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MANUAL



FOR THE



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT



UNITED STATES ARMY



1916



CORRECTED TO APRIL 15, 1917
(Changes, Nos. 1 and 2)




WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1917



U ti



c^^^



WAR DEPARTMENT,
Document No. 504

Office of the Surgeon General,



War Department,
Office of the Chief of Staff,

Washington, D. C, February 10, 1916.

This Manual is published for the information and government of the Regular Army

and Organized MiUtia of the United States.

By order of the Secretary of Wax:

H. L. Scott,

Major General, Chief of Staff.



The regulations in this Manual are only a part of the general body of regulations
with which the medical officer must acquaint himself. For regulations general in
nature, or wliich affect other branches of the service, he should consult the Army
Regulations properly so called. In addition special reference is necessary, for pre-
cise information on the subjects with which they deal, to the manuals for the other
staff departments, to the Drill Regulations and Service Manual for Sanitary Troops,
to the Field Service Regulations, to the Tables of Organization, to the Manual for
Courts-Martial, to the Amiy Transport Service Regulations, to the Manual of Pack
Transportation, to the Regulations of the War Department Governing the Organized
Mihtia, to the Regulations for the United States MiUtary Academy, to the Small Arms
Firing Regulations, to the Manual of Interior Guard Duty, to the Regulations for the
Unifonn of the United States Army, to the Rules of Land Warfare, etc. Regulations
for the Examination of Officers for Promotion, Post Exchange Regulations, Rules for
the Examination of Recruits, Regulations Regarding the Examination and Appoint-
ment of Persons in Ci-vil Life to be Second Lieutenants in the Army, etc., are pub-
lished in general orders from time to time. An index reference to these and other
general orders of interest to the medical officer will be found in the appendix to this
Manual.

3



•:!(;g914



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Part I. — General Medical Administration.

Par.

Article I. — The Medical Department, its organization and -personnel 1-130

Organization 1

Medical Corps 2-13

Medical Reserve Corps 14-19

Dental Corps 20-32

Hospital Corps 33-50

Contract surgeons 51-55

Nurse Corps 56-102

Civilian employees 103-130

Article II . — Education and training 131-181

Library, Surgeon General's Office 132-133

Army Medical Museum 134-135

Army Medical School 136-146

The Army Field Service and Correspondence School for Medical Officers. 147

Field problems for medical officers 148-153

Instruction in hygiene , 154

Instruction in first aid 155

Training of the Hospital Corps, general 156

Field hospitals and ambulance companies 157-166

Hospital Corps detachments 167-180

Instruction in the field 181

Article 111 .—Sanitation 182-203

Infectious diseases 183-200

Reports of epidemic diseases 201-203

Article IV. — Hospitals and medical attendance 204r-350

Service of hospitals, general 205-279

Post hospitals 280-281

Department hospitals 282

General hospitals 283-316

Army and Navy General Hospital 317-333

General Hospital, Fort Bayard, N. Mex 334-344

Medical attendance 345-350

Article V. — Department laboratories 351-360

Secretions, excretions, and tissues 352-355

Water 356-360

Article VI. — Duties of medical officers 361-381

General 361-363

Department surgeons 364-370

Department sanitary inspectors 371-374

Attending surgeons 375-376

Disbursing officers 377-379

Medical supply officers 380

Medical officers of the transport service 381

6



6 TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Par.

Article Vil — Phybicul examine tinns 382-397

Cadet candidates and cadets 382-383

Candidates for commission 384-385

Officers — Examinations for promotion, retirement, leave of absence, the

aviation service, and annual examinations 386-390

Applicants for enlistment 391

Enlisted men — Recruits, deserters, for discharge, for aviation service. . . 392-395

Other examinations 396

Vision, color sense, and hearing 397

Article VIII. — Records, reports, and returns 398-473

List of reports and returjis 398

List of records 399

Mode of keeping and authenticating reports, returns, and records 400

Reports of births and deaths 401

Correspondence records 402-406

Clinical records 407-411

Medical history of post 412

Reports pertaining to personnel 413

Sanitary reports 414-417

Surgical reports 418-420

Special reports and articles for publication 421-423

Report of Medical Department passengers on transports 424

Reports and records on abandonment of posts 425

Disposition of old records 426

Register and report of sick and wounded 427-464

Register of dental patients and report of dental work 465-473

Article IX. — Supplies and materials 474-527

General provisions 474-476

Requisitions 477-495

Transfer of medical supplies 496-500

Accountability 501-503

Distribution of field medical supplies in time of peace 504-506

Returns of medical property 507-508

Sales -•■-•- 509-510

Disposition of medical property on abandonment of posts 511

Use and care of medical property 512-526

Meteorological instruments 527

Part II. — The Sanitary Service in War.

