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Politico-military commander _
Politico-military governor _ . ^

Alcalde mayor

Politico-military commander _

....do -.

. — do

Alcalde mayor

Politico-military governor. . .



Pueblos of residence of the
chief of the province or
distri< t.



South of ManUa:

Cavite

Morong

Laguna

Distritode la Infanta.



Politico-military governor. _ _
Politico-military commander .
Alcalde mayor

Politico-militarv commander.



Batangas

Tayabas . .

Camarines Sur . . .
Camarines Norte.

Albay

Corregidor Island

Mindoro Island ; Alcalde mayor

Calamianes Island ... Politico-military governor



Alcalde mayor

....do ".

..-.do

. — do

-...do

Politico-militarv governor.



Balabac Islands

Romblon

Burias .-

Masbate and Ticao.



do



Politico-military commander

— do .

...do



Manila.
Bulacan.
San Isidro.
Valer.

Bayombong.
Turnauini.
Saltan.
Tnguegarao.
Bacolor.
Porac.
Tariac.
Iba.

Lingayen.
San Fernando.
Benguet.
Bangued.
Vigan.
Cayan.
Bontoc.
Tiagan.
Laoag.

Santo Domingo de
Vasco.

Cavite.
Morong.
Santa Cruz.
Binangonan de

Lampon.
Batangas.
Tayabas.
Nuevas Caceres.
Daet.
Albay.

Corregidor Island.
Calapan.
Taytay.
Balabac.
Romblon.
Burias.
Masbate.



30



RELKilOX AND EDUCATION.



VISAYA ISLANDS.



Name of province or
district.


Classification of authorities
governing them.


Pueblos of residence of the
chief of the province or
district.




Politico-military governor of
the islands.

Politico-military governor.- .

. — do - - - - -

-..^do

-.-.do . -

-.-do -

Politico-military commander-


Cebii


Samar

Leyte -

Bohol- -

Cebri -

Isla de Negros

Escalante


Catbalongan.

Tacloban.

Tagbilaran.

Cebii.

Bacolod.

Escalante.



ISLAND OF PAN-A.Y.



Iloilo Politico-military governor ( Iloilo.

Concepcion Politico-military commander.; Concepcion.

Capiz - - - j Politico-militarj' governor- - _ Capiz.

Antique do ' Vista.



Zamboanga
Misamis



Politico-military governor of !
the island.

Politico-military governor. . .

-.-.do

Dapitan Politico-military commander.

Surigao Politico-military governor. - - j

Bislig Politico -military commander.

Davao i Politico-military governor _ - _

Cottabato i do '

Isla de Basilan do

Islas Marianas do



Cottabato.

Zamboanga.

Cagayan de Oro.

Dapitan.

Snrigao.

Bislig.

Davao.

Cottabato.

Isabela.

S. Ignaciode Agaiia.



RELIGION AND EDUCATION.

The Roman Catholic is the established church in the Phil-
ippines, which contains one archiepiscopal see and three
bishoprics. Most of the ecclesiastical authority is in the
hands of the various religious orders — Dominicans, Agus-
tines, Franciscans, etc. — who are the real rulers of the coun-
try, as their power among the natives far exceeds that of the
various civil and military authorities. This power causes a
great deal of jealousy, as is evidenced by the long record in
the history of the islands of bitter controversies between the
church and civil authorities. The religious affairs on the



PROVINCES — POPULATION AND CAPITALS.

islauds are far l)eliiiid the age, and it would 1)e of great he\
to the people, who are naturally devout, if they were infust
with more modern ideas and methods.

The Spanish priests, friars of strict orders, come to the
islands to stay, and, with scarcely an exception, do their
duties faithfully and devotedly. Many of these Spanish
curas have done much good work in the way of making roads
and bridges and the building of churches, acting frequently
as their own engineers and architects with far less unsightly
I'esults than one might expect from persons who are supposed
to be more conversant with breviary and rosary than with
rule and compass.

