United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military.

Military notes on the Philippines. September 1898 online

. (page 26 of 31)
Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 26 of 31)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

which is a little stone tower used as a signal station. The
town of Boljon is surrounded by a wall and fortifications.

Point Yuisan, ^\ miles south of Boljon, is low, and ends in
sand and rocks close to the shore ; the village contains only
350 persons.

Yuisan Shoal, of sand and rock, awash at low water, with
2^ to bh fathoms round its edge, is 2 cables long, NE. and SW.,


and 1^ cables wide. It lies 1^ miles offshore. From it Yui-
san church bears N. 21° E., and the north point of Sikijor
Point S. 33° E.

Point Oslob, bearing SW. by S. 4 miles from Point Yuisan,
is sandy and low, and has on it a fort of white stone, visible
a great distance. It is surrounded by a narrow reef of only
a cable's width. On the south side there is anchorage in 3i
to 9 fathoms. The coast between points Yuisan and Oslob
is sand beach fringed by a reef i of a mile wide, steep-to.
From Point Oslob to Point Taiion, which lies SW. 8^ miles
from it, the coast land is high, with sandy beaches and rugged
bluffs of white rock, and is very steep.

Point Tailon, the southern point of Cebu Island, is low,
sandy, and surrounded by a narrow reef, little more than a
cable wide. There is anchorage south of the point in 5^ to 7
fathoms, sand ; but it is exposed to the force of the tide streams
that enter and leave the Strait of Taiion. The church and
town of Tanon are on high ground near the point.

Sumilon Island lies ENE. 3 miles from Point Tanon, and
li miles off the coast. It is | of a mile long and 177 feet high;
its shores are clean and steep.

BoHOL Island is of oval figure, 47 miles in length, NE. and
SW., and 34 miles wide, N. and S. ; the southern part is hilly
and rocky, but the northern part has good tracts of level
ground. The height is about the same as that of Cebu, the
culminating point being Mount Kopton, near the northeast
extremity; its height, 10,150 feet in the Derrotero, but 2,870
on the chart. The coasts of the island are bordered by reefs,
which on the northern side extend from the NE. to the SW.
of the island at a distance of 12 miles.

The productions of the island are cacao, tobacco, cotton,
manila hemp, rice, maize, and sugar cane, and its forests
furnish excellent wood. The district of Bohol includes the
island of Sikijor and Pangias; the seat of government is
Tagbilaran, on the southwest coast.

Lapinin Island, on the northeast extremity of Bohol Island,
is separated from it by a narrow channel 3i to 7 fathoms deep.
It is 8 miles long, fiat, and covered by brambles. A narrow,
steep coral reef surrounds it. The islet Tinuibo, lying SE. l)y
S., 2i miles from the northern point of Lapinin Island, is
small, clean, and steep-to. Between the islands there are 12
fathoms water.


Danajon Bank forms the outer limit of tlie coral reef that
borders the north coast of Bohol, which is composed of a
great number of shoals and islands, between which only small
vessels with a good local pilot can navigate, and a description
of which would be long and diffuse. The eastern end of the
bank, sometimes called Adam and Eve Bank, lies 10 miles NE.
^ E. from the north point of Lapinin Island, and 3 miles from
the coast of Leyte..

The bank has two openings through it; the northern one
is in a line between Mount Kopton in Bohol and Mount Three
Peaks in Poro Island (Kamotes) ; and the northwestern one
lies N. G0° W. of Mount Corte; both of these openings have
a width of about a mile and a depth of S fathoms. On the
bank, at great intervals, there are small islands covered by
bushes and mangroves.


Alcantara. — Population, 4,080.

Alcoy. — Population, 5,040; situated 44 miles from Cebi'i.

Alegria. — Population, 11,460; situated 90 miles from Cebii.

Aloguinsan. — Population, 3, 993.

Argao.— Population, 34,050; situated 33 miles from Cebii.

