 4^ miles south of Point Laon, is of no great
height, rocky and underworn, and presents the appearance
of a wall. A ledge extends to 2 cables from it, with 11
fathoms at the edge, offering bad anchorage.

Maribojo Bay, in the elbow which the coast forms east of
Point Cruz, is foul, and lined by a steep reef extending f
of a mile before the river Abalan, and, continuing along the
coast, joins the reef of Panglao Island. The town of Mari-
bojo, in the center of the bay, is on ground of slight elevation.

Slwal. — At 3 miles SE. of Point Cruz and at 1 mile from
the coast there is a small shoal of 33 yards extent, surrounded
by 9 fathoms, and with 27 to 3G fathoms at a cable's distance.



BOHOL — SOUTH COAST. 239

River Abalan. — The moutli of this river is of good width
and there are 5^ feet on tlie bar at low water ; the bar is gen-
erally marked by stakes. The north point is flat and covered
by mangroves, and has a reef off it ; the south point has a
little rocky islet off it, covered by mangroves. The town of
Paminuitan is on a little hill near the sea.

Panglao Island is low and flat, having only one little hill
on it; it is almost joined to Bohol Island, as the channel that
separates them dries at low water ; a reef extends off it 4 miles
to the SW. There is no anchorage off the island. Point
Duljo is sandy and flat, and may be recognized at a distance
by a group of cocoanut palms on it; it is clean and steep.
The reef on the north side is also steep. Point Bolud is flat
and sandy, with a fort upon it. Point Bikin is steej), with a
flat crown.

Balikasai Island, bearing SSW. 3i miles from Point Duljo,
is small, flat, clean, and steep-to. The channel between it
and Panglao Island is deep, no bottom being found in it with
110 fathoms. In keeping this channel it is better to keep near
Balikasai.

Cervera Rock is 2 cables long, NE. and SW., and has 13
feet, coral and sand, on its shallowest part. It can be dis-
tinguished in daylight by the color of the water. From the
rock, Point Tahuruk (Panglao Island) bears N. 60° W. ; the
mount NE. of Panglao, N. 4° E. ; and the south extreme of
Pamilakan Island, N. 82° E.

Pamilakan Island, lying S. 80° E. of the south point of
Panglao, is of no great height, and its coast is foul. The
natives of Bohol resort to it to fish beche de mer and turtle.

Tagbilaran Strait is of little importance, as it can only be
navigated by vessels drawing less than 6 feet. The entrance
is from westward, and is generally marked by stakes. The
town of Tagbilaran is engaged in agriculture and turtle fishing.

SOUTH COAST.

The south coast of Bohol is very steep, and may be ap-
proached with safety, as the reef that fringes it is very narrow
and very steep, but the little bays at the mouth of the rivers
on this coast afford no good anchorage. The reef that borders
the south coast continues round the Bay of Guindulman, and
is very steep ; to the westward of some islets and rocks at the
head of the bay there are 3 fathoms water, and 23 at a



240 BOHOL — EAST COAST.

very little distance from the shore. From Point Naj^akao to
the point off Mount Pugatin the coast appears clear and steep.

EAST COAST.

Kobton Bay, to the northward of Mount Pugatin, is filled
by a reef, which leaves only a narrow opening 5 cables wide
between the islets Lumittis and Tabon. This reef, which
begins a mile to the southward of Point Namanuko, con-
tinues to the northward as far as Lapinin Island, bordering
the coast at a short distance from it. The edge is steep, with
soundings of 5^ to 9 fathoms near it.

Shoals. — A circular shoal of sand and rock, little more
than a mile in diameter, and covered by If fathoms water,
lies 7 miles north of Namanuko; close to its eastern edge
there are 37 fathoms. A small circular shoal, with 11 fath-
oms on its eastern edge, also lies SE. of Tintimin Islet, and
N. 30° !&., distant l^ miles from the point between Tintimin
Islet and Point Libal. A third small, steep shoal is situated
in the little bay south of Tintimin.

SiKiJOR Island is not very high. Its surface is very
broken, and rises to a central peak. Mount Kudtingun,
which is NE. of the central peak, is 1,394 feet high. The
island is 14^ miles long and 11 miles wide. The productions
are tobacco of a superior quality, rice and maize (though
hardly sufficient for consumption), manila hemp, and good
cacao, which are bartered for wax.

