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Legends of the operations of the Army of the Cumberland online

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On the morning of the 25th, (ieiieral Hooker took possessicm of the to]) of the mountain with a small
force, and with the rest of his command swept across Lookout Valley, now abandoned by the enemy, to
Rossville ; from whence,,ending Missionary Ridge, he moved northward towm-d the centrcof the now


shortened line. General Sherman assaulted tlie enemy's right with great determination, gaining and
holding position close np to his rifle pits. General Thomas, with Baird's and Johnson's divisions of
Palmer's cor[)s, and Wood's and Sheridan's divisions of Granger's corjjs, assaulted the enemy's centre
on Mission Kidge, and after fearful iighting carried the summit of the ridge. The enemy still resisted
Thomas's left, but he was speedily overcome, when he abandoned his works in front of Sherman, and by
12 o'clock at night was iu full retreat; and his strong position on Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge
were in General Grant's possession, together with a large number of prisoners, artillery, and small
ai'ms. On the morning of the 2Cth, General Sherman pursued the enemy via Chickamauga station,
sending General Howard to Ked Chiy, where he destroyed the Dalton and Cleveland Raih-oad, severing
communication between Bragg and Longstreet. General Thomas's forces, under Hooker and Palmer,
pursued on the Eossville Road; Jiis advance reached Ringgold on the morning of the 27th, and after a
severe fight dislodged the enemy from a strong position in the gorge, and on the crest of Taylor's ridge.
The pursuit was then continued to near Timnel Hill.

The relief of General Burnside at Xnoxville was now of imperative necessity, ^nd General
Sherman with his own troops, and Howard's and Granger's corps of Thomas's army, advanced on
Ivnoxville, and on the night of the 3d of December, threw his cavalry into that place. His apjiroacli
caused Longstreet to raise the siege of Ivnoxville, and retreat eastward on the night of the 4th. General
Sherman arrived in person at Knoxville on the 10th, and after a conference with General Burnside in
regard to the pursuit of the enemy, he left General Granger's corps with General Burnside, and with the
remainder of his forces returned by slow marches to Chattanooga.

General Grant lost — killed, 757 ; wounded, 4,529 ; nussing, 330.

General Grant captured — officers, 239 ; enlisted men, 5,903; guns, 40 ; stand of small arms, 7,000,

The enemy's loss in killed and wounded was probably less than General Grant's, but his loss before
Knoxville was many times greater than General Burnside's, making his entire loss in killed and
wounded, at the two places, equal to, if not exceeding, that sustained by the United States forces.

Commanding United States Forces — Major General U. S. GRAKT.

Commanding Army of the Cumberland — Major General George H. Thomas.

Commanding lltk and 12th Corps. — Major General J. Hooker.

Commanding Corps. — Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, 4th Corps; Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, lltli
Goqis;* Maj. Gen. IL W. Slocum, 12th Corps; Maj. Gen. J. M. Palmer, 14th Corps; Brig. Gen.
W. L. Elliott, Cavalry Corpis.

Commanding Divisions. — Ma,]. Gen. D. S. Stanley, 1st Div., 4th Corps ; Maj. Gen. A. S. "Williams,
1st Div., 12th Coqis; Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnston, 1st Div., 14t]i Corps; Colonel E. M. McCook, 1st
Div., Cavalry Corps ; Maj. Gen. P. H. Sheridan, 2d Div., 4th Corps ; Brig. Gen. A. V. Steinwher, 2d
Div., 11th Corps; Brig. Gen. J. W. Geary, 2d Div., 12th Corps; Brig. Gen. J. C. Davis, 2d Div.,
14th Corps ; Brig. Gen. Geo. Crook, 2d Div., Cavalry Corps ; Brig. Gen. T. J. Wood, 3d Div., 4th
Corps; Maj. Gem C. Sluu-z, 3d Div., 11th Corps; Brig. Gen. A. Baird, 3d Div., 14th Corps.

Part of the Army of the Tennessee. — Major General AV. T. Sherman, Conunanding.

Commanding Corps. — Major General F. P. Blair, 15th Corps.

