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These officers have charge of the following establishments :
In Austria, the breeding stables of Fiber and of Radautz,
and the stallion de]3ots of Stadl, Graz, Goding, Pisek, and
Drohowyze. In Hungary, the breeding stables of Mezohegyes,
Kis-Ber, Babolna, and Fogaras, and the stallion depots of
Stuhlweissenburg, Nagy-Koros, Debreczin, Sepsi-Szent-
Gyorgy, and Agram. Each of these establishments has at
its disposal the necessary number of surgeons, veterinary
surgeons, and accountants belonging to the various organiza-
tions. There are on duty at these establishments 943 noncom-
missioned officers, 18 accountants, 3,578 privates of cavalry,
and 135 orderlies; total, 4,674. Under the orders of the com-
mandants of the establishments is also the management of
the civil personnel necessary for the cultivation of the land
connected with the breeding establishments.

The stallion depots furnish stallions for a certain number
of permanent posts commanded by officers. Each post fur-
nishes its stations with stallions during the covering season.
The number of posts in Austria is 16, and in Hungary 20, in
all containing 3,067 stallions, and supplying 1,118 covering
stations. The state rents to private persons 191 stallions. It
does not loan stallions free of rent.

The Hungarian breeding establishments contain 3,686 ani-
mals, distributed as follows: At Mezohegyes 2,049, at Kis-Ber
698, at Babolna 584, and at Fogaras 355. The breeding sta-
bles influence to some extent the national raising by their
selections of stallions and mares for reproduction, the prod-
iicts being disseminated by sales, and furnishing a considera-
ble number of brood mares of superior type. There results
from this, in the horse production of the monarchy, a uni-
formity by which the remount service has profited in a great
measure, to furnish the army with horses of a standard type
and of similar gaits.

The royal Hungarian breeding establishment of Mezohegyes
is the most important, on account of the number, variety, and


quality of its horses. It extends over an area of 50,000 acres,
in one tract inclosed by a ditch and forest. The domain has
6,000 civil and military employees, and includes a sugar fac-
tory and an alcohol distillery. Cereals cover about one-
quarter of the ground. The stables were founded in 1785.
In 1884 a number of stallions and mares were acquired in
Turkey and Moldavia.

The chief of the agricultural ministerial section of breeding
stables classifies the horses, excludes animals unfit for repro-
duction, distributes stallions, admits brood mares and directs
the annual sales. The horses are never tied up in the stables,
but range in the paddock. The service animals of the breed-
ing stables, 98 saddle horses and 56 draft horses, are chosen
from those excluded. Mares may be boarded at the stables
during the covering period. They are stabled free of cost,
but the forage used by them is paid for by the owners at its
market value, which is on an average about $6.08 a month
per mare. The owner pays $1 to the men who take care of a
mare. The price of the serving is fixed each year by the
minister of agriculture. Thoroughbred mares foaled in
Hungary and belonging to Hungarians are served for half
the fixed price, and any who have won a race are served free
of charge. There is in connection with this establishment a
school for noncommissioned officers. Each year the pupils
have a six months' course, including hippology, horse raising,
and the care of horses in case of sickness or of ordinary acci-
dents. The agricultural department operates eight farms, on
which range 9,000 horned beasts of the Hungarian or Simen-
thal breed. The methods are similar to those for the raising
of horses. There is a chief veterinarian, assisted by two
military and three civil veterinarians. Each one examines
all the stock in his jurisdiction every day. The chief veter-
inarian makes once a month a general inspection of all the
animals. The hospital contains special places for animals
that should be isolated.

The shoeing is placed under the direction of a veterinarian,
who has under him nine farriers, one of whom is a master
farrier. They use only about 1,200 horseshoes per j^ear,
principally for the horses of the agricultural department.
Those of the breeding stables are shod only exceptionally,
even the service horses going barefoot. Experience has
proved that leaving the horses unshod has a salutary effect


ou the horn of the hoof, the quality of the foot becoming
fixed in the breed, so that tliere are but few defective feet.

Tlie brand of the breeding stable, M surmounted by the
royal Hungarian crown, is placed on the right side of the back
behind the withers. An initial indicating the pedigree of the
sire is branded on the left side opposite.