Priests of native extraction do not (luite come up to the
high standard of their Spanish confreres. They can not all
live up to the severity of monastic rules. These native curas,
moreover, suffer under the proverbial disadvantage which
affects the prophet in his own country, and, lacking the
strength of mind and tenacity of vow of the Spanish priests,
sometimes seek consolation in diversions of not quite a clerical
or monastic character.

Education is much neglected, and both the institutions for
higher and primary instruction are antiquated in their meth-
ods and far behind the times. Although in nearly every
town and village that is under the control of the government
a school may be found, neither the quality nor quantity of the
instruction given is satisfactory.

TABLE SHOWING PROVINCES, WITH THEIR POPULATIONS AND

CAPITALS.

ISLAND OF LUZON.



Population.



Capitals.



Abra

Albay

Amburayan

Apayaos

Bataan

Batangas

Benguet . -
Binatangan

Bontoc

Bulacan

Cabugaoan .
ivan - .



49. 702
296, 850

30. 150
6, 000

52. 000
212, 192

15. 932



24, 502
230. 000



112.357



Bangued.

Albay.

Alilem.

Bagubagu.

Balanga.

Batangas.

La Trinidad.

Binatangan. '

Bontoc.

Bnlacan.

Cabugaoan.

Tnguegarao.



32 PKOVINCES— POPULATION AND CAPITALS.

ISLAND OF LUZON— continued.



Provinces.



Population.



CapitiilB.



Camarines

Cavite

Cayapas

Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Siir

Infanta

Isabc'la (le Luzon

Itavfs

Laguna _

Lepanto- -

Manila - -

Morong - .

NuevaEcija

Nneva Vizcaya . -

Pampanga

Pangasinan

Principe

Quiangan

Tarlac

Tayabas .-.

Tiagan

Union (La)

Zambales



185, 878
133, 926



156,900

172.836
10, 200
46. 846
15, 208

177, 000
19.422

400, 238
42, 748

155, 000
23, 520

250, 000

295. 105

5, 000

29, 800

97. 947

105, 576
3. 041

119.421
87, 641



Nneva Caceres.

Cavite.

Cayapa.

Laoag.

Vigan.

Binan.i

llagan.

Macogao.

Santa Cruz.

Cervantes.

Manila.

Morong.

San Isidro.

Bayonibong.

Bacolor.

Lingayen.

Baler.

Quiangan.

Tarlac.

Tayabas

San Eniilio.

San Fernando.

Iba.



1 de Lampon.



ISLAND


DF MINDANAC




Basilan

Cottabato

Dapitan

Davao

Matti

Misamis


12, 000

3.000

12,653

8, 000

9,764

113,695

95, 775

21.300


Isabela de Basilan.

Cottabato.

Dapitan.

Davao.

Matti.

Cagayan.

Surigao.

Zamboanga.


Surigao _-

Zamboanga.- .. -



ADJACENT ISLANDS.



Balabac - -

Batanes Islands .
Burias

Calamianes

Corregidor .>

Marianas Lslands .
Masbate and Ticar

Mindoro

Paragua (La)



1.100


Balabac.


475


Santo Domingo de Basco,


1,600


San Pascual.


16,380


Cuyo.


569


San Jose.


9.770


Agafia.


26.497


Masbate.


106. 170


Calapan.


45, 000


Puerto Princesa.



PROVINCES — POPULATION AND CAPITALS.
CAROLINE AND PALAOS ISLANDS.



33



Provinces.


Population.


Capitals.


Car< )linas Occideutalf s


600
4, 500


Santa Cristina


Carolinas Orientales


Santiago de la A.scens-iim.



Antique .-.

Bohol

Capiz

Cebii

Concepciun

Iloilo

Leyte

Negros Occiilentales.
Negi-os Orientales - . .

Romblon ^ ..

Samar



VISAYA ISLANDS.



119, 356

247, 745

189, 171

504, 076

19, 343

472, 798

270, 491

226, 995

94, 782

38, 633

200, 753



San Jose de Buenavista.

Tagbilaran.

Capiz.

Cebu.

Concepcion.

Iloilo.

Tacloban.

Bacolod.

Dumaguete.

Romblon.

