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Military notes on the Philippines. September 1898 online

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fathoms off a sand beach bordered witli rocks in front of the
town. There is also anchorage NE. of the islet Kabalarian
in 13 fathoms.

The coast. — From Gigoso Point the coast trends westward
IC) miles, as far as Capines Point, and forms between these
points two clean bays, with deep water in them, separated
by Kablagna Point. The villages along this coast offer few
resources, and neither wood nor water can be procured.

Shoals. — A rocky shoal is marked on the chart 1 mile south
of Kablagna Point. In 1861 H. M. S. Sphinx struck on a
coral reef having 1 fathom water on it, lying i mile from a
low point south of Maglobo. From it Capines Point bore
N. 87° W., and the west side of Jumantral (Malhon Island)
S. 40° E. It is 800 yards in length, NW. and SE., and about
250 yards east and west, and is probably identical with the
slioal laid down in the chart, about | mile SE. of this position
or 1 mile S. of Kablagna Point. The chart of this part of
the coast is not very correct. Another rocky shoal, named
Kalianan, lies in the entrance of the bay between points
Kablagna and Capines.

Capines Point is moderately high and wooded. Alabat
Point, at the entrance of San Pedro Bay, lies 2 miles WNW.
of Capines.

NORTHWEST COAST.

Port Kanaguaion, on the west coast, opposite the south end
of Dalumpiri Island, is a small port in which vessels of all
sizes can find shelter in bad weather. It is formed by an inlet
in the coast, with two islets fronting it, leaving two narrow
channels for entrance. The Great Pass, or Western Channel,
is 1^ cables wide.

The anchorage is between the islets and the coast of Samar,
and offers good depth of water and good holding ground, but
the space is confined. Water can be obtained from a rivulet
opposite the first islet.

Coast. — Immediately south of Point Kanuguaion the river
Pinalet runs down and enters a little cove, steep-sided, with
a depth of G fathoms near the shore. Point Pinalet, the
southern point of this cove, is high and jagged, and has an
islet off it at a distance of 50 yards. From this point the
coast trends SSE. for 7 miles to Point Malayo; it is rocky as
far as the intermediate point, Maglagaban, and from thence
to Point Malayo it is steep-to.



SAMAR — NORTHWEST COAST. 279

Mobo River, 4 miles NNW. of Kanaguaion Port, is fed l3y
a beautiful waterfall which flows from a valley between two
high hills of black rock ; its shores are covered by trees of
nipa palm. The river is 100 yards wide at the mouth, but
the available width is diminished to 25 yards by a reef from
the south point. The waterfall is ^ of a mile from the mouth
of the river, and can be reached by a boat. The depth on the
bar is 11 feet at low water, but within the bar it increases to
9 fathoms.

In this part of Samar the coasts form the base of a high
range of mountains covered with trees of a very dark green.
The hill consists of sand and rocks, covered with mangroves
down to tlie water's edge. At ^ of a mile from the shore
the depth is 7 fathoms, ^and and rock.

Kinabasaran Point is covered with high trees; the shore
between the point and Mobo River is bordered with rocks, in
some places to a distance of i of a mile from the shore. The
tidal streams, which run 7^ knots at springs and 4 knots at
neaps, strike the point with great force, producing violent
eddies.

Lipata Point, 3^ miles north of Kinabasaran, is high and
rocky. A reef of sand and rock covered by 5 feet of water
projects from the point. There is good anchorage during the
northeast monsoon in the open bay of Tinaguitan, between
points Kinabasaran and Lipata; the depth of water in the
northern part is from 27 to 13 fathoms, and in this same
part of the anchorage there is a good stream from which
water may be obtained.

Balicuatro Point, the northwest point of Samar, is clean
and steep-to to the northward, while to the southward and
westward the shore is bordered by rocks to some distance out.

Balicuatro Bay, to the eastward of the point, is deep, and
the shore is steep and fringed here and there with rocks.
Vessels should not anchor in it except in case of need.

Balicuatro Islands, off the northwest coast of Samar,
have not been 'surveyed, and the channels between them are
narrow and little known. A vessel should therefore take
great precautions in entering them.

