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occupied the town, capturing over '2,000 wounded. Wilson continued the pursuit towards Columbia,
coming up witli the enemy's rear guard five miles Soutli ot' l'"iHiiklin ; tlie oneiiiy was dis[iersed with the
loss of his artillery.

Darkness coming on enabled many to escape and closed the days operations. General Wood
followed in the rear of the cavalry, Steedman in rear of Wood. The bridges over the Ilarpeth
having been destroyed, and the river not l>eing fordable for infantry, Wood's and Steedman's commands
bivouacked on the north bank while a bridge could be built. Gens. Smith and Schotield marched on
the Granny-white Pike, and camped at its intersection witii the Franklin Pike. On the ISth, Wilson
pushed on to Kutherford's Creek, three miles from Columbia, but could not cross on account of the high
water ; Wood closed up with the cavalry. A pontoon bridge, luistily constructed at Nashville, was on
its way to the front, its arrival being retarded by the bad condition of the roads. The pontoon train
properly belonging to General Thomas's command, with its corps of pontonniers, was absent with
General Sherman. During the 19th, Gens. Smith's and Scofield's conmiands crossed the Ilarpeth
River, Smith advancing to Spring Ilill, while Schotield encamped at Franklin. On the 20th, General
Hatch constnicted a floating bridge across Rutherford's Creek, and pushed for Columbia. The enemy had
cros.sed Duck River and removed his pontoon bridge. During the day General Wood improvised afoot
bridge over Rutherford's Creek. The pontoon train coming up on the 21st, a bridge was laid over
Rutherford's Creek, and General Smith crossed his command. A bridge was then constructed over
Duck River, and Wood crossed on the 22d. General Wilson having crossed Duck River pushed on
nt'ter the enemy, supported by Wood, and came up with him just south of L>nmville, and also at Buford's
Station; the enemy was speedily dislodged at both places. The advance was so rapid as to prevent the
destruction of the bridges over Riddand Ci-eek. On tlie 25111, the enemy, with Wilson's cavalry at his
heels, evacuated Pulaski an<l was pursiinl lowuni Lamb's Ferry. Harrison's brigade came up with him,
strongly intreiiclied, at the head of a dee<j> ru\ iiie ; after an obstinate resistance he was dislodged. Wood's
corps kept well cU)sed up with the cavalry, reaching Lexington, Ala., on the 28th; on which day
(Jeneral Thomas, having ascertained that the enemy had crossed the Tennessee River at Bainbridge,
ceased ])ursuit.

Dm-ing the foregoing operations General Smith's command liad readied Pulaski, wliile General
Schotield remained at Columbia.

* Cnptiirod.

t Brig. Gen. M. V. Lowrry comiimiult't! (liviHion on tlu* lOtli.



Ou his arrival at Franklin on the 18th, General Thomas directeil General Steedmaii to move with
his command across the country to Murfreeslioro, and thence by rail to Decatur, Ala., (iciieral Granger
with his force joining him at Stevenson. Gen. Steedman was instructed to reoccujiy tiie places in
Northern Alal)ama evacuated on Hood's advance, then cross the Tennessee River and threaten the
enemy's railroad communications west of Florence. Decatur was reoccupied on the 27th, hut the
enemy having crossed the Tennessee River, no movement was made on his railroad communications.
However, Colonel W. J. Palmer, 15th Pa. Cav., with a cavalry forc^e of 600 men, was sent in pursuit
of Hood's train. Pressing back Roddy's rebel cavalry, near Leighton, Colonel Palmer moved toward
Columbus, Miss., and. captured and destroyed Hood's pontoon train ten miles from Russellville. Pushing
on toward Aberdeen, Miss., he captured and burned a large supply train, just over the line in Mississippi.
Eeturning via Toll Gate, Ala., and on the old Military and Haclcljeriy roads, he met the enemy, under
Roddy, BitHes, and Russell, near Russellville and along Bear Creek, while another force under Armstrong
was reported in pursuit. Under cover of the darkness Colonel Palmer evaded the forces in his front
and pushed for Moulton ; meeting the enemy near Thorn Hill, he attacked and routed him, and arrived
safely at Decatur on the 6th of January.