All the horses are very gentle, being accustomed to man
from an early age. They are never ill-treated. The price of
the stallions raised at the breeding stables is estimated at
$463. On the whole, these horses are good, but are lacking
somewhat in style. The stallions are worked every day from
two and one-half to three hours at a walk or trot, and once or
twice a week they are galloped live or six minutes. During
the covering season they are not exercised at the gallop.

The stallions are divided into two classes, those that remain
permanently at the stables for reproduction, and those sent
to the stallion depots. The former class consists of 5 English
thoroughbreds, 6 half-English-breds, 4 Anglo-Norm ands, 3
Gidran, and 13 Nonius. The price of serving the best English
thoroughbreds is from 832 to $38.60. In general the gaits are
not fancy, as only the gallop is cultivated for horses for the

The stable has an auction sale every year at Budapast
during the month of October. Eight horses are annually
sent from the stables to the cavalry school at Vienna to be
ridden, in September and October, at the hunts with hounds
at Holies.

Stallions are furnished by the Government to the communes
(districts) at a price ranging from $120 to $200 each, under
the following conditions : Good maintenance, which is verified ;
maximum price to be charged for covering $1.16 ; to cover not
oftener than twice a day ; and not more than 88 mares annually.

The Hungarian breeding stables at Kis-Ber have 18,000
acres of land. The specialty of this stable is the reproduction
and acclimatization of English thoroughbreds and of half-
English thoroughbreds to improve the native breed. The
celebrated stallion Buccaneer, purchased in England, in
twenty-one years covered 726 mares, and his offspring have
won $1,100,000, including the English Derby and the Grand
Prix in 1876. Draft horses for agricultural purposes are also
bred here. In addition, silver-gray Hungarian cattle and
sheep and hogs are raised. There is an annual sale at the


stable ill June. Since 1867, i78 thoroughbred colts have been
sold at an average price of $907.30. The highest average
price -svas in 1885, when the remarkable average of $l,8r;5.60
was reached.

The breeding establishment at Babolna extends over 10,117
acres. The specialty of this stable is the improvement of
races of oriental blood. The results were not satisfactory
with Arabian blood, consequently Syrian mares and stallions
have been introduced. The stable sends to the stallion de-
pots 50 horses each year.

The Hungarian breeding stables at Fogaras are of the least
importance. There is much Arabian blood there. The small-
ness and absence of distinction in the breed is somewhat
indicative, perhaps, of its proximity to Turkey. Many sheep
of good quality are also raised here.

The stallion depot of Sepsi-Szent-Gyorgy contains 150 stal-
lions, the other stallion depots of Hungary about 200 each.

There are also two imperial breeding stables, one at Lip-
itza and the other at Kladriiber, which raise horses almost
exclusively for the em^jeror's stables. The first raises full-
blood Arabian horses, and crosses from this blood with Span-
ish stock. The first Arabian stallion sent here was a white
9-year-old taken from j^apoleon's stables after the battle of
Leipzig. Nearly all the horses at this stable are white.

The breeding stables of Kladriiber furnish the heavy horses
of Spanish breed, which serve for the imperial gala carriages.
Their gaits are very j)oor.

The breeding establishments of Austria, Fiber and Ra-
dautz, and their stallion depots and stallion posts, have simi-
lar organizations and administrations to those described for

There are a great number of private breeding stables, but
none of very great extent. Among the most important of
these may be mentioned the stables of John Becker, Stephen
Blaskovics, Eleck Forster, Count Alvis Karolyi, Count Al-
bert Apponyi, and the stables of the city of Hodmezo-

More than one-half the horses of the army are raised by
civilians, without any assistance from the breeding estab-
lishments or stallions of the state, as the number of remounts
influenced by these government institutions are insufficient for
the army. The horses raised by private breeders naturally


are not so -aniform in size, gaits, and other qualities as those
influenced by the governmental breeding.