Vari Island, 3i miles NE. of Point Balicuatro, is 4 miles
long and 3 miles wide; its shores are clean and steep-to,
except to the south and southeast, where a reef extends f of
a mile out. A detached rock lies to the north of Vari Island,



280 SAMAR— NORTHWEST COAST.

+ mile off. Irregular depths of 7 to 3G fathoms extend to 20
miles west of Vari Island. The bottom is rocky and the
tidal stream strong, so that vessels anchoring there are liable
to lose their anchors.

Kinamaligan is Ioay and surrounded by a reef; the channel,
this island, and the reef off the coast of Samar are ^ of a mile
wide and 5 to 15 fathoms deep; the soundings increase
abruptly to 27 fathoms to the eastward,

Kabaun, the easternmost of the Balicuatro Islands, is low,
wooded, and surrounded by a reef which extends to more
than a mile from the shore. There is anchorage between it
and the coast of Samar, completely sheltered, but, at the same
time, surrounded by islets, dangers, and sand banks which
make it difficult of access. The channels leading to it are
only known to the local pilots.

Katadman Anchorage is fit for coasters only, and for them
only diiring the southwest monsoon, as during the northeast
monsoon a very heavy sea sets in. The town of Katadman,
on the left bank of the river of the same name, contains a
population of 8,200 souls.

The coast of Samar is very foul to the eastward of Katad-
man. The islets Hirapsan and Palijon, 4 miles from the
coast, appear to be united to it by a reef which continues
along the coast as far as Point Oot. From Point Livas, 4
miles east of Oot, there are rocky islets covering a distance
of i mile to the northward.

Laguan Bay, between Livas Point and the western side
of Laguan Island, offers good anchorage in 6 or 7 fathoms,
sheltered from east and northeast winds, but exposed to the
northwest and west. The depth of water diminishes gradu-
ally from 7 fathoms at the mouth of the bay to 1 fathom at a
little less than a mile from the shore at the head. The south-
eastern part of the bay is rocky.

Laguan Island is separated from the coast of Samar by a
narrow channel which communicates with Port Palapa. The
town of Laguan stands on a slight eminence on the southwest
shore. A reef stretches out 6 cables from the middle of the
western shore of Laguan Island ; in order to avoid this danger
(when navigating to the northward from Laguan Bay) the
islet off the northwest point of Kahayagan Island should not
be brought to bear westward of north until the reef is passed.

Kahayagan Island is surrounded by rocks which extend out
7 cables from the northwest part.



SAMAR — WEST COAST. 281

WEST COAST.

The part of the coast between Baliciiatro Point, the north-
eastern extremity of Samar, and Malayo Point, some 21 miles
to the southward, has been inchided in the description of San
Bernardino Strait. From point Malayo the coast trends SE.
i S. for 15 miles to Point Hibatang, west of Kalbayok; this
part of the coast is high and clear.

The town of Kalbayok is situated on the shore in a bend of
the coast near the mouth of the river Kalbayok. The anchor-
age is opposite to the town, about a mile from the shore, with
the church bearing NE. by N., in 3i to -l fathoms water. It
is not a good anchorage during the southwest monsoon.
Steamers from Manila call here fortnightly.

Coast. — From Kalbayok the coast trends SE. for 25 miles,
as far as Catbalogan, and is broken up into bays with little
depths of water in them, and quite exposed to the southwest
winds. The rivers that flow into these bays can be entered
only by small coasters at half tide. Near the coast the water
is shallow, in no place exceeding a depth of 4|- fathoms; a
few islets and banks that lie off it are separated from it by
shallow channels.

The Libukan Islands are a group of three islands and sev-
eral smaller islets lying about 4^ miles olf the coast of Samar.
There is good anchorage in a bay on the north side of the
largest island, Libukan Dako, in 12 fathoms water, and ves-
sels on the coast make for this anchorage when the southwest
gales, called collas, begin to blow. Two islets named Laya-
laya, united by a reef which dries at low water, lie 1 mile
SE. of the largest island.