During the active operations of the main army in Middle Tennessee, General Stoneman having
concentrated the commands of Gens. Gillem and Burl)ridge at Bean's Station, in East Tennessee,
moved on the 12th of December for Bristol; his advance, imder Gillem, struck the enemy, \mder Duke,
opposite Kingsport, chsjjei-sing his command and capturing SI prisoners. General Burbridge pushed
on and captured Bristol and Abingdon with 277 prisoners, and destroyed five loaded railroad trains,
and large quantities of stores, Arc. General Stoneman then threatened the Salt works with one brigade
and pushed Gillem on to Marion, where he attacked and routed the rebel General Vaughn on the
morning of the 16th, capturing all of his artillery and 198 prisoners, and pursuing the remainder of the
enemy to Wytheville, which placci lie captured about dark. General Stoneman moved up to Moimt
Airy with Burbridge's command, and sent Colonel Buckley with a brigade to destroy the Lead mines,
about twenty-eight miles southeast, which he successfully accomplished. General Gillem, having
destroyed "Wytheville and the large quantities of stores collected there, and the railroad for several miles
east, rejoined General Stoneman at Mount Airy on the 17th, when the whole command returned to
capture the Salt works. General Burliridge, who was in advance, struck the enemy under Breckinridge
strongly posted near Marion ; brisk skirmishing was kept up all day, and the enemy sliowing strong
resistance, the next morning General Gillem moved around his left to cut him otf from the Salt works,
while Burljridge kept up sharp skirmishing in his front; during the night Breckim-idge withdrew and
escaped into North Carolina. Genei-al Stoneman then moved on and captured the Salt works without
very serious resistance, destroyhig the l)uild!ngs, wells, pumps, macliine^ry, kettles, and materials of all
kinds. The object of the expedition having been accomplished. General Burl)ridge returned to Ken-
tucky, and General Stoneman, with Gillem's command, returned to Knoxville.


General Hood, while investing Nashville, sent a cavalry force under General Lyon into Kentucky
to operate on the Louis\ille railroad; General Thomas detached General McCook's cavalry divisioli and
sent it in pursuit of Lyon. McCook attacked and routed a part of Lyon's forces at Hopkinsville, Ky.,
when Lyon connnenced a hasty retreat. Colonel LaGrangc's brigade, (;oming up with Lyon near
Greensburg ; attacked and routed him ; Lyons succeeded, by making a wide "detour" via Elizabethtown
and Glasgow^, in crossing Cumlierland River at Burksville, from whence he moved, via McMinnville and


Wincliestcr, Tc'iiii., tn Liirkiiis\illo, Aluhama. On tin- Intli of .liiiiuarv, Lv"" attai-keil tla- little fjar-
risoii at Scott,-! luro anil was rt-piiiseil; lit- succL-edt'd in crossinj; tliu Teniii-sseo liiver witli a reiiiiiaiit of
liiri loiuiimnd. Colonel W. J. Palmer, with one liumlretl ami Kfty men, cros.seil the river at Paint Koek
and |>ui-sued him to near lied Hill, on tiie AVarrenton and Tuscaloosia rojid, at which plaee he was siir-
j)rised and ea]itiired with one liundreil of his men, together with tlieir horses and one guu. Lvon siih-
setjiiently made liis escajie.


Alter the escape of Iloud with his defeated and shattered arm}' across the Tennessee Kiver,
General Thomas eonecntrated his forces as follows : Generals Smith's and Wilson's commands at East-
jport. Miss., and General Wood's corps at Hnntsville, Alabama. General Sehofield's corps remained
at Columbia. General Johnson's cavalry division W!is 6ubse(piently directed to return to PuliKki, Tenn.,
for local operations.

On the 2d of Jamiary, 1865, General Schofield started from Columljia with his corps, and moved,
via Mt. Pleasant, Ilenrvville, anil Waynesboro, to Clifton, on the Tennessee Ilivcr. On the 14th, he
was ordered to embark his corps and proceed to Annapolis, ilaryland, via the Tennessee and Ohio Rivers.