The saddle horses in general may be said to belong to two
distinct types, the Galician and the Hungarian breeds. The
Galician horse is perhaps, for army use, superior to the Hun-
garian. This is due in part to the fact that the animals pur-
chased by the remount commissions in Hungary, owing to
the low buying price, are seldom of the iirst class. The best
animals go to other countries, which make extensive pur-
chases in Hungary. The Hungarian horse is, nevertheless,
a remarkable cavalry horse. He has an excellent back and
loins, perfect legs and feet, a large neck, and much style. A
striking trait is also the extraordinary uniformity of the type
of the various animals influenced by the breeding establish-
ments. Both types of horses are extraordinarily gentle,
which results from the absence of brutality in their treatment.

As for the stallions sent by the various breeding stables to
the hunts at Holies, they are noted, when the hunts are over,
by their riders, who are army officers, as to their endurance,
ability, condition of breathing organs, etc. These notes are
considered when the stallions are distributed to the breeding
stations, and an unfavorable report may lead to the animal's
being put out of service.

The training of the horses for the army begins at 4 years.
It is conducted with the greatest method and is very extended.
In addition to the military institute at Vienna, each cavalry
brigade has a riding school, where officers are taught the
principles and practice of training troop horses. This assures
great uniformity in the service. A peculiarity of the riding
to be mentioned is that all men are provided with a small
rattan switch f of a yard in length, which is carried when
mounted, excepting dress occasions. This does away with
the touches of the spur, which are, especially among mares,
frequent causes of restlessness.

At the military institute the instruction does not stop with
the riding school and training, the young lieutenants being
sent during the months of September, October, and Novem-
ber to the hunts at Holies. For this purpose the emperor
puts at the disposal of the institute his mansion, which has
accommodations for a great number of officers, and stables
for 300 horses. The royal breeding stables of the monarchy
furnish about 150 stallions, chosen from the animals of 8 or 9


years, the riding institute contributing also a certain number
of liorses. The domain keeps 80 deerhounds bought in Eng-
hind. The object sought is not only to practice the officers
in riding at the gallop, in order to render them energetic
goers, but to acquaint cavalry officers with the amount of
effort they can demand of a horse, and of the strength of the
latter. The horses are highly trained for the hunt, the train-
ing including the jumping of ditches, hedges, etc. The hunt
consists of letting loose, in a very much cut up but untim-
bered country, a deer caught in the forest on the opposite
bank of the March. The animal being out of his country is.
hunted, often in sight of the dogs. The horsemen follow the
dogs, crossing behind them all the obstacles which they
encounter. These latter consist principally of ditches, slopes,
etc., the most difficult being a ravine from 11 to 13 j^ards
wide, with 2 yards of water at the bottom. The officers ride
well at obstacles, are well seated, but yield little to their
horses, who jump pressing on the bridoon. The pace is
severe, and to follow it good horses are required. These
hunts are a military sport, and afford an excelleut method of
practicing riding in the open.





[ICxtiiut t'ldiii "Ziicht iiu(i lifmoiitiiun;;- ilt-r Militiir-Pt'iTdc allci- Staateii, ' \i\ Dr. Paul Goldliw.k,

Berlin, 1001.]

The total number of horses in Belgium in 1805 was 271,527.

The type of horse generally raised is a heavy pack animal,
known as the Flemish horse in its heavier form, and as the
Ardennes horse — the horse of the mountains — in its some-
what lighter form. Tliere has been developed, however, a
considerable industry in the raising of tine-bred stock.

As late as the seventies Belgium produced but one-tenth the
horses necessary for her cavalry remounts, the remainder
being purchased abroad, principally in Ireland. Horse breed-
ing has become so extensive of late, however, that of the 825
saddle horses needed in the army in 1895, only 399 had to be
purchased abroad.

The breeding of thoroughbreds is not very extensive in Bel-
gium, the number of stallions for this purpose in 1899 having
been 28.

In 1901 there were 8 regiments of cavalry, with a total of 40
squadrons, 8 depots, and 4 field-artillery regiments. The
number of service horses in 1901 was 10,875, distributed as
follows: Cavalry, 5,578; infantry, 258 ; artillery, 2,933; engi-
neers, 39; gendarmerie, 1,814; general staff, train, etc., 253.
In time of war the total strength is 143,000 men and 28,600

The remounts are supplied on the basis that artillery horses
are serviceable about eight years and cavalry horses nine years.

The size of saddle horses must be from 15 to 15^^ hands for
the chasseurs; 15i to 15^ for the lancers; 15^ to 15f for the
guides, and 15i for the artillery. That of draft horses must
be from 14i to 15^ hands.