Point Sandugan. — The northern part of the island is very
low, and surrounded by a reef of 1 cable Avidth. A con-
spicuous little hill lies to the south of it and serves to mark
it. The coast from Point Sandugan to Port Kanoan, 3 miles
to the south, is very foul and steep near the shoals.

Port Kanoan is very small, and is the only port of refuge
in the island. The total depth of the port is 6 cables, but a
sand flat at the head, which dries at low water, reduces the
available part of it to 4 cables. From the northern point of
entrance a reef extends 1^ cables to the westward, with 4^
fathoms at its edge, and skirts the north side of the port; the
southern entrance point and south side of the bay are bor-
dered by a reef ^ of a cable wide. The soundings at the
entrance are 14 fathoms, lessening to 3-5- fathoms off the mole.

Tides. — Off Point Sandugan the tidal streams are very
strong. The flood tide runs to the west and the ebb to the



BOHOL — CITIES AND TOWNS. 241

east; but on the northwest coast of Sikijor there is an eddy
tide ill the contrary direction, which does not extend to 2
miles offshore.

Points Tongo and Pasigajon are low and surrounded by a
reef, which advances in some places as much as a mile from
the shore. This reef is difficult to see, and is dangerous to
approach, for soundings show no bottom with 110 fathoms at
a cable's distance. The coast should not be closed within
2 or 3 miles. Point Makapilai is clean and peaked. With
the exception of this reef on the west coast, the shores are
clean and steep-to. On the south side the w^ater is reported
to be very deep near the shore, but no soundings are shown
on the chart, Lasi Bay is clear, but deep. Minalunan Bay
is almost closed by a reef.

Shoal. — Off the northeast coast, 2 miles north of Point
Dakit, there is a small bank of rock, covered by 3^ fathoms,
with very deep water around it. From this shoal Mount
Kudtingun bears S. 66° W., and Point Lumango N. 58° W.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Albuquerque.— Population, 6, 604.

Anda. — Population, 4,036; situated 56 miles from Tagbi-
laran. It has highroads to Candabong.

An tequera.— Population, 5,842; situated 10 miles from
Tagbilaran.

Badayon.— Population, 8,048.

Balilij an.— Population, 1,860; situated 16 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Batuanan. — Population, 1,270.

Calape.— Population, 10,025; situated 26 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Candijay.— P()pulation, 7,872; situated 54 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Canoan.— Population, 9,380; situated 31 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Carmen.— Population, 3,300; situated 35 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Catigbian.— Population, 2,141; situated 16^ miles from
Tagbilaran,

Corella.— Population, 4,215.

Cortes en BohoL— Population, 6,018 ; situated 6 miles from
Tagbilaran.



242 BOHOL — CITIES AND TOWNS.

Dauis. — Poi)ulation, 8,992 ; situated 1 mile from Tagbilaraii.

Dimiao.— Population, 8,014; situated 22 miles from Tag-
bilaraii.

Duero.— Population, 7,143; situated 42 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Garcia Hernandez. — Population, 5,004; situated 34 miles
from Tagbilaran.

Getafe.— Population, 3,397; situated 65 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Guindulman. — Population, 8,003; situated 51 miles from
Tagl)ilaran.

Inabanga. — Population, 9,957 ; situated 41 miles from Tag-
bilaran,

Ipil. — Population, 1,745 ; situated 47 miles from Tagbilaran.

Jagna. — Population, 1,162, the township having 13,491;
situated 39 miles from Tagbilaran. There is a highroad to
the towns of Duero and Garcia Hernandez.

Lacy. — Population, 6,448; situated 25 miles from Tagbi-
laran.

Liila, — Population, 4,470 ; situated 18 miles from Tagbilaran.

Loay. — Population, 7,169; situated 11 miles from Tagbi-
laran.

LiOboc. — Population, 10,174; situated 15 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Lioon. — Population, 15,365; situated 16^ miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Maria. — Population, 5,415 ; situated on the island of Siquijor
at a distance of 26 miles by sea from Tagbilaran.

Maribojoc. — Population, 10,852; situated 8^ miles from
Tagbilaran. There are highroads to Loon, Paminuitan, and
Ante([uera.

Panglao. — Population, 6,795; situated 10 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

San Juan. — Population, 5,979.