On the 2-ltli, General McCook's Cavalry division arrived at Waterloo Landing, having marched
from Kentucky after driving the rebel General L^'ou's eomniandfrom the State. About the same time
General Long's division arrived, having marched from Louisville, Ky., and soon after General Winslow's
l>rigade arrived by steamers from the same place. The cavalry corps was cantoned sus follows: Long's,
Ujiton's, and Hatch's divisions, and Hammond's brigade of Knipe's division, at Gravelly Springs, and
Mf'Cook's division at Waterloo ; a j)art of Knipe's division was at Nashville remoimting. While the
cavalry eoii>s was in cantonment, a thorough system of drill and discipline was instituted.

On the 2!)tli, General Thomas received orders to send General A. J. Smith's corps, and five thou-
sand cavalry, to re-enforce General Canby at New Orleans, Louisiana; General Knipe's division of
cavalry wa-s selected. These troops embarked respectively at Eastport and Waterloo on the Cth of
February, and proceeded by river to their destination. That portion of Knipe's divisii>n at Nash-
ville embarked on the 12th, and followed by river.

On the I-Jlst, General Staidey, having sutHciently recovered from his wound re<'eivcd at Franklin,
Tenn., resumed the command of his corps at Iluntsville, Ala. On the 12th of Mair.h he was directed
to move with his corps, by rail, into East Tennessee, to give protection to the railroad then being rebuilt.
General Kimball's division started on the 13th, disembarking at Strawberry Plains; General Wood's
division followed, and took post at New Market. Colonel Kirhy's brigade of Kimball's division moved
to Bull's (lap on the 2-lth, giving protection to the construc-tion corps. On the '>k\ of April he moved
with his brigade on an expedition up the French Broad River, demonstrating toward Ashville, North
Carolina, for the pm-pose of creating a diversion in favor of General Stoncman, who was operating in
that State. Colonel Kirby found Asliville too strongly defended to be carried l»y assaidt, and he returned
with his command into East Temiessee. On the 4th, Wooil's division moved to Greenville, Beatty's
brigade going to Jonesboro, and ]>rotecting the railroad to tlie Watauga River. On the ISfh, General
Stanley was directed to concentrate his command at Nasliville, Tenn., where it went into camp. On
the 2(lth of May, he was ordered to hold his connnanil in readiness to move to New Orleans, Louisiana,
and report to Maj. Gen. Sheridan. Tlie last of his command Ictl Nashville on tiie IStli of June; he
moved, via the Nashville and Nortli Western railroad, to Johnsonville, on the Tennessee River, and
from tlicncc. ]>y transports, to New Orleans.



Pursuant to instructions received from Maj. Gen. George II. Thomas, General Wilson, with Long's,
Upton's, and McCook's cavalry divisions, moved from Chickasaw Landing, March 22d, 1865, on an
ex]iedition for the captm-e of Selma, Alabama, and other important pla(!es held by the enemy. The
different lines of march are correctly indicated on the maj). At Elyton, General Croxton's brigade oi
McCook's division was detached for the purpose of capturing Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and did not again
join the maiu column until after its arrival at Macon, Ga. In the region of Montevallo, General Upton
destroyed the Eed Mountain, Central, Bibb, and Columbiana Iron Works, Cahawba Rolling Mills, five
collieries, and other valuable ])roperty. At Kandoliili, General McCook was detached, with LaGrange's
brigade, for the relief of Croxton ; l)nt lioing unable to reach him, he rejoined the main column at Selma
on the 5th of April. On the 1st i^if April, the enemy, under Forrest, were met in force at Ebenezer
Church, six miles north of Plantersville ; Long and Upton attacked him, and after a sliarji tight of an
horn-, drove him from the field in confusion. On the 2d of April, Wilson, with Long's and LTpton's
divisions, captured Selma, Alabama, a strongly fortified city, by assault. Long's division leading. The
fruits of the victory were twenty^even lumdred prisoners, thirty-one tield pieces, one thirty pounder
Parrot, and innacnse quantities of stores. The arsenals, founderies, and stores were destroyed. The
enemy had previously burned 27,000 bales of cotton.