Asturias. — Population, C,000; situated 109 miles from

Badian. — Population, 9,409 ; situated 51 miles from Cebu.

Balamban. — Population, 9,610; situated 43 miles from
Cebu. There are highroads to Joledo on the south and Astu-
rias on the north.

Bantayan. — Population, 10,016; situated 62 miles from

Barili. — Population, 20,914; situated 52 miles from Cebu.

Bogo. — Population, 16,350; situated 69 miles from Cebu.
It has a good harbor, the only one in the province.

Boljoon. — Population, 7,413; situated 57 miles from Cebu.

Borbon. — Population, 2,805; situated 51 miles from Cebu.

Carcar. — Population, 30,300; situated 23 miles from Cebu.

Carmen. — Population, 6,673; situated 25 miles from Cebu.

Catman. — Population, 6,098.

Compostela. — Population, 4,393.

Consolacion. — Population, 4,616; situated 7 miles from
Cebu. There are highroads to the neighboring cities.

Cordoba. — Population, 5,009.


Daan Bantayan. — Population, 8,530; situated 103 miles
from Cebn.

Dalaguete. — Population, 21,323; situated 49 miles from

Danao. — Population, 15,483 ; situated 4 miles from Cebii.

Dumanjug. — Population, 13,171; situated 42 miles from
Cebu. There are three highroads.

Ginatilan. — Population, 12,144.

Liiloan.— Population, 8,380.

Malabuyoc. — Population, 13,113; situated 83 miles from

Mandaue. — Population, 15,307; situated 41 miles from

Medellin.— Population, 8,221.

Minglanilla. — Population, 0,310; situated 5 miles from

Moalboal. — Poj^ulation, 9,509.

Naga. — Population, 10,926; situated 11 miles from Cebu.

Nueva Cdceres.— Population, 3,339; situated 42 miles
from Cebu.

Opon. — Population, 11,506; situated 9 miles from Cebu.

Oslob. — Population, 6,013; situated 78 miles from Cebii.

Pardo (El).— Population, 10,647.

Pilar. — Population, 4,268; situated 38 miles from Cebi'i.

Pinamungajan. — Population, 5,378.

Poro.— Population, 7,000.
. Ronda. — Population, 4,394; situated 434 miles from Cebu.
There are highroads to the neighboring cities.

Samboan. — Population, 10,422; situated 68 miles from

San Fernando. — Population, 12,155; situated 9 miles from

San Francisco. — Population, 6,567.

San Nicolas. — Population, 17,800.

San Remigio. — Population, 6,192; situated 69 miles from

Santa Fe.— Population, 3,102.

Santander. — Population, 4,686; situated 88 miles from

Sibonga. — Population, 23,455; situated 31 miles from Cebu.

Sogod. — Population, 6,719.

Tabogon. — Population, 8,631,


Talambang.— Population, G,22C; situated 1 mile from

Talisay.— Population, 19,000; situated (J miles from Cebu,
to whicli there is a liigliroad.

Toledo. — Population, 10,922; situated 39 miles from Cebii.

Tuburan.— Population, 10,7G0; situated 511 miles from



Situated on the island of Panay, it is bounded on the north
by the Sea of Masbate, on the south by Iloilo, on the east by
the Sea of Negros Island, and on the west by Capiz. The
area is 683 square miles and the population 19,342.

The capital is Concepcion, with a poj)ulation of 5,736. It
is situated 104 miles from Iloilo and has a post ofiice and tele-
graph station.


Ajuy. — Population, 1,000; situated 6 miles from Concep-

Carles. — Population, 10,300.