Dangers. — A shoal, awash at low water, lies 7 cables SW.
of Libukan Gutiai; and Dapdap Shoal, which uncovers at
low water, lies 9 cables south of Layalaya Islets. Kambidsos
Rocks lie If miles east of Dapdap Shoal, and 1 mile north of
the largest Kanahauan island.

The Kanahauan Islands offer good anchorage among them,
sheltered from all winds, in depths of 15 to 20 fathoms. The
best anchorage is in the little port of Aguirre, on the east side
of Timpasan Island, and near the southwest jDoint of Kana-
hauan Dakd. The southern entrance to this port is 1 cable
Avide and from 7 to 12 fathoms deep; the northern entrance
is only 2 fathoms deep. The port itself is about 2 cables wide,



282 SAMAR — WEST COAST.

witli a depth of 7 to 10 fathoms in the middle, and 2 to 3
fathoms near the shore.

The passages between the islands and banks that compose
the group are safe and deep, and afford easy access to these
anchorages, which is a fact all the more important in that the
neighboring coasts have no harbors. The summit of Kana-
hauan Dako is 44G feet high, and that of Timpasan 489 feet;
the other islands rise to about 245 feet. They are all covered
with large trees, which the natives are now clearing away
and replacing by plantations of abaca.

Buri Island, lying 2f miles SW. of Catbalogan, is sepa-
rated from the coast of Samar only by a channel less than 1
fathom deep. There is anchorage on the eastern side of the
island at 2 or 3 cables from the shore in 2^ to 5 fathoms, and
also on the north side of the island at 3 cables from the shore,
with the summit of the island bearing N. 27° W., in 4^
fathoms.

Catbalogan, the capital of the province of Samar, stands on
the shore of a little bay at the mouth of the river of the same
name. It carries on a fair trade with Manila, chiefly in hemp
and cocoanut oil. The bay, which is open to the SW., has a
depth ranging from 5 to 2|- fathoms, and is fronted by the
shoals Lutao, Kinituai, and others, which lie from 2 miles W.
to 1 mile S W. by S. of the church in the town ; these shoals
dry at low water, and between them and the main coast there
is a passage to the southward 4^ fathoms deep.

The mouth of the river is obstructed by a bar, which only
allows ingress at high water to vessels of not more than G feet
draft.

Anchorage. — The best berth and nearest to the mole is 4
fathoms, bottom fine sand, with the house of the governor in
line with the church. In bad weather vessels can proceed by
the passage between the shoals and the shore to a more secure
anchorage under the islands Darajuai and Majaba, which lie
If to 3i miles to the southward of the town. Steamers call
fortnightly at Catbalogan.

Maqueda Bay, the great indentation south of Catbalogan,
is little known ; it is shallow and only practicable for coasters. •
Majaba Island, at the mouth, offers sheltered anchorage on
its eastern side in G fathoms. A shoal awash, named Kam-
balat, lies between Majaba and Buat islands; there are 10
fathoms in the channel on either side.



SAMAR— WEST COAST. 283

Parasan and Buat Islands. — Parasan is 10 miles long,
north and south, low, and bordered by sand beaches; the
western shore is clean, and the rocky islets off it are all high
except the one to the northward, which only partly uncovers
at low water.

Buat is circular, about 4^ miles across, rising to a peak
1,155 feet high. There is a sheltered port on the southern
side, with a depth of 4 fathoms. The channel (called Buat
channel) between these islands and the coast of Samar is very
narrow, and is used only by small coasters going from Bilaran
Island to Catbalogan.

CITIES AND TOWNS.

Balangiga.— Population, 5,000.

Basey. — Population, 13,756.

Bobon.— Population, 4,830.

Borongan.— Population, 9,448.

Calbayog. — Population, 30,250; situated Hi miles from
Catbalogan.

Calviga.— Population, 4,292.

CapuL— Population, 2,295.

Catarman.— Population, 10,482; situated 93 miles from
Catbalogan.

Catubig. — Population, 9,565; situated 56 miles from Cat-
balogan.

Dap-Dap.— Population, 2,634.

Gandara. — Population, 15,563; situated 10 miles from Cat-
balogan.