A bridge eight hundi-ed and seventy feet long was constructed, and by daylight of the 10th, the
conuuand was across the Alabama River. Montgomery was reached on the I2th, and was surrendered
by the Mayor, ■u'ith five guns and large quantities of small arras and stores, which were destroyed.
The enemy had previously destroj'ed 90,000 bales of cotton. Major Wiston made a rapid march
toward Wetumpka, and captured fi\'e loaded steamboats, which were destroyed. On the 1-itli, the
march was resumed on the Columbus road. At Tuskegee, Colonel LaGrange's brigade was detached
to make a rapid movement on AVest Point, destroying the railroad as he advanced. The main colunm
continued on the Columbus road, arriving' in front of the enemy's works on the evening of the IGtli.
General Upton carried the works by night assault, and took possession of Columbus, capturing 1,200
prisoners, and 52 field guns in position ; he destroyed the rebel ram Jackson, mounting six seven-inch
gims, 15 locomotives, 250 cars, the railroad and foot bridge, 115,000 bales of cotton, 4 cotton factories,
the navy yard, foundry, armory, sword and pistol factory, accoutrement shops, 3 paper mills, 100,000
rounds of artillery ammunition, and vast quantities of stores. The rebels burned the gun-boat Cliatta-
lioocliie twelve miles below Columbus.

Colonel LaGrange reached West Point on the IGth, and carried Fort Tyler, covering the railroad
bridge across the Cliattahoochie River, by assault, capturing the entire garrison, 205 men in all, three
guns and five hundred stand of arms, and destroying two bridges, nineteen locomotives, and two hun-
dred and forty-five loaded cars. On the 17th, LaGrange resumed his march toward Macon. On the
same day Minty's (Long's) tlivision moved from Columbus toward Macon, followed by the rest of the
command on the 18th. The cohunn arrived at Macon on the 20th, and received the surrender of the
place. Further operations were susjiended, in com]>liance with the armistice entered into l)etween
Generals Sherman and Johnson. LaGrange rejoined the main colunm soon after his arrival at Macon,
and on the 31st, General Croxton arrived, having acted independently since his separation from the main
column at Elyton, on the 30th of March. He captured Tuscahiosa and Talladega, destroying the
Military Institute, bridge, and public works at the former place, and the iron works and factories in
Northern Alabama and Georgia.

General Wilson's command marched an average of 525 miles in twenty-eight days. Captured
5 fortified cities, 23 stand of colors, 288 pieces artillery, 6,820 prisoners, and destroyed a vast amount


<»l'|iiil.lic |«n>|>i-rty <>f all kiiulri. Goiieriil WUpdii lost : Killol — Otticors, 13; Enlisted men, 8G ; Total,
yj ; Woiuiikd — OtKi-ers*., 39; Enliisted men, 559; Total, 598 ; Mis>*ing — OtKeers, 7 ; Enli.steil men,
21 ; Total, 2S ; Aggrejjate, 725.

Commanding Cuvah'y Corj)8. — Bvt. Maj. Gen. .1. 11. Wilson.

Commandhuj Divisions. — Brig. Gen. E. M. MeCook, 1st Divi.sion; Brig. Gen. Eli Long,
2tl Division ; Bvt. Maj. Gen. E. Upton, 4tli Division.

Commanding 1st Urigadcs — Brig. Gen. John T. Croxton, 1st Division ; Colonel A. O. Miller,
2d Division; Bvt. Brig. Gen. E. F. Win.slow, 4th Division.

Commanding 2d Jirigades — Colonel O. li. LaGniiige, 1st Division ; Colonel R. II. G. Miiity,
2d Division ; Bvt. Brig. Gen. Alexander, 4tli Division.