The supply of draft horses for the artillery is purchased
almost entirely at home, the number so purchased in 1895
being 213. The average price is about $164. As high a price
as $231.60 is paid for specially heavy horses from Ireland, for
use with large guns. The number of such animals purchased
in 1895 was 19.

23.5.55 15 (225)


The horses were formerly purchased from a contractor by a
government committee and then assigned to the regiments.
This system, however, led to many complaints, as the regi-
ments were unable to keep the quality of their horses up to the
standard. Of late the manner of procuring horses for the cav-
alry and saddle horses for the artillery has been such that each
regiment has to do its own purchasing. For this purpose a
board is convened consisting of the regimental commander, two
other officers, and a veterijiary surgeon. The draft horses of
the horse batteries are purchased by a board of officers from
various regiments. The remounts for the train are supplied
from condemned artillery horses. There are no remount
depots, each regiment training its own remounts. An officer
is allowed to purchase his mounts where he wishes or he may
select them from the horses of the regiment. In the latter
case the officer is not allowed for four years to dispose of them
unless they become unfit for service.


[ExtRic-t fioiii "ZiK-lit iiMci Ui-moiitiiuiii; tier Jlilitar-l'lVnh- allc-r Staateii," by Dr. Paul Goldbeck,

Berlin, 1901.]

As in the greater part of Eastern Asia, the horses of China
are small, with the exception of those from Turkestan, which
are somewhat larger. The following races are distinguished :

(1) The Manchurian race, seldom over 12 hands high. These
are enduring little animals and are very sure-footed in rough,
difficult country. They are used almost entirely as remounts
for the Chinese cavalry, especially in the broken country of
northern China.

(2) The West-Mongolian horses. These are considerably
larger, sometimes 15f to 16f hands high, but they are genuine
steppe horses and useless in mountainous countries.

The methods of breeding in Mongolia and Manchuria —
which, by the way, are the only parts of China where horse
breeding is carried on — is mostly the unrestrained breeding in
herds. Although the Chinese settlers raise some horses on
their farms, the native Mongol allows his herd (often number-
ing 1,000 head) to run wild on the range generally without even
a herder. Owing to the extreme cold of winter nights, these
horses have very long coats (sometimes measuring 2 inches
in length) which give them a shaggy appearance. They live
by grazing on the steppe grass summer and winter. The
Mongol, being zealous to preserve his breed of horses for
himself, sells only geldings — never stallions or mares. The
geldings are sold by small breeders direct to soldiers or freight-
ers. The large owners sell only in lots to dealers.

The price of horses varies from $10 to $24. The principal
feed consists of a kind of rice mixed with small black beans.
Clover, mixed with chopped straw and dampened, is used as
fodder. Hay is unknown to the Chinaman ; grass is seldom
used, and oats are raised only in the northernmost regions for
export to Russia.

In the whole southern part of China horses are seldom found
even as domestic animals, asses and mules being preferred for



driving, the Cliinamen (except soldiers) caring little for rid-
ing. Mules are also bred quite extensively in the north, but
it is in the south that they are most valuable, being able to
endure the damp climate much better than the horse.



[Rev)orted by Lieut. Col. W. R. Livermore, Corps of Engiiiepis, I'liited States Military Attache at
Copenhageii anil Stockholm.]

The horses are obtained only by purchase. They are ob-
tained in Denmark, Germany, England, and Ireland. In
Denmark the horses are bought from breeders and agents, in
foreign countries only from horse dealers.

The average price for the ordinary cadre horses is $217.08,
for ofiBcers' horses $235.84. Expenses in purchase, amounting
to about $21.44, are included in this price.

Horses are purchased and inspected by the remount board.
For cavalry they are half-bred geldings or mares. The gaits
required are the walk, trot, and gallop. There are no regu-
lations for weight. The same regulations apply to the saddle
horses of the artillery as to the horses of cavalry.

The draft horses for the artillery are bought only in Den-
mark and are required to be Danish-bred horses. They are
as a rule larger and heavier than the saddle horse and need
not be as highly bred. Pack horses are not used. About
400 horses have been recently purchased.