Commanding Divisions. — Brig. Gen. P. J. Osterhaus,t 1st Div., 15th Corps; Brig. Gen. M. L.
Smith, 2d Div., 15th Corps; Brig. Gen. J. E. Smith, 3d Div., 15th Corps; Brig. Gen. Hugh Ewing,
4th Div., 15th Corps.

* The 11th Corps and the 2d Division of tlie 14th Coi-ps reported to General Sherman. '

t General Osterhaus's divi-sion reported to General Hooker.


Cu7ii7nainUng liebtl Aiiny — General Bkaxto.v Bragg.

Coinma/idlug Wings. — Lieut. Gen. W. J. Hardee, lli^'lit Wiqg; Miij. Gen. J. C. Breckinridge,
Lett Wing; Miij. Gen. J. Wlieeler, Cavidrv.

Commanding J}iviaions. — Maj. Gen. P. K. Clel)urne, Maj. Gen. B. V. Clieathain, Brig. Gen.
S. R. Gist, Maj. Gen. C. L. Stevenson, llij^lit Wing; Muj. (ren. A. P. Stewart, Maj. Gen. S. B.
Buckner, Brig. Gen. P. Andei-bun, Brig. Gen. Lewis, Left Wing; Brig. Gen. J. A. Wliiu-ton, Brig.
Gen. W. Martin, Cavalry.


Tlie Arni^- of the Oiiiu, under General Biu-nside, consisted of the Ninth Coqis, Maj. Gen. J. G.
Purke, conynanding, and the Twenty-third Corps, Maj. Gen. Geo. L. ILirtsntf, commanding.

Tlw movement into Tennessee was eonsiderahly delayed by the detachment of the Ninth Corps
fur the re-enforcement of General Grant before Vieksbiirg. The necessity of co-oj)erating with General
liosecrans, who had begun his movement against Chattanooga, compelled General Burnside to take the
lield before the return of the Ninth Corps.

He advanced with the Twenty-third Corps, in three colunms; accompanying in person. General
Carter's division, via Loudon and Williamsburg, to Chitwood, Tennessee, where he met General Hart-
sutr, who liad advanced with one division of his corps via Somerset. Moving forward to Montgomery,
he was joined by General White's division from Columl)la, Kentucky, via Creelsboro, Albany, and
Jamestown. General White was joined on the march by a brigade of cavahy from Glasgow, Ky.
From ilontgomery, General Burnside advanced with his main force dii'ectly on Kingston, preceded by
General Carter's cavalry division, in three columns; one column, under General Sliacklcford, took
possession of Loudon, the rebels, under Buckner, evacuating the place upon liis approach, and burning
the railroad bridge over the Tennessee River; another column, under Colonel Foster, moved directly
on Knoxvilie, entering the place without opposition; the third column moved on Kingston in advance
of the infantry. Seniliug General White's division to Loudon to relieve General Shackleford's cavalry,
General Bin-nside moved forward to Knoxvilie. A small column, under General DeCourcey, had
uuirched from Kentui-ky directly on Cumberland Gap, occupied by a rebel force under General Frazer.
liy a rai)id march from Knoxvilie on that place, with a considerable body of cavalry and one brigade of
infantry. General Burnside cut off Frazer's retreat and forced him to surrender, which he did on the 51th,
with two thousand men and fourteen pieces of artillery. Simidtaneously with the movement on Cum-
berland Gap, a colnnm of cavalry, imder Colonel Foster, moved up the valley toward Bristol, meeting
with strong resistance on tlie part of the enemy. Upon their return from Cumberland Gap, Generals
Burnside and Sliacklcford re-enforced the column in the valley. Brisk skirmishing was hail with the
rebels during the 21st and "-'rid of September, at Blountsville. The rebels were defeated and driven
into Virginia.

In the month of September, the Ninth Coqis returned from General Grant's army, and j(>inc<l
General Burnside's t'orces in East Tennessee, talving position at Lenoir.