M \,ln|; i;K\i:imI. V,m\{{\K STONEMATS CAVALUV l-:\l'i: IHTIOX. 1\ THE

In complianee with instructions received from General Thomas, General Stonenian concentrated
General Gillem's cavalry division, consisting of Colonel's Palmer's, Miller's, and Bro\m's brigades, at
Mossy Creek, East Tennessee, on the 22d of March, 1S(!5. He moved thence, via Morristown, to Bull's
Gap, where he divided his forces, sending Colonel Miller's brigade on the Sna])ps Ferry road, and
marching with the rest of his command directly on Jonesboro'. The whole command then moved up
the Watauga lliver Valley to Boone, where the advance skirmished with a small force of the enemy;
and from thence, in two colunms, via Deep and Watauga Gaps, to Wilksboro, ^orth Carolina, where
the advance again skirmished with the enemy, driving him from town. Continuing his march. General
Stonenian crosseil the Yadkin River at Jone.sville, on the 2d of April, and from thence moved to
Cranberry Plain, or Ilillsville, Virginia, from whence he sent Colonel !ft[iller to Wytheville, to destroy
the railroad in that vicinity, and with the main force moved on Jacksonville, skirmishing with the
enemy at the crossing of Big Reed Island Creek. From Jacksonville, Major Wagner advanced on
Salem, and ])roceeding thence east along the railroad, destroyed it to within a few miles of Lynchburg,
Virginia. General Stoneman advanced on Christiansburg, and sending his ti'oops east and west,
destroyed the railroad for about ninety miles, after which he returned to Jacksonville. Sending Colonel
Palmer to Martinsville, Virginia, he moved, with the remainder of the force with him, on Tayloi-s\-ille,
where he wiis joined by Colonel Miller, from Wytheville, who had skirmished severely with the enemy
at that i)oint. On the 9th General Stoneman arrived at Danville, where Colonel Pidmer rejoined, and
the whole (command moved to Germantown. Several hundrc<l negi'oes having joined the colunm were
sent back into East Temiessee from this point. From Germantown, Colonel Palmer was sent to destroy
the railroad l)etween Salisi)ury anil Greensboro', and the factories at Salem. The nuiin column moved
on Salisl)ury, forcing the psissagc of the Yadkin at Iluntsvillo on the 11th, and skirmishing with the
enemy near Moeksville. liarly on tlie 12th General Stoneman advanced on Salisbury, and after a
severe tight captured the place with twelve hundred prisoners, eighteen guns, ten thousand small arms,
and vast ipnuitities of stores of all kinds. Colonel Palmer rejoined at Salisbury, having destroyed the
railroad between Sidisbury anil Greensboro', and the factories at Salem, and captured four hundred

After destroying the small arms, munitions, and stores, and the railruad in the vicinity of Salisbury,
General Stoneman marched to Statesville, from whence he sent Colonel Painitr to l.incolnton, to watch
the line of the Catawba, moving with the rest of his command to Lenoir.

From Lenoir General Stoneman returned to East Temiessee, leaving General Gillem in coninuiiul
of the troops in the field. The prisoners and captui'ed artillery were also sent to East Tennessee from

■» .


this point. General Gillem moved from Lenoir to Morgantown, forcing tlie passage of the Catawl^a,
and capturing fifty prisoners and one gun. On the 17th lie moved toward Ashville, via Swananoa Gap.
Finding the Gap strongly defended, he left Colonel Miller's brigade to threaten it in front, and with
Colonel Brown's brigade moved to Rutherfordtown, and passed the Blue Ridge at Howard's Gap
with but slight resistance, his advance entering Hendersouville at daylight on the 23d. The enemy had
just left with four pieces of artillery, and a detachment was sent in i)ursuit, which overtook the enemy
within about ten miles of Ashville, capturing his artillery. Colonel Palmer moved fi-om Lincolnton to
Rutherfordtown. General Gillem moved from Hendersouville toward Ashville, but when near that
place he was met by a flag of truce and informed of the armistice entered into between Generals
Sherman and Johnson. He then peaceably entered Ashville, where he was joined by Colonel Miller's
brigade. From Ashville General Gillem returned, in person, to East Tennessee, aiid the whole division
was ordered to follow, but the order was sulisequently changed, and the division, under the connnand
of Bvt. Bi'ig. Gen. W. J. Palmer, was sent into South Carolina and Georgia in pursuit of Jeff. Davis.
Generals Stoneman and Gillem captured six thousand prisoners, and twenty -five pieces of artillci-y
taken in action, and twenty-one abandoned by the enemj-. Immense quantities of property of all kinds
belonging to the Rebel Government were destroyed.