Lemery. — Population, 3,G77; situated 30 miles from Con-


The island of Leyte is bounded on the north by the canal
separating it from Samar, on the east by the Pacific Ocean,
on the west by the sea separating it from Bohol and Cebu,
and on the south by the one separating it from Mindanao. It
is extensive and irregular, having an area of 3,087 square
miles and a population of 270,491. A high and abrupt moun-
tain chain crosses the island nearly parallel to the west coast ;
the coasts are high, but with good natural harbors. In the
northern part and on the western slopes of the great sierras,
streams of potable water and also many lagoons aljound.
This is different from the eastern part, where the latter are
scarce. The principal product of the island is abaca, but rice
is also raised and cocoanut oil is extracted. There are un-
worked mines of gold, magnetite, and sulphur.

The capital is Tacloban, with a population of 5,226. It is
situated 338 miles from Manila.


The west coast of Leyte is in general safe and steei^-to.
The fringing reefs do not extend more than a mile from the


shore. A chain of higli mountains runs parallel to the coast,
at a distance of 4 to 5 miles inland. The highest peak of the
range appears to be Mount Sacripante (3,911 feet), in the
southwestern part of the island.

Gigantangan Island, off the northwest point of Leyte, is
2 miles long, NNE. and SSW., and 1 mile wide, and is clean
on all sides except the south point, where there is a small
reef. The channel that separates it from Leyte is 1 mile wide
and 11 to 16 fathoms deep.

Tabin Chico and Tabin Grande are two small bays sepa-
rated by a tongue of land. Their depth is 7 to 11 fathoms.
Tabango and Kampopo bays, separated by Point Ligiio, are
larger than the Tabines, and appear to be deeper. The
narrow reef that fringes this part of the coast follows the
contour of these four bays.

Port Palompon is formed by a narrow channel between the
coast south of Point Kanaguayan and the reef on which is
situated the island Tabok. The only entrance is to the north-
ward, between the point and the island, the southern end of
the channel being closed by low reefs covered by mangroves.

Point Kanaguayan is bordered by a reef to the distance of
1^ cables, and the reef of Tai^ok Island extends 1^ miles
WNW,, reducing between them the width of the passage to
2 cables, with a depth of 19 fathoms. Proceeding inwards,
the passage becomes narrower and shoals gradually, so that
in front of the church, where is the best anchorage, it is
hardly a cable wide, with a depth of 7 fathoms. Anchorage
can also be had close to the sandy point, alongside which
vessels of any size can lie secured to the shore. From this
point the depth diminishes gradually to the southward, and
off Gumalak Island is only 2f fathoms. The reefs show at
low water, and the edges are marked by poles with bushes on
them ; but these must not be relied on.

The town of Palompon is on the shore of the port. Sup-
plies of beef and vegetables may be obtained; also fresh
water. In the town of Palompon, as in other towns of the
Philippine Islands, a tariff of prices is hung up in the Casa
Real for the guidance of strangers, who can claim to be sup-
plied for ten days at the prices quoted.

Directions. — To make the port of Palompon the island
Kalangaman should be brought to bear N. 64:° W., when a
course S. 64° E. will lead for the entrance.


Coast. — The reef that surrounds Tabok and Gumalak ishxnds
and fringes the shore to a distance of 1^ miles, continues to
the southward, round Point Duljugan, where it is ^ mile wide,
to Port Dupon, which lies 2 miles to the eastward of the point.
Point Duljugan is low and thinly wooded ; the southwestern
point of Port Dupon is somewhat higher and has a little fort
on it.

Port Dupon has a depth of 38 fathoms in the center; the
best anchorage is on the western side of the port, where the
shore is less steep than on the east side and there is more
shelter ; on the east side of the port the bottom consists of
coral, and anchorage is considered very unsafe.

The little bay of Siapon, 1| miles to the eastward, is
sheltered from all winds but those from south to southeast ;
the depth at the entrance is 15 'fathoms, lessening gradually
inwards. The low point between the two bays can be dis-
tinguished by a patch of cogonal on it. Water can be obtained
in both bays.

Kalunangan Point is low, flat, and bordered by a narrow
reef. Anchorage can be had on the coast between Point
Kalunangan and Point Biason in 9 fathoms, coarse sand.