Article X. — The sanitary service in war—General 528-586

Administrative zones 528-529

Objects of Medical Department administration 530

Duties of the Medical Department "I'-'h' I' ^^^

Personnel of the sanitary service 532-533

Titles of medical officers 534

Organized voluntary aid 535-536

Individual voluntary aid 537-541

Insignia of sanitary personnel, formations, and materiel 542-546

Status of sanitary personnel and materiel 547-549

Guards for the sanitary service 550

Medical supplies 551-555

Correspondence, reports, returns, and records 556-584

Organization of the Medical Department in war 585-586



TABLE OF CONTENTi=?. 7

Par.

Article XI. — The service of the interior 587-626

General - 587-591

Mobilization camps 592-597

Concentration camps 598-601

Camp'hospitals 602-605

General hospitals 606

Convalescent camps 607-608

Hospitals, ports of embarkation 609

Surgeons, ports of embarkation 610

Hospitals for prisoners of war 611

Medical supply depots 612

Hospital trains and trains for patients 613-617

Rest stations 618

Hospital ships and ships for patients 619-625

Sanitary inspectors 626

Article XII. — The theater of operations — General 627-629

Requirements for an efficient sanitary service 627-629

Article Xlll.— The zone of the advance 630-750

Classification of the sanitary service 630

Sanitary troops on duty with line organizations 631-650

The sanitary train 651-715

The administration of the sanitary service of the division 716-750

Article XIV. — The. line of communications 751-827

General 751-756

The base hospital 757-765

The convalescent camp 766

The contagious disease hospital 767-768

Trains, boats, and ships 769-772

Casual camps for sanitary troops 773

Sanitary squads 774-777

Field laboratories 778-779

Rest stations 780-781

The base medical supply depot 782-786

The advance medical supply depot 787-792

The evacuation hospital 793-803

The evacuation ambulance company 804-812

Administration 813-827

Article XV. — Administration of the sanitary service of the theater of operations. . 828-830
The chief surgeon of a field army 828-830

Article XVI. — Resume of the operations of the sanitary service in uw 831-841

Part III. — Supply Tables.

Article XVII. — Post supply tables 842-848

Medicines, antiseptics, and disinfectants 843

Stationery 844

Miscellaneous supplies 845

Laboratory supplies 846

Identification supplies 847

X-ray supplies 848

Article XVIII. — Dental supply tables 849-856

Portable outfit 854

Base outfit 855

Additional supplies • • 856



8 TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Par.

Article XIX. — Field supply tables 857-901

Individual equipment, medical officer 864

Individual equipment, Hospital Corps 865

Regimental ccmbat equipment 866-868

Camp infirmary •. . 869-870

Camp infirmary reserve 871

Regimental hospital 872

Weight carried by camp infirmary wagon 873

Ambulance company ,j.j ^.-.i.-. 874-878

Field hospital :.j. 879-883

Division surgeon's office 884-885

Camp hospitals 886-888

Evacuation hospital, base hospital, and medical reserve unit 889-892

Base medical supply depot 893-894

Advance medical supply depot 895

Field lal)oratory '896

Evacuation ambulance company ; 897

Hospital ships and ships for patients 898

Hospital trains and trains for patients 899-900

Office of the chief surgeon, field army, and of the surgeon, base group 901

Article XX. — Formulae., contents of chests, cases, etc 902-959

Formulae of nonofficial compound medicinal preparations listed in the

supply tables 902

Contents of chests, cases, etc., and spare parts 903-959

Article XXI. — BlanTc forms 960-965

Medical Department 961

Adjutant General 's Office 962

Quartermaster Corps 963

Ordnance Department 964

Inspector General's Department 965

Appendix.