Sevilla.— Population, 5,920; situated 47 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Sierra Bullones. — Population, 2,119; situated 44^ miles
from Tagl)ilaraii.

Signipi. — Population, 11,788.

Siquijor.— Population, 11,788.

Talibon. — Population, 7,321; situated 50 miles from Tag-
bilaran,



CEBU ISLAND AND PROVINCE. 343

Tubigon.— Population, 15,855; situated 28 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Ubay.— Population, 3,552; situated 48 miles from Taghi-
laran.

Valencia.— Population, 6,904; situated 20 miles from Tag-
bilaran.

Vilar.— Population, G,G65.

ISLAND AND PROVINCE OF CEBU.

This is the most important province of the Visayas, on
account of its central position, the nature of its ground, and
the industry of its numerous inhabitants. It is bounded on
the north by the sea separating it from Masbate and Leyte,
on the east by the sea separating it from. Leyte and Bohol, on
the south by the Mindanao Sea, and on the west by the Taiion
Channel and the island of Negros, The area is 2,092 square
miles and the population 504,076. Great mountain chains
cross the island ; the chief of these starts at the extreme north
between Point Marab on the west and Baluarte on the east,
and, continuing south between the two coasts, ends almost in
the center of the island. Two other chains run along the
coast, and one starts near Carcas, to the southwest of the city
of Gebu, terminating on the south in Taiion Point. The coasts
are rather high and the rivers of little importance.

The capital is Cebu, with a population of 35,243. It is the
mercantile center of the islands, and is situated 460 miles
from Manila. It is an Episcopal see, and has a good cathedral.
Episcopal palace, casa real, court-house, and private edifices,
simple but tasty; there is also a post office and telegraph
station. On the south, and at the entrance of the channel, is
the castle of Point Cauit, and north of this the tower of Man-
daui ; both these fortifications communicate with the capital
by means of a wagon road, the city being midway between
them. At the capital reside the politico-military governor, a
secretary, judge and attorney-general, a number of public
functionaries, a captain of engineers, and the captain of the
port.

ITINERARY OF COAST OF CEBU — WEST COAST.

Bulalaki Point is low, rather steep, with a flat summit cov-
ered by trees and presenting to the north and south some yel-
low patches. Vessels of all sizes can anchor in the channel



244 CEBU — WEST COAST.

between this point and Chocolate Islet in 8 fathoms, mud,
near the islet, and 2| fathoms, sand, almost touching the
point.

Bantiki Point (Kandaga), the northwestern point of the
island, about 4^ miles from Point Bulalaki, is very low; a
shoal of sand projects i mile from it, with f of a fathom on
it ; the coast between it and Point Bulalaki shows sand beaches
and has good holding ground off it. The town of Kandaga
lies S. by E. of the point.

The coast from Point Kandaga is very clear, with a depth
of 4-^ fathoms off it to the town of Paibai, or old Bantayan,
but thence to Point Kauit a bank of 3g- fathoms extends to ^
mile from the shore.

Point Kauit, 6 miles SSW. f W. of Point Kandaga, is very
low and sandy, and is surrounded by a shoal of sand and rocks
2 cables wide, covered by 14- fathoms. Abundant fresh water
is obtained here from wells.

Jibitnil Island, less than a mile from Kauit, is 2 miles long,
north and south, and clear, ending to the south in a point of
sand. The passage between it and Point Kauit is less than a
mile wide, and 4|- to 25 fathoms deep.

Daijagon Bay is very foul ; the reefs reduce the available
space to a Avidth of 1 mile, in which there is anchorage in 8
fathoms. The shores are low and covered by mangroves.
From the interior of the bay a narrow, tortuous estuary com-
municates with Bogo Bay on the eastern coast, reducing the
isthmus here approximately | mile wide to a neck of land 1
cable in width. The natives pass their baratos across from
one coast to the other in both monsoons to avoid going round
to Point Bulalaki. The canal is said to be filling up, and had
a depth of only 4 feet of water in 1880.

Point Magtulinok is a narrow tongue of sand on which are
several little, steep, flat-crowned rocks, with a shoal of 2
cables' extent at its end.

Point Makao is low, and clear on its north part, but from
its south part a reef extends from before the shallow river
Lambusan to |- mile from the shore, with 7 fathoms at its
edge.