Catbalogan.



SULTANSHIP OF JULO



Jolo .



17,112 ! Jolo.



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ISLAND OF LUZON.



This island, accordiug to Crawford, is tlie most i)rivilogod
one of the tropical zone, on acconnt of its fertility, its abun-
dant and wide rivers, its many large bays, and all its natural
conditions. Its longitude from NE, to SE. is about 480 miles
and its area about -41,000 square miles, to which may be
added about 3,500 square miles, as the total area of different
islands belonging to it.

ITINERARY OF COAST OP LUZON — WEST COAST,

Cape Bojeador, which forms the northwestern extreme of
Luzon, is a low point with a reef of breakers projecting from
it. To the southward of the cape the coast is cliffy and
fringed by a reef as far as 2 miles south of Dirikwi Creek ;
it then becomes low, with a sandy shore as far as Mount
Kauit, which lies IG miles south of the cape, the country in
the interior being very high. In case of necessity anchorage
can be got along this coast during the northeast monsoon.

The chain of high mountains inland, which commences
near St. Fabian, in the Gulf of Lingayen (ch. 1, p. 35), extends
parallel to the coast, gradually diminishing in height, and
stretching more inland about 24 miles to the southward of
Cape Bojeador, leaves a spacious plain fronting the sea. An-
other chain of hills begins about 7 or 8 miles from the shore,
and stretches northward, parallel to the coast line.

Mount Kauit, on the crest of which are some trees, forms
a conspicuous mark on this low coast. The river Laoag dis-
embogues to the southward of the mount ; its mouth is closed
by a bar forming a bank, which extends some distance sea-
ward ; the town of Laoag stands near the bank of the river,
about 4 miles inland.

The coast from Mount Kauit trends S. by W. for 8 miles,
to Kulili Point, which is high, with a sandy shore, and thence
continues S. by W. for another 8 miles, as far as Solot Point,
oft* which is Badog Island. Midway between Kulili Point
and Badog Island is Gan Bay, with reefs extending 1^ miles

(35)



No







30



Poi-tiiquese Pf



7 9



J. 2 Mdela.Jii'




ISLAND OF LUZON.



Tills island, according to Crawford, is the most privileged
one of the tropical zone, on account of its fertility, its abun-
dant and wide rivers, its many large bays, and all its natural
conditions. Its longitude from NE. to SE. is abont 480 miles
and its area about 41,000 square miles, to which may be
added abont 3,500 square miles, as the total area of different
islands belonging to it.

ITINERARY OF COAST OF LUZON — WEST COAST.

Cape Bojeador, which forms the northwestern extreme of
Luzon, is a low j^oint with a reef of breakers projecting from
it. To the southward of the cape the coast is cliffy and
fringed by a reef as far as 2 miles south of Dirikwi Creek ;
it then becomes low, with a sandy shore as far as Mount
Kauit, which lies 16 miles south of the cape, the country in
the interior being A^ery high. In case of necessity anchorage
can be got along this coast during the northeast monsoon.

The chain of high mountains inland, which commences
near St. Fabian, in the Gulf of Lingayen (ch, 1, p. 35), extends
parallel to the coast, gradually diminishing in height, and
stretching more inland about 24 miles to the southward of
Cape Bojeador, leaves a spacious plain fronting the sea. An-
other chain of hills begins about 7 or 8 miles from the shore,
and stretches northward, parallel to the coast line.

Mount Kauit, on the crest of which are some trees, forms
a conspicuous mark on this low coast. The river Laoag dis-
embogues to the southward of the mount; its mouth is closed
by a bar forming a bank, which extends some distance sea-
ward ; the town of Laoag stands near the bank of the river,
about 4 miles inland.

The coast from Mount Kauit trends S. by W. for 8 miles,
to Kulili Point, which is high, with a sandy shore, and thence
continues S. by W. for another 8 miles, as far as Solot Point,
oft' which is Badog Island. Midv/ay between Kulili Point
and Badog Island is Gan Bay, with reefs extending H miles

(85)



36 LUZON— WEST COAST.

to seaward, and immediately north of Gan Bay is Port Kur-
rimao, a small circular bay, offering anchorage in 4 fathoms,
sand. Coasting steamers call at Port Kurrimao monthly.