PART I.
GENERAL MEDICAL ADMINISTRATION.



ARTICLE 1.— THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ITS
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

ORGANIZATION.

1. The Medical Department, under the act of Congress approved
April 23, 1908 (35 Stats., 66; G. O. 67, 1908), as modified l)y the act
of March 3, 1911 (36 Stats., 1054; G. O. 45, 1911), establishing the
Dental Corps, consists of the Medical Corps, the Medical Reserve
Corps, the Dental Corps, the Hospital Corps, and the Nurse Corps;
to which may be added the contract surgeons employed by virtue
of the provisions of the act of February 2, 1901 (31 Stats., 752; G. O.
9, 1901), and other civilians employed from time to time under the
authority of the annual appropriation acts. The general duties of
the department are pointed out in Army Regulations.

MEDICAL CORPS.

2. Extract from the act of April 23, 1908 (35 Stats., 06):

Sec. 2. That the Medical Corps shall consist of one Surgeon General, with rank of
brigadier general, who shall be chief of the Medical Department; fourteen colonels,
twenty-four lieutenant colonels, one hundred and five majors, and three hundred
captains or firet lieutenants, who shall have rank, pay, and allowances of officers of
corresponding grades in the cavalry arm of the service. Immediately following the
approval of this act all officers of the Medical Department then in active service, other
than the Surgeon General, shall be recommissioned in the corresponding grades in
the Medical Corps established by this act in the order of their seniority and without
loss of relative rank in the Army as follows: Assistant surgeons general, with the rank
of colonel, as colonels; deputy surgeons general, with the rank of lieutenant colonel,
as lieutenant colonels; surgeons with the rank of major, as majors; assistant surgeons,
who at the time of the approval of this act shall have served tlu-ee years or more, as
captains; and assistant surgeons, with the rank of first lieutenant, who at the time of
the approval of this act shall have served less than three years as such, as first lieu-
tenants; and hereafter first lieutenants shall be promoted to the grade of captain after
three years' service in the Medical Corps.

Sec. 3. That promotions in the Medical Corps to fill vacancies in the several grades
created or caused by this act, or hereafter occurring, shall be made according to
seniority, but all such promotions and all appointments to the grade of fii-st lieutenant
in said corps shall be subject to examination as hereinafter provided : Provided, That
the increase in grades of colonel, lieutenant colonel, and major provided for in this
act shall be filled by promotion each calendar year of not exceeding two lieutenant
colonels to be colonels, three majors to be lieutenant colonels, fourteen captains to be
majors, and of the increase in the grade of first lieutenant not more than twenty-five
per centum of the total of such increase shall be appointed in any one calendar year;

11



12 MANUAL FOR THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

Provided further , That those assistant surgeons who at the time of the approval of thia
act shall have attained their captaincy by reason of service in the volunteer forces
under the provisions of the act of February second, nineteen hundred and one, section
eighteen, or who will receive their captaincy upon the approval of this act by virtue
of such service, shall take rank among the officers in or subsequently promoted to that
grade, according to date of entrance into the Medical Department of the Army as
commissioned officers.

Sec. 4. That no person shall receive an appointment as first lieutenant in the
Medical Corps unless he shall have been examined and approved by an Army medical
board consisting of not less than three officers of the Medical Corps designated by the
Secretary of War.

Sec. 5. That no officer of the Medical Corps below the rank of lieutenant colonel
shall be promoted therein until he shall have successfully passed an examination
before an Army medical board consisting of not less than three officers of the Medical
Corps, to be designated by the Secretary of War, such examination to be prescribed
by the Secretary of War and to be held at such time anterior to the accruing of the
right to promotion as may be for the best interests of the service : Provided, That should
any officer of the Medical Corps fail in his physical examination and be found incapaci-
tated for service by reason of physical disability contracted in the line of duty, he
shall be retired with the rank to which his seniority entitled him to be promoted;
but if he should be found disqualified for promotion for any other reason, a second
examination shall not be allowed, but the Secretary of War shall appoint a board of
review to consist of three officers of the Medical Corps superior in rank to the officer
examined, none of whom shall have served as a member of the board which examined
him. If the unfavorable finding of the examining board is concurred in by the board
of review, the officer reported disqualified for promotion shall, if a first lieutenant or
captain, be honorably discharged from the service with one year's pay; and, if a major,
shall be debarred from promotion and the officer next in rank found qualified shall be
promoted to the vacancy. If the action of the examining board is disapproved by the
board of review, the officer shall be considered qualified and shall be promoted.