On the 8th of Octoiier, the enemy had moved down to P.lue Springs, threatening Bull's Gap, held
by a brigade of cavalry, supported liy a small body of infantry at Morristown. General r>nrnside sent
a brigade of cavalry aromid i)y Rogersville to inlercej)! the enemy's retreat, and moved from Knoxvilie,
to Bidl's Gap with a strong force of infantry and artillery, sending forwiu'd a brigade of cavalry to Blue
Springs. Some sharp skirmishing was had with the enemy, who were found to be strongly posted.
I'pon the arrival*»f the infantry on the morning of the 11th, the enemy were charged and driven from

* CieiicrnI Uuriii<itlv'» canipuign is iiul given us full^' an (Utiimblc for waul ul' dnUi.


their position in eonfiision. Diiriui;- the night tlie rebels retreated prccipitatclv. On the following
moruiug infantry and cavalry were .sent in pnrsuit. The intercepting force enconntered the rebels at
Henderson, but allowed them to pass witli only a sliglit clieck. General Shackleford continued tlie
pursuit, captui-ing the fort at Zollicofi'er, and driving the rebels from the State.

After the battle of Wauhatchie, on the night of Octoljer 2Sth, 1863, General Bragg detached
General Longstreet, with a large force, and sent him into East Tennessee, to operate against General
Burnside. His advance surprised some small garrisons wliich General Burnside had posted on the south
side of the Tennessee Kiver, capturing some six or seven hundred prisoners and six guns.

During the night of the 5tli of November, the rebel . General Sam. Jones, with two Ijrigades of
cavalry, made a forced march down the Holston Kivei- Yalley to Kogersville. The next morning he
surprised the garrison at that place, capturing a number of prisoners; the main part of the garrison
escaped by swimming the river. Upon the approach of General Longstreet's forces. Brig. Gen. Julius
White, commanding the Second Division of the Twenty-third Corps, evacuated Loudon, and moved
his command to the north bank of the Tennessee River. On the night of November 13th, General
Longstreet crossed the river near Huff's Ferry, driving back General White's pickets. He immediately
sent a force to oppose Longstreet's advance, biit w-as subsequ«?ntly directed by General Burnside to
withdraw toward Ivnoxville. At Lenoir he was met by General Burnside, who countermarched the
column toward LIuif's Ferrj'. The enemy were met aliout two miles from the river, and di'iven back
into their intrenchmeuts covering the bridge. The next morning General Burnside retreated toward
Knoxville, closely followed by the enemy, who kept np brisk skirmishing with his rear. He reached
Campbell's station about noon, November 16th, where Ixis rear guard was so warmly pressed, that he was
compelled to place his troops ui position and give the enemy battle, while his trains moved to the rear.
The gromid occupied was a series of comuiantling hills. A severe contest ensiied. The enemy, in
largely superior force, pressed back his lines to the shelter of his batteries, when a severe artillery fire
compelled him to retire to the cover of the timber. General Burnside then witlidrew^ his forces to
another series of commanding hills, half a mile to the rear, where a second hard fight took place, the
enemy being repulsed. During the night General Burnside withdrew to Knoxville. The enemy
appeared before that place on the 17th, but he was held off until the nineteentli by the stubborn fighting
of the cavahy under Brig. Gen. W. P. Sanders, who fell mortally \\-ounded, about 4 p. m. on the ISth.
In the meantime. General Burnside's troops, directed l>y Captain O. M. Poe, Chief Engineer, had
covered themselves with defensive works. On the 19th the enemy com})leted the investment.


Both armies worked constantly and assiduously intrcncliing thi-ir ])ositions. On tlie 24th, the
enemy's most advanced rifle trenches were carried by the 2d Michigan Infantry, but were subsequently
regained by fi'esh troops of the enemy. Sharp skirmisliing was kept up during the evening of the 28t!i.
About 11 p. m. the enemy advanced in force, and pressing back General Burnsides's picket lines,
estabhshed his advanced hue within aliout one hundred and twenty yards of the northwestern salient of
Fort Sanders. The skirmishing continued until morning; the guns on the enemy's right keeping up a
slow cannonade principally directed upon Fort Sanders. At 6 o'chjck a. m., under cover of a fog, the
enemy made a fierce and determined assault upon Fort Sanders. The assault was most signally repulsed,
with a loss to the enemy of almost an entire brigade. General Bm-nside's loss was four killed and eleven
wounded. While the assault was l)eing made on Fort Sanders, and for sometime afterward, severe
fighting took place on the soutli side of the ri\-er, the enemy being repulsed. The siege continued
until the morning of December the .'itli, when the enemy retreated eastward. General Burnside being
re-enforced from General Grant's army. The enemy were pm-sued as far as Bean's Station, but without
impoi'tant results.