After the surrender of General Johnson and his army to General Sherman, Jefferson Dans,
President of the Rebel Government, and other rebel officials, sought to escape punishment by flight.

In compliance with instructions received from the Secretary of War, General Thomas, on the 27th
of April, 1865, directed his caN-alry conmianders, operating in the States of North Carohna, South
Carohna, Georgia, and Alabama, to take measures to secure their a[)prehension.

Bvt. Brig. Gen. W. J. Palmer, temporarily commanding the ca\-ah-y division of East Tennessee
in the absence of General Gillem, was in the vicinity of Cowjiens Battlefield, South Carohna, with
the first brigade of his division, when he received the orders, April 29th, to pursue Jeff. Davis and
party. The other two brigades of his division, under the command of Bvt. Brig. Gen. Brown, were
moving- South from Ashville, North Carohna, toward Antlerson, South Carolina.

Jeff'. Davis and party, with a consideral)le amount of treasure and. a large escort, had left Charlotte,
North Carohna, upon the termination of the armistice, and passing through Yorkville, South Carolina,
were moving toward Abbeville ; the advance of the escort having two days the start of General Palmer.
Learning these facts, and there being several rivers to cross on the way to Georgia, where small
parties could successfully chspute his advance, while Davis and ]iarty pusiied on westward, General
Palmer determined to move with his main force, via Spartansl)urg and Golden Grove, to the head of
the Savannah River, sending out detachments to ascertain the movements of Davis. Concentrating his
di\'ision at Centertown, General Brown having moved down from Ashville, General Palmer crossed the
Savannah RiveP at Hatton's Ford, and marched in two columns on Athens, Georgia, arriving there with
his entu'e command May 4. From Athens, General Palmer sent out scouts and detachments in various
directions, and picketed the cross roads, and the fords and ferries on the Savannah, Broad, and Oconee
Rivers — he also cut the railroad between Aiigusta and Atlanta, to prevent Davis' escape by rail.

From Abbeville Davis moved to Vienna, where he left his large es<!ort, which subsequently
surrendered at various points, and crossing the Sa\aimah River on tlie 3d of May, with an escort of
tliirtj'-tive men, under General Duke, he moved, via Washington, ti) Greensl)oro', and thence south
toward Dublin.

Forage becoming scarce in the licit of cuuntrv occupicil by his cDuuuand, and lieing satisfied tliat


Davis ami jiarty liu'l puit- suiilliwanl, for tin- |uiri>ose of jiassiiif^ around Maoon, CJuneral Palmer sent
Gi-iitral Urown, with tlit- 2il ami otl lirij;aiks, liack to tlie lim- of the SavaiiiiiJi, to {^lard the fi>nis ami
ferries t'njin l)of)h-'fi Ferrv mirtli\var<l to Knox's Bridge, witli instnictioiis to arrest all parties nf armed
rebels, and when fi>ra};e liecame seanu alonj^ that line, to move with liutii luigades to Grcejiville, South
CiU-olina, and await orders to return to East Tenneasce. Siniultaiieously witli General Brown's return
movement, (ieneral Palmer, with the 1st lirigadt, in three columns, moved across the helt of country
exhausted in tlie Atlanta c-ampaign, and placed liis conunand west of the Coosa River, ami guarded the
line of tiiat stream from AVills' Valley southward to AVilsonville, on tiie Taliu<lega and Sclma railroad.

In conjunction with the al)ove detailed movements, JJvt. Maj. Gen. J. 11. Wilson, commanding the
cavalry corps at Macon, Georgia, distrili\ited liis forces for the caj>ture of Jett". Davis, as follows: General

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Online LibraryUnited States. Army of the CumberlandLegends of the operations of the Army of the Cumberland → online text (page 7 of 8)