Badog Island, is low, thickly wooded, and surrounded by
a reef. A passage, ^ mile wide, with 11 to IG fathoms water
in it, separates Badog from the mainland, off Solot Point.
The coast interv^ening between Badog and Salomague Island,
9 miles to the southward, is rocky, with breakers projecting
from it. Anchorage may be found in front of the river
Kabugao, in C to 7 fathoms, sand, between the reefs of the
coast.

Shoals. — A shoal, with If fathoms on it, lies 2^ miles NE.
^ N. from the north point of Salomague Island. Another
bank of rock, with 7 and 8 fathoms on it, is situated 2^ miles
SW. by S. of Badog Island and 2i miles from the shore.

Port Salomague is sheltered from all winds but those
that blow between SW. and WNW. The north point is
encomi)assed by a reef which stretches along the northern
side of the port ; and Salomague Island, of moderate height,
lies about three-quarters of a mile from the point, with a reef
projecting off it about a cable to the southwest. The south
point, which separates Lapug Bay from Port Salomague, is
also surrounded by shoals. West from this point, from 1^ to
2 miles distant, are rocky banks, with 3| and 4^ fathoms on
the two nearest, and 1 fathom on the outer. The port may
be known from the offing by a gap in some high mountains
which overtop the rest of the chain on this coast. Salomague
Gap resembles the Gap of Vigan, but is not so large, and
does not approach as near the sea as that gap, which may
also be seen bearing about SE. when a vessel is 12 or 13 miles
west of Salomague Bay. When the Gap of Salomague bears
about E. ^ S., an east course will lead direct towards Salo-
mague Island at the north point of the port, which should be
approached in a large vessel bearing about east ; and the reef
off its southwest point ought to be passed close in 19 or 22
fathoms, mud, to avoid the rocky banks that lie to the west-
ward of the south point of the port ; she may then steer for
the middle of the port, rather inclining toward the northern
shore, and anchor in 8 fathoms. Farther in there is a shoal
spot, Avhich will be perceived in clear weather by the dis-
colored water on it. The best berth to moor is in 6 or 7 fath-
oms, mud, opposite some rice magazines on the north shoal.
Coast steamers call monthlv at Port Salomague.



Nn.2.



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By Lie\it.Cla\ii3io Mantax>.

One SeaMle _ ,, ,^
5 ' Cables lO



LUZON — WEST COAST. 37

Lapug Bay (Salut-Salut Bay of the old chart, and Solon-
Solon Bay of Horsburgh), immediately to the southward of
Port Salomague, is sheltered from the same winds, but is not
so capacious nor so deep. There are 5^ to 7 fathoms, sand,
in it until near the shore. In front of the bay are two rocky
shoals Avhich will be seen in clear weather. One, with 1 to 2
fathoms on it, bears WSW. 2 miles from the north point of
the bay, and has a passage on each side of 9 or 10 fathoms
water; but that to the northward, between it and the north
point of the T^ay, is too contracted. The other rocky shoal is
in the middle of the entrance to the bay in front of the
anchorage, which it shelters somewhat from the sea. The
position of the bay will be recognized by Mount Bulagao,
3,629 feet high, situated to the southeast.

PiNGET Island is very low, covered with trees, and situ-
ated nearly a mile to the NW. of a iDrojecting point; it has
sandy shores and is surrounded bj^ reefs which are steep-to
on the western side. A rocky shoal lies south of Pinget
Island and a mile from the coast. From abreast of the island
the coast is low and sandy to Point Dile.

Point Dile, in latitude 17° 34^' N., is the most prominent
point of this part of the coast, projecting far to the westward.
Between it and San Fernajido Point (ch. 2, p. 37) there are
several towns along the coast which should not be aj)proached
within a distance of 3 miles; the country is formed of high
double mountains, with low woody points to seaward in some
places.