Pcndiii{j the seipo of Knoxvillc, tin- iclnl Giiu -nil AVlicckr, with a hirge c-nvalrv tone, nia<le an
attack iiixm Kiiiffstoii, hehl \>y Cohuii-l livnl, willi a lirijjailc of infuiitrv and airmail lorce <>f cavahT.
The rt'hfls were repulsed with loijti.



On tlie 14th of Man-li, 1SC4, Majiir General "W. T. Sherman was appointed to the eommand of
the Military Division of the Mississiiipi, conij^risinfj the Army of the Ciinil)erland, Slaj. Gen. G. II.
Thomas coniinanding ; the Army of the Tennes,see, Maj. Gen. J. B. AlcPherson eommandinjj; and the
Army of the Ohio, Msij. Gen. J. M. Scholield commantliiiLr; with hcadrpiarters respectively at Chatta-
nooga, llunt.-iville, and JCnoxville. May Oth, General Sherman's forces were gronjjed as follows : Army
of the Cnmherland at RiiiiTL'old, Army of tlie Tennessee at Gordon's Mills, Army of the Ohio at Red
Clav. The enemy, commanded hy General Joseph E. Johnston, lay at Dalton, with Hardee's, llood'e,
and Polk's corps, and AVheeler's cavalry corps.

The front approach to Dalton was through Bnzzanl Koost Pass, in lloeky Face Ridge; the enemy
having strong works on the north front. General Sherman determined to tiuTi the enemy's position,
and moved McPherson directly on Resaca, via Ship's and Snake Creek Gap.s; Thomas demonstrated
heavily against B\izzard Roost and Rocky Face Ridge, while Schotield pressed down from the north.
McPherson fonixl Resaca too strong to be carried l>y assault, and fell back to a strong position neai- the
west en<l of Snake Creek Gaj); Thomas, with Hooker's and Palmer's corps, moved in support of Mc-
Pherson, leaving Howard, with the 4th corps and some cavalry, to threaten Dalton in front; Schotield
followed Thomas; McPherson m(ned on the direct road to Resaca, and drove the enemy into his forti-
fied lines; Thomas came up on McPherson's left, Scholield on Thomas's left. The enemy abandoned
Dalton, and General Howard pressed his rear. The rebel army occupied a strong jiosifion behind Camp
Creek, and the forts at Resaca. General Sweeny crossed the Oostananla at Lay's Ferry, and threatened
Calhoim. General Garrard moved from Villanow to break the railroad between Calhoun and Kingston.
McPherson crossed Camp Creek near its mouth and made a lodgment close \ip to the enemy's works;
Thomas, ])ressing closely along Camp Creek Valley, threw Hooker's and Howard's corps across the head
of the creek to the main Dalton road, and down it close to Resaca. Schotield came up on his left, and
a heavy battle cnsueil during the afternoon and evening of the 15th. Hooker drove the enemy from
several small hills, capturinga battery and many prisoners. Tiie enemy retreated south across the Oostananla
during the night, and the next morning the whole army started in pursuit ; General Thomas on the
enemy's heels, M(-Pherson by Lay's Ferry, and General Schotield by obscure roads to the left. General
Thomas sent Davis to Rome, which he captured. Newton's division struck the enemy's rear guard near
Adairsville, and had a shaq) tight, but the next morning he was gone; the army]>assed through King-
ston and found him in force four miles beyond, l»ut as tlie army concentrated .he fell back to Cassville,
oi>stinately contesting the ground, and sigain retreated dining the night across the Etowah River,holding
Alhitoona Pass. .