Okmok Bay. — To the eastward of Point Kalunangan the
coast forms the great bay of Okmok, in the northwest part of
which is Port Bello, with anchorage in 2f to 9 fathoms, mud.
This is the only safe anchorage on the south coast of Leyte
Island during the generality of typhoons.

Jaloban River is a good-sized river with 5 feet water on the
bar at low water and deeper water within. From the eastern
bank of the river a clean, sandy beach, with good depth off
it, stretches 1^ miles to the SE. as far as the town of Okmok.

Okmok is situated near the shore and on the slope of Mount
Aslum ; it is surrounded by a breastwork of stone with three
ruined forts.

Mount Aslum rises to a high and remarkable peak, NE. by
E. -4^ miles from Okmok town. Kampukan peak, 2 miles NE.
of Aslum peak, is much higher and more conical than that of
Aslum. Both mountains abound in sulphur and copperas.

Coast. — From Okmok to Baybay, a town lying about 23
miles to the southeastward of Okmok, the shore is low and
consists of steep sand beach with generally soundings of 14
to 18 fathoms very close to it. From Baybay to Ilongos, 19
miles to the southward, the coast forms rocky headlands
alternately with small, clean, and steep bays.


Kamotes Islands. — This group consists of three ishmds
connected by a reef, and one small detached islet, Tulang.
The westernmost island, Pasijan, is 8^ miles long, north and
south, and nearly 5 miles wide, and is clean and steep-to all
round except that part of the eastern side where a reef that
nearly dries at low water joins it to Poro Island. Tulang
Island, off the northwest jDart, appears clean and steep.

Poro Island is surrounded on all sides except the north-
western by a reef of less than ^ mile in width ; the channel
between Poro and Poson has a depth of 5 to 7 fathoms, and
is practicable for navigation. The town of Poro is on the
south side of the island, and anchorage may be had off the
town at the distance of ^ mile ; but caution must be observed
in approaching, as shallows that dry at low water run out a
long distance.

Poson, the northernmost of the group, lies 5^ miles SSE.
of Point Kalunangan ; the channel between is clear and deep,
but care must be taken not to approach the shore off Poson,
as a reef extends to the northward of it about 1 mile.

Tides. — The flood stream from the northward jDasses from
west to east in the channel between Poson Island and Kalu-
nangan Point and curves round the island to the southward.
The flood stream from the southward, which has entered by
Surigao Strait, meets the flood stream from the northward
about 5 miles south of Kamotes.

Cuatro Islas (four islands) is the name given to a group of
four islets lying 3 miles off the coast of Leyte ; the southern-
most of them, Jimukitan, bears WNW. about 4 miles from
a little steep hill with a flat crown on the coast 6 miles north
of Ilongos; this islet and the one 3 miles NW. of it (Majabas)
are clear and steep-to ; the two others are surrounded by reefs.
The passages between these islets and between them and the
coast are safe.

Coast. — From Ilongos the coast forms an elbow which
measures 2^ miles across the town of Bato and then continues
to the southward for 11| miles to the Point Green Hill, oppo-
site Lapinin Isle, near Bohol.

Shoal. — Off the village of Makalon, 2^ miles south of Bato,
is a shoal, having over it from 2^ to 5 fathoms ; it is gener-
ally marked by bushes.

From Green Hill the coast trends eastward for nearly 6
miles, to the town of Masin, and then turns SE. ^ E. for 13


miles to Point Tuaiikaii (or Ninipo), the south extremity of
the island of Leyte. All this part of the coast is formed of
rocky points and small sand beaches, and is clean and steep-
to, except before the town of Masin, and also around Point

Masin is a town situated on a sand beach from which a
ledge projects some 2 or 3 cables and dries at low water; a
channel of 2f fathoms leads to the town. There is anchorage
on a bank of small extent in 7 to 14 fathoms, sand, with the
church bearing NW.