Sec 6. That nothing in this act shall be construed to legislate out of the service
any officer now in the Medical Department of the Army, nor to affect the relative rank
or promotion of any medical officer now in the service, or who may hereafter be
appointed therein, as determined by the date of hia appointment or commission,
except as herein otherwise provided in section three.

(a) Section 5 above was modified by tbe proviso in the act of March
3, 1909, reading as follows (35 Stats., 737):

Provided, That any major of the Medical Corps on the active list of the Army who,
at his first examination for promotion to the grade of lieutenant colonel in said corps,
has been or shall hereafter be found disqualified for such promotion for any reason
other than physical disability incurred in the line of duty, shall be suspended from
promotion and his right thereto shall pass successively to such officers next below him
in rank in said cori)s as are or may become eligible to promotion under existing law
during the period of his suspension; and any officer suspended fi-om promotion, as
hereinbefore provided, shall be reexamined as soon as practicable after the expiration
of one year from the date of the completion of the examination that resulted in his
suspension; and if on such reexamination he is found qualified for promotion, ho shall
again become eligible thereto; but if he is found disqualified by reason of phj'sical
disability incurred in line of duty, he shall be retired, with the rank to which hi.9
seniority entitles him to be promoted; and if he is not found disqualified by reason of
such physical disability, but is found disqualified for promotion for any other reason,
he shall be retired without promotion.



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ITS ORGANIZATION AND TEESONNEL. 13
APPOINTMENTS.

3. All applicant for appointment in the Medical Corps of the Army
must be between 22 and 30 years of age, at the time of taking the
preliminary exammation, must be a citizen of the United States,
must have a satisfactory general education, must be a graduate of a
reputable medical school legally authorized to confer the degree of
doctor of medicme, and must have had at least one year's hospital
training, including practical experience in the practice of medicine,
surgery, and obstetrics.

(a) Appointments to the Medical Corps are made by the President,
upon the recommendation of the Surgeon General, after the appli-
cants have passed the prescribed examination. The examination
will consist of two parts — a preliminar}- examination, and a final or
qualifying examination, with a course of instruction at the Army
Medical School intervening.

(b) Permission to appear for examination should be applied for by
letter to The Adjutant General of the Army. The application must
be wholly in the handwritmg of the applicant, must give the place
and date of his birth, must indicate the place and State or Territory
of which he is a permanent resident, and must inclose certificates,
based upon personal acquaintance, from at least two reputable
persons as to his citizenship, character, and habits. Should his origi-
nal application reveal any disqualification he will be so advised.
Should no disqualification be disclosed he wiU be given an oi)por-
tunity to complete his application by lilmg his personal history.
Should this indicate no disqualification he will in due season be
formally invited to appear before the local board (par, 4) at the
point most convenient for him, and a date will be fixed for his
appearance.

(c) No allowances will be made for the expenses of applicants
undergoing preliminary examinations.

4. The preliminary examinations will' be conducted, under instruc-
tions from the Surgeon General, by local boards of one or more medical
officers, and by a central board of not less than three, which shall
be known as the Army Medical Board.

(a) Local boards will be convened at the larger military posts as
occasion requires. Permanent local boards also will be established
from time to time where deemed necessary.

5. Each applicant, upon presenting himself to the local board,
wiD, prior to his physical examination, be required to submit the
diploma conferring upon him the degree of doctor of medicine,
and to sign the following certificate :

I certify, to the best of my knowledge and belief, that I am not affected with any
form of disease or disability which will interfere with the performance of the duties
of the office for appointment to which I am about to undergo examination.



14 MANUAL FOR THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

If he fails to submit his diploma, or declines to give the certificate,
the examination will not proceed.