Vigan Road is sheltered from northerly winds by Dile Point,
but exj)osed to the southward and westward. A patch of 3|-
fathoms lies about 1^ miles offshore. The anchorage is in 10
or 12 fathoms, near the shore, with the river bearing about
east; the bank shelves suddenly. About 9 miles inland to
the ENE. of the road there is a chasm between two moun-
tains, named Abra de Vigan, or Gap of Vigan, which is very
conspicuous when viewed from the offing, and is a good mark
to know this part of the coast. The city of Vigan is situated
about 2i miles to the NE. of the anchorage, on an eminence.

Solvet Bay lies 10 miles from Dile Point. The eastern shore
of the bay is encircled by a reef which extends out a consider-
able distance. Small vessels can anchor in front of the town
sheltered from all except southwest winds. San Estevan
Point lies 6^ miles from Solvet Bay, and 2^ miles farther south
is the small port of Santiago, 1 cable wide.



38 LUZON — WEST COAST.

Kaiidou Point is cliffy and surronndf^d l)y reefs. Vessels
can anclior in the bay to the southward. The land in the vi-
cinity is high and extends to the edge of the shore, terminat-
ing to the north, at San Est<'van Point, in a slope ending
perpendicularly.

The coast from Kandon Point trends south for I'j miles,
then for 7 miles SW. to Diarigayos Point, which is low, cov-
ered w4th trees, and surrounded by reefs ; thence it trends south-
ward again for 13 miles to San Fernando Point (ch. 2, p. 37).

Cauiion. — During the northeast monsoon a strong current
has sometimes been experienced, setting to the NNE., along
this coast. Vessels proceeding southward should be prepared
for this current, or they may find themselves embayed in
Lingayen Gulf (ch. 1, p. 35).

Port San Fernando (ch. 2, p. 37). — San Fernando Point
is a small low peninsula surrounded by reefs, and forms, with
the adjacent coast, two small anchorages; in the southern
there are 6 to 6i fathoms, rocky bottom ; the northern is the
l)ort of San Fernando, where anchorage can be obtained in
5i to 7 fathoms, fine sand, but it is exjwsed to winds from
the northward.

The town is situated on the east side of the port on high
land, and maintains frequent communication with Manila.

Supplies. — Game and fish are procurable. Water is
obtained from w^ells.

Lights. — A fixed red light, elevated 29 feet above the sea,
is exhibited from a light-house erected on San Fernando Point,
south side of the entrance to Port San Fernando, and should
be visible in clear weather from a distance of 10 miles.

The light-house, which is 20 feet high, consists of two iron
supports above a small iron building on a base of masonry.

A fixed red light, to be elevated 13 feet, and bear S. 7-iV
E. from the light-house of San Fernando Point, is to be
exhibited near the mole at Port San Fernando, and will be
visible in clear weather from a distance of 4 miles.

Vessels entering the port should steer for the anchorage
with this light bearing SSE. | E., which will lead in the fair-
way of the entrance.

Fag Reef (San Fernando Shoal), composed of sand and rock,
1 cable in extent, with a least depth of -4^ fathoms, lies 2
miles NW. | N. of San Fernando Point. From it, the
church of San Juan bears E. by N. ^ X. and the church of
San Fernando SE. by E. f E.



LUZON — WEST COAST. 39

LiXGAYEN Gulf (cli. 1, p. 35) is about 30 miles deep, and
about 20 miles wide across the entrance, from Santiago
Island to San Fernando Point; on tlie east coast are the lofty
mountains of Ilocos, with the peak of St. Thomas, 7,418 feet
high; the west coast is of moderate height and tolerably-
level, gradually rising to the southward to a compact moun-
tain mass. From the island of Santiago, for 1 2 miles to the
SE., the west coast of the gulf is fringed by an almost con-
tinuous chain of islands and islets. The islands are, as a
rule, low and wooded, and have shallow channels between
them, only used by coasters.