( Jeneral Shennan resolved to tlank the Psiss, and taking twenty days' rations, he cut loose from the
railroad and moved for Dalhis. On the 2."»th of May, General Hooker fought a hard battle for a i>oint
known as iNew Ho|)e Church, where the roads meet, from Ackworth, M:ijietta, and DaUas; he drove
the enemy iiack to the church, but night setting in he could not get po|.session of the roa<ls. The next
morm'ng the eniiny was wi-ll intrenched. General JlcPherson moved to Dalhis, General
deployed against New Hope Church, and (ieneral Schotield moved so as to turn the enemy's right.
On the 28tli, the enemy assailed McPherson at Dallas, and was severely repulsed. June 1st, Generals


Schofield and TIiomM> hkivcmI to the left, covering the roads leading; l)aek to AUatoona and xVekworth.
General McPherrinn occupied Thomas's position in front of New Hope Churc'h. (ieneral Stonenian
moved in to the east end of the Pass and General Garrard iiild the west end uf tlie Pass. The army
continued workingto the left, threatening the enemy's riglit and rear, and on tlie 11th of Jiuie moved
on Ac-kwortli. The enemy drew off to the east toward the railroad.

A secondary hase was estahlished at Allatoona Pass, and the railroad huilt up to Ackworth. Gen.
Blair came up on the 8th of June, with two divisions of tlie 17th corps, and one brigade of cavalry.
On the 9th, the army moved to Big Shanty. The enemy occupied Pine, Lost, and Kenesaw Moun-
tains; covering Marietta and the railroad back to Chattahoochee. General MePherson moved toward
Marietta, General Thomas on Pine and Kenesaw Mountains, General Schofield toward Lost Mountain.
During a sharp camionade on the 1-ltli, General Polk of tlie reliel army was killed; and that night tlie
enemy abandoned Pine Mountain, and took position behind a strongly intrenched line along the rugged
liills connecting Kenesaw and Lost Mountains. Dispositions M'ere made to pierce his lines, and on the
17th he abandoned Lost Mountain and the line of works connecting it with Kenesaw, and strongly
posted and intrenched himself with Kenesaw as* his salient, jiis right wing thrown back to co\-er Marietta,
his left behind Nose Creek. On the 22d, the enemy sallied and made a desperate attack on William's
division, and a brigade of Hascall's division ; he was terrildy repulsed, leaving his dead and wounded,
and many prisoners in our hands. This engagement is known as the affair of the "Kulp House." On
the 27th, General Sherman ordered MePherson to assault the enemy's lines near Little Kenesaw, and
General Thomas a mile further to the south; both assaults failed, with a loss of nearly three thousand,
the enemy suffered very little. General Schofield then worked strongly on the enemy's left. On the
night of July 2d, MePherson was relieved in front of Kenesaw by General Garrard's cavalry, and
moved toward Nickajack Creek and the Chattahoochee, by the Turner's Ferry road ; that night
Kenesaw was abandoned by the enemy. Thomas pursued the enemy and found him Ix'hind an
intrenched line across the road, at Smyrna Camp-meeting Ground, his flaidcs behind Nickajack and
Rotteuwood Creeks; he had also intrenched a strong tete-du-poiit at the Chattahoochee. Strong
demonstrations were made down the main road, and along the Nicdcajack Creek, and about Turner's
Ferry ; the next morning the enemy was gone, and the army moved to the Chattahoochee.

The enemy lay behind a strong hue beyond the Chattahoochee, covering the raih-oad and pontoon
Ijridges. General Sherman determined to flank the enemy's position. General Schofield effected a lodg-
ment on the east Ijank of the Chattahoochee, near the mouth of Soap's Creek. July 7th, General
Garrard secured the ford at Iloswell. General Thomas sent Newton's division to hold the ford until
General MePherson could move from the right. General Howard built a bridge at Power's Ferry,
crossed over July 9th, and took position on Schotield's right. Thus, l)y the 9th, three safe points of
passage over the Chattahoochee, above the enemy were secured ; with good roads leading to Atlantii.
On the 10th, the enemy abandoned his position north of the Chattahoochee, at the railroad crossing,
burned the bridge, and took up a ])Osition behind Peach Tree Creek, his left at the railroad bridge, his
right in front of Atlanta and covering the approach from Decatur. Tlie main army remained in camp
on the Chattahoochee until tlie Kitli of July.