Jaliki River can be entered by small coasters through a
passage of 3^ fathoms between the reefs ; the depth on the bar
is 3 feet at low water. The northern point is of black rock,
nnderworn by the currents. The coast from Jaliki River to
Tubukan River is bordered by a reef ^ of a mile wide.



CEBU — WEST COAST. 245

Batauan Bay is very small, and the greatest depth inside is
only 3 fathoms ; the entrance points are higher than the rest
of the coast in sight about this part.

Point Langugon is low, clear, and steep-to, and offers an-
chorage on its southern side. Tubukan River is of no im-
portance, and the bay is filled by a reef which extends round
the western point to a distance of | a mile.

Buenabrigo Point is low, sandy, and very steep-to; on the
northern side is a rivulet of good water, and on the south side
there is anchorage sheltered from the NE. Between Buena-
brigo Point and Balamban Bay the shore is fringed by a reef
which advances in one place as much as 1^ miles. Balamban
Bay is foul and affords no accommodation.

Point Tajao is low, clear, and steep-to, with 23 fathoms off
it ; vessels can anchor south of the point in If to 7 fathoms,
sand. The tidal streams that enter Tahon Strait from the
north and from the south meet about off this i)oint.

Tajao Bank, l^ miles SSW. ^ W. of the point, is 1 mile
long, NE. and SW., and ^ mile wide; it is a bank of rock, and
uncovers at low water ; the channel between it and the coast
is unsafe. From Tajao Point to Point Gorda the coast is
fringed by a reef which extends in some places to 1 mile
from it.

Point Gorda, the highest on the coast, is steep, with a flat
crown ; there is a vantay on it.

Barili is a town of 17,000 inhabitants, but the river has only
2 feet on the bar, and the creek at the entrance, which is ^ of
a mile wide between the points, is considerably reduced by
reefs from both sides ; the depth in the creek is 9 to 2^ fathoms.

Point Dumanjok is high, with mangroves at the base, where
a ledge extends 2 cables to the NE. At a distance of 2 cables
from the ledge the soundings show no bottom with 110 fathoms.
The bay to the eastward has a depth of 17 iathoms at the
entrance, lessening to 5 fathoms near the shore. A town of
600 inhabitants is at the bottom of the bay, near a small river
of good water.

Point Kopton is low, of dark rock much underworn; it is
surrounded by a reef i mile in width, which quite fills up the
bay to the eastward. The islet Pescador, 3^ miles SSW. of
Point Kopton, is surrounded by dark rock, with no vegetation
on it; its sides are steep-to.

Badian is a town that can only be approached in boats at
high water, as the wide bay in which it is situaled is lined



24G CEBU — WEST COAST.

with salient reefs. There is no passage between these reefs
and Badian Island.

From Badian to the southern end of Cebii Island the coast
is clear, of moderate height, and so steep that anchorage can
be had only very close to the shore in various places where
there are towns. The town of Kinatilan is in an angle of the
coast, near the hill Tuburan. Before the town the depth is
7 fathoms at 1 cable distance from the shore.

Point Kolasi is low, rather craggy, and white, with a tele-
graph on it. From here to Point Liloan, 24 miles to the
southward, the coast is sandy and very steep, with rocks close
to the shore.

The tidal streams are very strong off this point.

Point Liloan, 2^ miles south of Point Kolasi, is sandy and
steep, with some rocks, covered by l-^- fathoms, at i of a cable
from it. On the point is a stone fort, and a signal station
which communicates with Kolasi. Vessels can anchor near
the point in 7 to 14 fathoms, but the bottom is very steep
and the tide streams very strong. Between Point Liloan and
Point Tanon, in flood tide, an eddy current in the opposite
direction passes very close to the coast.

South entrance of Tanon Strait. — From Point Liloan the
coast trends E. by S. for 2^ miles to Point Tafion, and con-
sists of sand beaches, with a depth of water 5^ fathoms very
close to and 17 fathoms at a distance of 1 mile. Point Tanon
is low and sandy, with a narrow ledge of rock projecting to
1 cable from it.

Tides. — The flood stream from the Strait of Surigao, pass-
, ing westward between the islands Bohol and Sikijor, strikes
the coast of Cebu at the Point Dalaguete, and divides into



Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 24 of 31)