Winds. — The prevailing wind during the greater part of
the year is from SE. During the northeast monsoon, land
and sea breezes become regular, and blow freshly, with clear
atmosphere, but are interrupted by strong north and north-
easterly gales; a bank of cloud seen in the north, with a
clear sky and high barometer, is a certain sign of the com-
mencement of a gale. In June the wind blows from SE. in
the morning, with squalls off St. Thomas and San Isidro
mounts ; toward the evening it dies away with heavy rain
and thunder, and clearing toward midnight leaves a light
wind from the south, which sets in from the SE. with the
dawn. From July to October there are usually gales from
the SW. and west, lasting from three to fifteen days, accom-
panied by torrents of rain.

The worst period in the gulf is from the middle- of September
until the end of October, when typhoons occur.

Port St. Thomas is formed by a bank which runs about 2
miles to the southward of the point, and has 1 to 5 fathoms
on it. If intending to j^roceed to this port, steer to the south-
ward until St. Thomas Mount bears nearly NE., then alter
course for it, and as soon as the soundings decrease to G and 7
fathoms, turn to the northward for the anchorage. To the
north of Port St. Thomas the coast of the gulf is high and
steep-to.

The coast. — From St. Thomas the coast trends SSE., and is
high and mountainous as far as St. Fabian, where two rivers
disembogue. Thence the coast line runs WSW. for 4 miles
to Binlok River, and then 2 miles farther to Dagupan or
Binmalei River, both arms of the river Agno. The country
is low and fertile, and produces rice, maize, indigo, sugar cane,
cotton, and nipa wine.



40 LUZON — WEST COAST.

Dagupan, or Biiimalei River, has 7 to 8 feet on the bar at
springs, and a town of the same name situated close to its
mouth. Small vessels from the town of Lingayen pass out b}'-
this mouth. The town of Lingayen(ch. 1, p. 35) is near the coast,
and the tower of its church forms a consi^icuous mark on this
shore. There is frequent communication between Dagupan
and Manila. From Dagupan the coast trends WSW., and
then W. by N., forming the head of the gulf.

Light. — A fixed red light, elevated 29 feet above the sea, is
exhibited on the northeast side of Dagupan Harbor entrance,
and should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 5
miles.

Port Sual (ch. 1, p. 35), situated 2 miles to the southward of
the high islet Kabalitian, has good anchorage, muddy bottom,
at its entrance ; a sailing vessel might be warped into the port,
should circumstances render it necessary.

The port is a little over a mile long, north and south, and
nearly a mile broad, with depths of 4 to 8 fathoms j the entrance,
however, is narrowed by rocks and reefs to the breadth of
about 2^ cables, while an extensive coral bank, with G to 18
feet water over it, fills up a large portion of the port. The
eastern edge of this bank is marked by three beacons.

The land about Portuguese Point, the northern point of
entrance of the port, appears like an island when viewed from
a distance of 7 or 8 miles ; the point may be recognized by a
small round tower on its bluff, and between it and Kabalitian
Island the ground is foul with rocks just awash. A reef
extends 2 cables from Portuguese Point ; it is always covered,
and the sea breaks upon it only when the wind sets in. There
is a beacon near the south edge of this reef. Mangas Point,
the southern point of entrance, has rocks extending nearly 3
cables from it, but they are always uncovered, and may be
approached to half a cable. In the southwest part of the port
is the -village which has a church and a small landing jetty.

Adela Rock, with 12 feet water and 6 fathoms close around,
lies i mile east of Mangas Point. This rock is marked by a
beacon.

Tides. — Springs rise G feet.

Light. — A fixed red light, elevated 79 feet above the sea,
visible through an arc of 240° or between the bearings S. 10^°
E. and N. 49^° E., is exhibited from a light-house erected on
Portuguese Point, at the entrance to Port Sual, and should
be seen in clear weather from a distance of 10 miles.



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LUZON — WEST COAST. 41

The light-house, 20 feet high, is constructed of iron, and
jjaiuted light gray ; a watch tower in ruins is near it.

Supplies. — Coal is brought from Lingayen to Sual at $18
per ton. Water can be procured from a stream in southwest
part of the port.



Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryMilitary notes on the Philippines. September 1898 → online text (page 4 of 31)