Point Tuankan is low, and is formed of rock underworn by
currents, giving it the appearance of a rampart. It is sur-
rounded by a narrow steep reef with 4| to 9 fathoms at the
edges and no bottom, with 92 fathoms line at 1 cable distance.

Limasana Island, situated 2 miles to the SE. of the south-
ern point of Leyte, is 4^ miles north and soutli and 1 wide,
and has a remarkable hill on its northern part. The island
is clean, and on its southeast part there is a sandy beach,
where anchorage can be had in 2f fathoms at 1 cable from
the shore. The channel between Limasana Island and Point
Tuankan is safe.

Tides. — The tidal streams run with great force here, the
flood stream to the NW. and the ebb to the SE.

Panaon Island, separated from the southeast point of
Leyte by a narrow channel, is 17i miles loiig, NNW. and
SSE., and 5 miles wide at its northern part. The island is
mountainous and is divided throughout its length by a range
of hills terminating to the south in a mountain 2,313 feet
high, the slope of which forms the southern point of the

The eastern coast is high and rugged, and shows several
cascades of excellent water. The western coast, though steep,
presents several sand beaches, where anchorage may be had
in 7 to 9 fathoms, sand, but it is better to anchor in the shel-
tered port of Liloan.

Port Liloan has two entrances. The eastern entrance is
very narrow ; the least depth in it is 2f fathoms, increasing
to 4i and o^ fathoms in Panaon Strait. The water in it is so
clear that the bottom can be seen readily. In order to enter
the port from the eastward, steer for the narrow opening be-
tween Leyte and Panaon Island, which runs S. 73° W, ; while
a good distance off a group of cocoanut palms on Point Liloan


will be seen ; the soundings increase on approaching the en-
trance; when 15 fathoms is obtained take the middle of the
channel which leads to the anchorage coasting the reef that
ranges along the shore of the port until in front of the town,
then anchor in 5^ to 7 fathoms, sand.

To enter by the western passage, the best mark to steer for
is a little hill near Point Liloan, with cocoanut palms and
some houses on it, taking care to clear a little reef NW. of the
entrance point, near which the depth is 26 fathoms, and clos-
ing as much as possible the sandy point of Panaon, and avoid-
ing the coast of Leyte, from which a reef projects 3| miles to
the SW, Between the southern edge of this reef and the
sandy point of Liloan, which form the western entrance of
the port, and which is 3A^ cables wide, the depth is 7 to 9
fathoms, shells.

The shores of the port are sandy, and the town of Liloan is
situated on a little plain.

SuRiGAO Strait. — Surigao Strait is famous for having
been traversed by Magellan when he crossed the Pacific
Ocean and discovered the Philippine Islands. The strait is
now less frequented than that of San Bernardino, which is
more to windward in the northeast monsoon. It is, however,
more direct and safer than that strait, but it obliges vessels
that take it, if they are making for Manila, to work up the
west coast of Negros and Panay and the east coast of Min-
doro. It is of advantage to vessels going to the southern
Philippines or to the Sulu Sea.

The main strait is safe and deep throughout its length, and
the shores of the islands that border it are steep-to. Steamers
from the Cebu Sea making for ports on the east coast of Min-
danao may find it advantageous to take the eastern passage
between Dinagat and Bukas islands and the main coast of
Mindanao. This channel will be described after the main


From Panaon Strait the coast trends north for 5^ miles,
then turns abruptly to the west for another 5| miles to Mara-
gusa Point, a rounded headland formed by the western slope
of Mount Kabalian, which is 3,130 feet high; the coast line
then continues north again for 8^ miles, to Ginungagan Bay.
Throughout this entire length the coast is high and clean,


with deep water in tlie vicinity, but it is exposed to tlie
open sea.

Hinondayan Bay is very small ; an islet surrounded by rocks
lies at the mouth ; tlie depth of water in the passages on either
side of the islet is 11 fathoms, and within it is 3^ fathoms.