Guiuan. — Population, 11,311; situated 109 miles from Cat-
balogan.

Hernani. — Population, 2,555.

Jiabong. — Population, 3,579.

La Granja, — Population, 3,413 ; situated 25 miles from Cat-
balogan.

Lanan.— Population, 4,779.

Laoang.— Population, 8,129.

Lavezares. — Population, 3, 480.

Libas (or San Julian).— Population, 3,616.

Mercedes.— Population, 3,068.

Navas (Las). — Population, 2,830.

Oquendo. — Population, 5,200; situated 20 miles from Cat-
balogan.



284 SAMAR— CITIES AND TOWNS.

Oras. — Population, 5,GG7.

Palapag. — Population, 5,802; situated GO miles from Cat-
balogan.

Pambujan. — Population, 7,423.

Paranas. — Population, 7,3GG; situated 8 miles from Catba-
logan.

Paric. — Population, 3,469.

Pinabacdao.— Population, 1,975.

Q,uinapundan. — Population, 2,000; situated 29 miles from
Catbalogan .

Salcedo. —Population, 4,470; situated 60 miles from Catba-
logan.

San Sebastian. — Population, 839; situated 9 miles from
Catbalogan.

Santa Rita.— Population, 4,394; situated 43 miles from
Catbalogan.

Sulat. — Population, 4,613.

Taragnan.^Population, 3,950.

Tubig.— Population, 3,378.

Villa Real. — Population, 6,091; situated 50 miles from
Catbalogan.

Zumarraga.— Population, 4,561; situated 9 miles from
Catbalogan.



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THE SULTANSHIP OF JOLO.



The Jold Archipelago, formed of some 160 islands, is situated
southwest of Mindanao and south of Basilan. It is bounded
on the south by the Jold Sea, on the northeast by Mindanao,
and on the west and southwest by Borneo. The small islands
are covered with mangroves, while the large ones have thick
forests of good timber, and the natives raise rice, maize, and
various alimentary roots, ambergris being found on the coasts.
The principal island, called Sulii, or Jold (ch. 47, 48, 49, 50,
p. 285), is occupied in a military way by Spanish forces, whose
chief, or governor, resides in the old capital, which has well-
constructed and armed forts, a pier, etc. By royal decree of
November 13, 1877, the sultanship was transformed into a
civico-military government. The population consists of 500
aborigines, 612 Chinese traders, and 16,000 negroes.



(285)



Mo .'nri.



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ISI.A CAP'
de la tsla d^



THE SULTANSHIP OF JOLO.



The Jold Archipelago, formed of some 160 islands, is situated
southwest of Mindanao and south of Basilan. It is bounded
on the south by the Jold Sea, on the northeast by Mindanao,
and on the west and southwest by Borneo. The small islands
are covered with mangroves, while the large ones have thick
forests of good timber, and the natives raise rice, maize, and
various alimentary roots, ambergris being found on the coasts.
The principal island, called Sulu, or Jold (ch. 47, 48, 49, 50,
p. 285), is occupied in a military way by Spanish forces, whose
chief, or governor, resides in the old capital, which has well-
constructed and armed forts, a pier, etc. By royal decree of
November 13, 1877, the sultanship was transformed into a
civico-military government. The population consists of 500
aborigines, 612 Chinese traders, and 16,000 negroes.



(285)



GENEPwVL INDEX.



Page

Abak Town 8

Abalaii Kiver 23

AboDgabon Point 10

Abra de Apiton Creek 22

Abra de IIo Cove 18

Abrade Hog Mountain

Abra de Hog Town 20

Abra Province 10

Abra River 9, 12

Abriop Bank 9

Abucay Town 10

Abulug Mountain Chain 8

Abulug River

Abulug Town

Abuyog Town

Acha Rock

Acha Shoal

Aclan Kiver

Adam and Eve Bank

Adan River

Adavang Town

Adela Rock 40

Administration of the Philippines 27

Afuera Bank 5i)

Agajo Point 92,149

Agoa Town 113

Agno Grande River 9

Agno River 7

Agno Town 138

Agoo Town 137

Agriculture of the Philippines 22

Aguada Island _'__ 81,82

Aguilar Town 131

Agua-sa Bay 64

Aguirre Bank 20G

Aguirre Port 281

Agusam Town 176

Agusan River 10

Agutaya Island 182

AgutayaTown 182

Ajui Bay 228

Ajui River 228

Ajus Point 64

Ajuy Town 259

Akdan Point, River, and Bar 220

Alabat Harbor 88

Alabat Island 87,88

Alabat Point 278

Alaminos Town 123,138

Alang-Alang Town 265

Alap Town 113

Alava Town— 131



Page.