There is no government breeding establishment. In a
remount depot on Fyen are kept some of the Danish-bred
cavalry remounts, of which about 20 are bought each spring
when .3 years old. After about a year at the dejDot they are
delivered to the regiments and replaced by 20 others.

The war office has two English thoroughbred stallions and
four German half-bred stallions which each year in the cover
season are stationed with horse-breeding associations or with
the farmers who have an interest in and knowledge of horse
breeding* The price for covering is $2.68 to $8.04. These
stallions have been used some few years.

There is no import or export duty on horses.

There are about 420,000 horses and no mules in Denmark.
About 3,750 horses are in the army — 2,455 in the cavalry, 1,014
in the field artillery, 38 in the train, 28 in the riding school,
15 in the officers' school, and 200 horses of mounted officers
outside the mounted arms.



In case of mobilization for war about 12,100 more horses
would be required. About 6,000 are to be delivered by the
local governments, the remainder to be bought by the army
itself in the neighborhood of the garrisons, and by the re-
mount board in Denmark and foreign countries.

The horses of the cavalry serve on an average 9.7 years;
the horses of the artillery and train on an average 9.9 years.
There are required yearly 400 horses.

The horses are broken and trained at the regiments, the
saddle horses for one year, the draft horses for one-half year.

The brand of the remount board (R K) is on the left thigh,
also the brand of the detachment (E A R, D R, G H R).

The horses are, as a rule, not vaccinated. Inoculating with
blood serum has been practiced a few times recently when
there were many cases of lung diseases.

The shoes are ordinary handmade iron ones of various
forms, as a rule, with calks during winter and without during

The horses are, as a rule, groomed twice a day.

The forage allowance is 11.02 to 12.13 pounds of oats, 4.41
pounds hay, and 8.82 pounds straw a day, of which 4.41 pounds
straw is for bedding. Compressed forage is not used.
There are no special regulations for officers' horses.


In case of wai', the horse owners in the country are under obligation to
furnish for the use of the army all the necessary horses suitable for war
purposes, according to the regulations established by this law.

The number to be supplied for the army in case of preparation for war
are apportioned to the city of Copenhagen, the towns, and the counties,
according to the regulations established by the minister of the interior.
The county councils make the apportionment to the communities in each
county, also in accordance with regulations made by the minister of the

The magistracy in Copenhagen, the town council in each provincial
town, the county councils in Frederiksberg, Frederiksvaerk, Logstor,
Marstal, Ncirre Sundby, and Silkeborg, and the parish council in the rural
communities are to procure at twenty-four hours' notice one and one-half
times as many horses, suitable for war purposes, as the communities are
to deliver according to the apportionment at the time.

Every horse owner, in case of war preparations, is bound to comply
with the orders of the above-named authorities immediately, and to deliver
for the use of the army all horses belonging to him. Any of the authoi'i
ties named, however, are authorized to buy for the community as many
horses as it is obligated to deliver, on condition that those which are not
taken are to be retiirned.


The horses which are offered are to be sui>plie<l each with four ji^ood
shoes, a cover, girth, and hemp halter.

The horses for the quota are selected by boards, one appointed for each
county, and each consisting of three members, namely, the sheriff (in
Copenhagen the mayor) as president, a member chosen by the county
council (in Coi)enhagen the magistracy), and a member appointed from
the war office.

If the board finds any horses unsuitable, the owners may x)resent others
within one hour after all the horses submitted have been judged ; if any
of these are also rejected, the board is authorized to purchase as many
horses as are lacking to complete the quota, and the community must
make up the difference between the sum paid and that of the valuation.
The board, if necessary, may complete the quota by taking the horses
from the community itself, in which case the authorities of the commu-
nity must assist if necessary.

The horses thus procured are delivered immediately at the place of
muster to the army. ^

The owners of the horses thus obtained receive at delivery a pecuniary
compensation eqiial to the value of the horses, and paid from the treas-
ury, either in cash or by check, the price paid being decided by the county
valuation boards according to the market price for horses.

The county valuation boards consist each of three expert and responsible
men, chosen by the county council (in Copenhagen by the magistracy).

Online LibraryUnited States. Adjutant-General's Office. MilitaryTarget practice and remount systems abroad → online text (page 16 of 29)