Ginungagan Bay has a depth of 15 fathoms in the middle
and 5i oflf the town of the same name, which stands on the
left bank of the River Malaga at the head of the bay. The
two islands Kabugan lie in the northern part of the bay, sep-
arated from the main coast, which is sandy, by a channel 1
mile wide and 15 to 25 fathoms deep.

Jinatungan Point lies 11 miles north of Ginungagan Bay,
and is bordered by a reef which extends i mile out. A rocky
islet and several rocks lie immediately south of the point at |
of a mile's distance from the shore.

Tai Tai Point, 10 miles NW. of Jinatungan Point, is also
surrounded by a reef to a distance of ^ mile. From the point
the coast trends north for 30 miles to the southern entrance
of San Juanico Strait. All this tract of coast consists of
sandy beaches with a good depth of water off them; there
are many rivers, and several towns stand along the shore.
The country inland is level and covered with dense wood, in-
terrupted by cocoanut plantations and rice fields.


The north coast of Leyte is imperfectly known ; Carigara
must be a place of some trade, for steamers from Manila touch
there about once a fortnight, but there is no information
about it to hand.


Abuyog.— Population, 9,112; situated 40 miles from Ta-

Alang-Alang. — Population, 8,602; situated 18 miles from

Albuera. — Population, 4,555; situated 18 miles from Ta-

Almeria. — Population, 3,210; situated 63 miles from Ta-

Babatugon. — Population, 2,213.

Baliran.— Population, 6,201.


Baru. — Population, 12,322 ; situated 31 miles from Taclobau.

Bate— Population, 3,651.

Baybay.— Population, 17,367; situated 87 miles from

Borauen. — Population, 21,290; situated 26 miles from

Cabalian. — Population, 4,785; situated 130 miles from

Caibiran. — Population, 4,153; situated 260 miles from

Cajaganaan. — Population, 260.

Capoocan. — Population, 1,622; situated 33 miles from

Carigara. — Population, 13,732; situated 32 miles from

Dagami. — Population, 25,000; situated 20 miles from Ta-

Dulag.— Population, 10,113; situated 22 miles from Ta-

Hilongos. — Population, 13,813; situated Ui; miles from

Hindang. — Population, 5,314; situated 9 miles from Ta-

Hinunangan. — Population, 7,899; situated 02 miles from

Hinundayan. — Population, 3,890; situated 79 miles from

Inopacan. — Population, 4,239. It is situated 92 miles
from Taeloban and lias public liigliroads.

Jaro. — Population, 12,475; situated 22 miles from Taelo-

Leyte. — Population, 6,719.

Liloan. — Population, 3,982.

Maasin. — Population, 18,499, the township having 144,208;
situatt'(l 150 miles from Taeloban.

Mac-Crohon.— Population, 5, 780.

Malibago.— Population, 1,119 ; situated 5 miles from Taelo-

Malitbog.— Population, 7,900.

Maripipi.- -Population, 1,998; situated 1 mile from Leyte.

Matalon. — Population, 0,140.

Merida. — Population, 897.


Naval. — Population', 3,183; situated 59 miles from Taclo-

Ormoc— Population, 8,107.

Palo. — Population, 17,736; situated 6 miles from Tacloban.
It lias highroads to neighboring towns.

Palompon. — Population, 7,858; situated 115 miles from

Quiot. — Population, 2,422; situated 137 miles from Taclo-

San Isidro de Campo. — Population, 3,352; situated 56
miles from Tacloban.

San Miguel. — Population, 4,126.

Sogod. — Population, 4,722; situated 52 miles from Taclo-

Tanauan.— Population, 18,509; situated 10 miles from

Tolosa. — Population, 5,587; situated 14 miles from Taclo-

Villaba. — Population, 3,257; situated 97 miles from Taclo-


This island is mountainous and wild ; its coasts are difficult
of access, and the breakers strong, except on the west coast

Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 26 of 31)