Albai Gulf 83,95

Albai River 95

Albai Town 95, 104

Albai Volcano 74,94,96

Albay Province lOt

Albuera Town 265

Albuquerque Town 241

Alcala Town 116, 131

Alcantara Town 257

Alcoy Town 257

Alegria Town 257

Alfonso Town 118

Alfonso XII Town 103

Aliaga Town 128

Alibatan Islet 191

Alibijaban Island 69

Alikai Island 153

Alileni Town 108

Alimodian Town 236

Alimpaya Point 157

Alipapu Mountain 4

Almeria Town 265

Aloguinsan Town 257

Alonon Point 205

Alo Point 173

Alorang Town 176

AIos Town 138

Alubijit Anchorage 150

Alubijit Town 176

Alumbubunig Mountain 4

Alutaya Shoal 149

Amadeo Town 118

Amadgadpagat Islet 142, 147

Amamasan Town 136

Ambil Bank 56

Ambil Island 55,56

Amblan Point 271

Amblan Town 271,273

Ambolon Island 198

Ambuclao Town 111

Amburayan District 108

Amburayang River 118

Amilao River U

Amiimay Town 111

Amul Island 56

Auahauan Point 189

Anajao Point 93

Anajauan Island 144

Anajaugan Island 269

Anajuayau Island 228

Anao-Aon Town 178

Anao Town 134

Anauayan Channel 232



(287)



288



GENERAL INDEX.



Page.

An da Town 138,241

Ando Island 270

Angadanan Town 122

Angaqui Town 125

Angae Point 77

Angat Town 114

Ang-Baiong Town 113

Angeles Town 130

Angono Town 127

Anibaya Island 66

Anibayas Islands 67

Anilao River 229

Anilao Town 2:56

Animal Kingdom of the Philippines 22

Anima Sola Islet 73

Anini Point 213

Anini Town 213,233

Anki Islet 142

Anquien Town 113

Antadao Town 113

Antequera Town 241

Antiki Town 213

Antipolo Town 127

Antique Province 233

Antique Town 233

Antiyao Eiver 10

Antonia Island 224

Apalit Town 130

Aparri Road 85

Aparri Town 84,116

Apayos District 108

Apiton Pass 232

Apiton Strait 228

Apo East Pass 201

Apo Island 270

Apo Mount 4

Apo Reef 200,201

Apo Shoal 200

Apo Volcano 5

Apo West Pass 201

Apud Shoal and Point 72

Arangasa Island 170

Arayat Mount 6

Arayat Town 130

Area of the Philippines 2

Arena Islet 73

Arena Point 65,68,69

Arenas Point 43,60

Arevalo Town 236

Argao Point 255

Argao Town 257

ArguellesTown 272

Aringay Town 137

Avitao Town 129

Asingan Town 131

Asit River 11

Aslom Islet 191

Aslum Mount 5,261

Asturias Town 257

Atimonan Town 135

A.toc Town 111

Ayala Town 179



Page.

Ayninam Islet 170

Ayuman River 10

Ayungon Town 273

Ayuquitan Town 273

Azagra Town 274

Azual Town 111

B.