(a) Physical examination.— If he submits his diploma and gives
the prescribed certificate the board will then proceed with his physi-
cal examination, which will conform in all respects to that required
of candidates from civil life for commission in the line of the Army,
except in respect to vision, the minimum requirements of which are
fixed from time to time in general orders. (See Appendix : Physical
Examinations . )

The physical examination will be made complete in each case,
even though a disqualification be discovered, so as to ascertain
whether any other disqualifications exist. If the board finds one
or more disqualifications which in its opinion are permanent it
will reject the applicant and not proceed with the mental examina-
tions. It is higlily desirable that when an applicant is rejected for
physical disqualification the cause or causes of rejection should be
so clearly established as to be conclusive of the reasonableness and
propriety of the rejection. Should the board have a doubt as to the
permanency of the disqualification it may require appropriate addi-
tional testimony concerning the same, and such evidence as may be
obtainable bearing on the medical history of the applicant and of
his family. Should the board find one or more physical disquali-
fications which in its opinion are temporary m nature and such as
may be overcome by the time the applicant, if otherwise accepta-
ble, would be ordered to attend the Army Medical School, it may pro-
ceed with the mental examinations, if the applicant so desires, upon
the understanding that he shall present himself at a time and place
to be designated by the Surgeon General for a second physical exam-
ination and upon the condition that his acceptance as a candidate
shall be subject in all respects to his qualifying at the second physical
examination. In reporting the physical examination in such case
the reasons which led the board to consider the disqualifications
temporary and influenced it to continue the examination notwith-
standing the same will be fully set forth in its report. The physical
examination will be reported on the form provided for the puipose.

(b) The applicant having been found physicaDy qualified, or the
physical disqualifications found being only temporary as provided in
the preceding section, the board will next proceed with the mental
examinations, which will be in writing, as follows :

General education. — This examination may be omitted at the dis-
cretion of the Surgeon General in the case of applicants holding
diplomas or certificates from reputable literary or scientific colleges,
nonnal schools or high schools, or of graduates of medical schools
which require an entrance exammation satisfactory to the Surgeon
General. When held it will cover mathematics (arithmetic, algebra;



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ITS ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL. 15

and plane geometry), geography, history (especially of the United
States), general literature, Latm grammar, and the reading of easy
Latin prose. Questions in these subjects will be sent from the
Surgeon General's Office if examination therem is required.

Professional education. — This will be in the following subjects,
upon questions supplied to the board from the Surgeon General's
Office: Anatomy, physiology and histology, chemistry and physics,
materia medica and therapeutics, surgery, practice of medicine,
obstetrics and gynecology.

(c) Upon the conclusion of the examination the local board will
return the applicant's diploma to him.

{d) The local board will report its proceedings on the form provided
therefor direct to the Surgeon General, noting thereon its opinion of
the applicant's aptitude for the service as good, fair, or poor. It will
forward therewith without marking them the questions and answers
in the mental examinations.

6. The favorable findings of the local board as to an applicant's
physical qualifications, its opinion as to his aptitude for the service,
and the questions and answers in his mental examinations, will be
referred by the Surgeon General to the Army Medical Board, which
will mark the applicant's questions and answers proportionately to
their relative value in each class, will rate his aptitude for the service,
and will make final report to the Surgeon General as to his qualifica-
tions. Proficiency in English grammar, orthography, and composi-
tion will be determined from the applicant's examination papers.
An applicant who in the opinion of the Army Medical Board is physi-
cally disqualified will be rejected on that ground, notwithstanding
the favorable finduigs of the local board. An applicant who is defi-
cient in English grammar, orthography, and composition will be
rejected. An applicant who has been examined as to his general
education and fails to make a general average therein of 75 per cent
will be rejected. An applicant who has been found physically quali-
fied, and whose general education and English grammar, orthography,
and composition have been found satisfactory, and who makes a gen-
eral average of 80 per cent in his professional examination and in
aptitude, will be reported as qualified; the board may, however,
reject any candidate who fails to make 65 per cent in any profes-
sional subject.

7. An applicant failing in one preliminary examination may be
allowed another after the expiration of one year, but not a third.



Online LibraryUnited States. Army Medical DeptManual for the Medical Department, United States Army, 1916 → online text (page 1 of 41)