General Rousseau moved from Decatur, Alabama, on the lOtli of July, with a cavalry force 2,000
strong, to cut the enemy's communications between Opelika and Montgomery. He crossed the Coosa
River at Ten Isknds on the 14th, whipping Clanton's brigade, passing thence to Talladega; he struck
the railroad on the 16th at Loachapoka, and destroyed it from Cliehaw Station (wliijiping the enemy
again at this point) to Opelika, and out two or three miles on the Columbus arid West Point roads,
about thirty-two miles in all. lie then moved north, and arrived at Marietta on the 22d, having
sustained a loss not to exceed thirty men.

On the 17th, the main army ad\anced on Atlanta, the movement l)eing a general right wheel;
MePherson struck tlie Augusta railroad seven miles east of Decatur, and moved along the railriiad into


towni ; ScliofieM inuvcd via Criii^s Kfvs mid Colonel Ilowanl's distillorv ; Tlioiiin* tTOsssotl at Power's
ftiiil Paice's Kerry l»riil;jfs, ami moved to Peach Tree Creek, crossiiijr it in force liy iiunierons liritlt;es,
in tace ot"tlie enemy's intrenched lines. On tlie iiOth, tlie army eloseil in, converjjinj; toward Atlanta;
Tiiomuii on tlie rijrht, Sciioticld iioliliiif; the centre, anil McPliei-son on the left. At 4 jj. ni. the enemy
Hallicd from iiis woi-ks in force, and fell in line of hattle on the ri;;ht centre, com|io.swl of Ihioker'ri
corps, Newton's division of Howard's corps, and Johnson's division of Palmer's corps; the encniv wsis
seven-ly repulsed, leavini; on the field 50(< dea<l, 1,(MM) severely wounded, and many prisoners; his loss
was aliout "),()(((». (Jeneral Sherman's loss ahout l,r>0(>. (ieneral (Garrard's cavalry ilestroyed tlfe
Auirnsta railroad to Covinf^ton, and hurned the hridi^cs over the Ulcofauliatchee and Yellow llivei-s,
rcjoiniii{; the main army on the 23d. On the night of the ilst the enemy abandoned his advanced
lines and occupied a line of liniohed redoui»t» near Atlanta, which he connected with curtains, strength-
ened hy ahattis and chevaux-de-frise ; General Sherman ilused in upon him, occupying a circidar line
ahout two miles from Atlanta. Ahout noon of the 22>! the enemy fell upon McPherson with great
tiercenoiSs. Hardee's corps liad sallied from Athmta, and hy a wide circuit struck Blair's left Hank, and
swinig it around until he struck General Dodge's cohinn* in motion. After a severe struggle the enemv
was repulse<l on tiiis jiart of the line losing heavily. Ahout 4 jt. ni. there was a lull ; soon after the
enemy assailed Logan's corps, hut after hard Hgiiting was driven from the Held Ity Logan, sup) mrtcd by
SchoHeM. This terminated flic battle ; General Sherman losing 3,722. Among the killed was Genend
iMcPherson. The enemy lost about 8,000.

On the 27tli, General Stoneman, with 5,000 effective cavalry, was ordereclfo move to the left around
Atlanta to McDoiiough ; and Genend McCook, with 4,0(M) cavalry, was ordered to move b}' the rigiit
on Kayetfeviilc. On the night of the 2(Sfh, these two commands were to meet at Lovejoy's on the
Macon railroad and destroy the road effectually. McCook crossed the Chattahoochee at llivertown,
and moved rapidly on Palmetto Station, AVest Point Itaih-oad, destroying a section of the track ; he
then moved on Fayetteville, where he caj>tured and burned a train of oOo wagons, killing 800 mules,
carrying others along, and capturing 250 prisoners. He tlieii struck the railroad at Lovejoy's at the
time ajipoitited. Hearing nothing of Stoneman, he moved to Newnian, where he was surrounded
by infantry and cavalry, and was forced to cut his Wiiy out, which he did with a loss of 500 men; the
rest of his command reached Marietta without further loss. General Stoneman sent Garrard's cavalry
to Flat Kock, and moved witii the rest of his command to Covington, and tlience downi the east side of
the Ocmulgee, via Mont icello and Clinton, to East Macon ; he then endeavored to return, but was hemmed
ill and captured witli TOO of his command, tlie rest escaping.

On tlie 27th, General Howard assumed command of tlie Army of the Temiessi'e, which was

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