Baan Town 136

Baao Town 106

Babatguu Anchorage 79

Babatgun Point 79

Babatugon Town 265

Bacacay Town 104

Bacarra Town ^ 119

Bacay Town 103

Bacio Town 248

Bacnag Town 178

Baco Town 2(18

Bacolod Town 72

Bacolor Town 1.30

Bacon Town 104,273

Bac.'io Mountain 5

Bacoor Town 118

Bantay Town 120

Badajoz Town 274

Badayon Town 241

Badian Island 246

Badian Point 72

Badian Town 245, 257

Badoc Town 119

Badog Island 35,36

Bagabag Town 129

Bagabu Islet 227

Bagac Town 109

Bagaisi Channel 226

Bagak Bay 47

Bagakai Island 90

Bagakai Point 149,248

Bagakai Town 94

Bagalayag Mountains 5

Bagalayag Point 185

Bagamanog Town 104

Baganianok Port 93

Baganga Bay 171

Baganga Town 175, 17(i

Bagakai Point 149

Bagiitao Island 75,76

Bagnotan Town 137

Bago Town 175,272

Baguen Town 125

Baguio Town 111

Bagulayan Point 194

Bagunbanua Islet 271

Bagutayok Point 70

Bailen Town 118

Bais Islands 271

Bais Town 273

Bakahan Bluflf 228

Bakai Point 89

Bako River 187,188

Bacos Islets 188



GENERAL INDEX.



289



Page.

Bal.ibac Island 181

Balabac Town 181

Balacbac Town 111

Balagiia Town 125

Balamban Bay 245

Balamban Town 257

Balanga Town 109

Balangiga Town 283

Balangonan Point 156

Balanguin Point 156

Balangunan Roadstead 169

Balate Town ._ 234

Balanang Town 137

Balayaii Bay 5!

Balayan Mount 58

Balayan Town 58

Biilayang Town 110

Balb:igan Island 223

Baleno Town 183

Baler Town 133

Baler Bay 87

Balin Island 224

Balesin Island 87

Balete Port 173

Balicuatro Point, Bay, and Island 279

Baliguian Islet 227, 232

Balikasai Island 239

Balili Town 113

Balilijan Town 241

Balinalto Islet 274

Balincaguing Town 138

Balinhasay Cape 42

Balioang Town 113

Balinag Town 114

Balingasac Bay 149

Balingasac Town 176

Baliran Town 265

Baliti Point 187,188

Balito River 59

Ballena Rock 142

Baloi Point 153

Balugang Town i 113

Balumban River 11

Balungao Town 128

Balut Island 169

Bambang Town 129

Banaas Town 125

Banaja Volcano 6

Banajao Mountain 8

Banajao Peak 123

Banalakan Port 65, 68

Banate Bay 229

Banate Town 229,236

Banaue Town 113

Banban Town 134

Banbayau Point 149

Banco Town 125

Banga Port 158

Banga Town 234

Banganga Village 161

Banganian Peninsula 161

Bangar Town 1 i7





Page.






Baugui-d Town

Bangui Port


103

83


Bangui Town


119


Bani'uitan Town


125


Bani Point


43 44


Bani Town


138




111




— .- 224


Bankulin Point


170

119




07




. . 109


Baiios (Los) Town

Bantavan Island

Bantayan Town

Bantiki Islet


123

227

257

.. 149


Bantiki Point


61,62,75,244

271




274


Bantoncillo Islet


193

. 193




71




- 248




93




- „ „ 127


Barasoain Town

Barauen River


114

11




233




104




244, 257




113




211




236


Barotac Viejo Town


2:36

229




229


Barrabas Shoal


144




. 45


Baru Town


206




- 181




10








166




174




. — 100




— _ 108




„ 119




- 45


Batalan Point


1 45

94




220




234


Batanes Islands


181

.58,60




109




„ 59,60


Batangas Town


109

123




-. - 245


Batl)atan Isle


212



290



GENEKAL INDEX



Page.

Batiano Point 173

Bato Town 9;S,104,106

Batj-Laguan River 10

Bato Eiver 11

Bato Town 266

Batuanan Town 241

Batulainpan Point. 157

Batulaki Bay 169

Batiilao Mount 4

Batu-Tandok Point 157

Bauang Town 110, 137

Baul Island 277

Bayalnau Island 141, 147

Bayanibang Town 132

Bayas Island 225

Baybay Town 261, 266

Bay Lagoon 123



Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 28 of 31)