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GIFT OF




183228 2(



Ordnance Department Document No. 2033



HANDBOOK OF ARTILLERY

INCLUDING

MOBILE, ANTI-AIRCRAFT
AND TRENCH MATERIEL



PREPARED IN THE OFFICE OF
THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE



May, 1920




WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1920












ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT

Document No. 2033
ffice of the Chief of Ordnance



WAR DEPARTMENT,

WASHINGTON, May, 1920.

The following publication, entitled " Textbook of Artillery, Includ-
ing Mobile, Anti-Aircraft, and Trench Materiel, - 1 ' is published for the
information and guidance of all students of the Ordnance training
schools, and other similar educational organizations. The contents
should not be republished without authority of the Chief of Ordnance;
War Department, Washington, D. C.

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR.

PEYTON C. MARCH,

General, Chief of Staff.
OFFICIAL :

P. C. HARRIS,

The Adjutant General.

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432322



PREFACE.



The data in this book is compiled for use in the Ordnance training
schools and other educational organizations where a short, yet com-
prehensive, survey of the existing calibers and types of guns and car-
riages now in use by the United States Army is desired. On this
basis, the descriptions and drawings have been made simple and
technicalities have been reduced to a minimum, bringing out the
differences and similarities of the various types of artillery materiel.
. This publication has been prepared in the mobile gun carriage sec-
tion of the Artillery Division. The general discussion on the design
and characteristics of mobile artillery is intended for the instruc-
tion of student officers and enlisted specialists schools.

The first edition of this book is to be distributed to various educa-
tional institutions for a trial use in their classes and the results of
this trial should be productive of many constructive criticisms so that
the second edition will more fully meet the varied needs of the
schools and training units. The intention is to revise this book
periodically, therefore suggestions and criticisms are cordially
invited. Communications should be addressed to the Chief of Artil-
lery Division, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Washington, D. C.

Murray H. Resni Coff.



LIST OF CONTENTS.



Page.

List of illustrations .' 7

Table of equivalents 14

Brief history of guns and artillery materiel '. 15

Artillery, classes of 21

Mobile artillery, types of 21

Guns, their functions and construction, including breech mechanisms 24

Mounts for mobile artillery 28

Recoil brakes and methods of counterrecoil 31

Aiming devices and sighting methods. 39

Accompanying vehicles 45

37-millimeter gun materiel, model of 1916 50

37-millimeter (1 pounder) gun carriage (Bethlehem) 56

2.95-inch Vickers-Maxim mountain gun materiel (with pack outfit) 59

75-millimeter gun materiel:

Model of 1916 materiel 65

Model of 1916 MI materiel 78

Model of 1897 MI (French) materiel 80

Model of 1917 (British) materiel 94

Gun carriage limber, model of 1917 (British) 106

Gun carriage limber, model of 1918 110

Gun caisson, model of 1918 113

Gun caisson limber, model of 1918 116

3-inch gun materiel 118

Guns, models of 1902, 1904, and 1905, and carriage, model 1902 120

Gun limber, model of 1902 ]30

Gun caisson, model of 1902 132

Gun caisson, model of 1916 134

Gun limber, model of 1916 .- 137

Battery wagon, model of 1902 138

Battery wagon, model of 1902 MI 139

Store wagon, model of 1902 140

Store wagon, model of 1902 MI 141

Forge limber, model of 1902 .143

Store limber, model of 1902 146

Forge limber, model of 1902 MI 145

Store limber, model of 1902 MI 146

Battery and store wagon, model of 1917 147

Battery reel, model of 1907 150

Reel, model of 1909 MI 152

Cart, model of 1918 155

Wheels:

56-inch (steel tired) 158

57-inch by 3.5 inch (rubber tired) 158

Reel, model of 1917, for caissons 159

Automatic pole support 160

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:/ 6

Page.

4.7-inch gun m*.t6jiel 131

Gun and carriage, model of 1906 166

Gun carriage limber, model of 1905 175

Gun caisson, model of 1908 178

Gun limber, model of 1908 180

Gun caisson, model of 1916 182

Gun caisson, model of 1917 186

5-inch, 60-pounder gun materiel (British) 189

Gun, Mark I, and carriage, Mark II 193

Gun carriage limber, Mark II 196

Ammunition wagon, Mark II 199

Ammunition wagon limber, Mark II 203

155 howitzer materiel, model of 1917 (Schneider) 207

155 howitzer materiel, model of 1918 (Schneider) 211

Howitzer and carriage, model of 1918 216

Howitzer carriage limber, model of 1918 223

Howitzer caisson, model of 1918 225

155 gun materiel (Filloux) 229

Gun and carriage, model of 1918 234

Gun carriage limber, model of 1918 242

6-inch gun materiel, model of 1917 (British) 245

7-inch naval tractor mount, Mark V 249

8-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers) 259

Howitzers, Mark VI and VIII^, and carriages, Marks VI and VII 268

Howitzer carriage limber, model of 1917 (Vickers) 278

Firing platform and wagon, model of 1917 (Vickers) 281

9. 2-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers). 283

Howitzer and carriages, Marks I and II =. 288

Howitzer transport wagon 296

Howitzer carriage transport wagon 298

Howitzer platform transport wagon 299

240-millimeter howitzer materiel (Schneider) 300

Howitzer and carriage, model of 1918 307

Accessories 312

Transport wagons and limbers 318

Antiaircraft artillery 322

3-inch antiaircraft gun materiel, model of 1918 326

3-inch antiaircraft gun mount, model of 1917 340

75-millimeter antiaircraft truck mount, model of 1917 354

Trench warfare materiel 365

3-inch Stokes' trench mortar, Mark 1 369

6-inch Stokes' trench mortar, Mark 1 373

Prospectus 378



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Pago.

Frontispiece.

Sixteenth-century artillery 16

French artillery, 1800-1850 18

Recoil brakes and methods of counterrecoil :

Hydraulic brake (throttling bar) 32

Hydraulic brake (valve) 32

Hydraulic brake (central throttling) 33

Counterrecoil mechanism (spring, concentric columns) 34

Oounterrecoil mechanism (spring, telescopic). . 34

Hydro-spring recoil system 34

Hydro-pneumatic recoil system with floating piston 35

Hydro-pneumatic recoil system with fluid in direct compact with the air. . 35

Counterrecoil mechanism (hydro-pneumatic, central buffing) 36

Aiming devices:

Elevating systems 40

Panoramic sight 41

Gunner's quadrant 42

Accompanying vehicles :

Tractors hauling artillery 46

75 mm. gun carriage, mounted on trailer ^47

37-millimeter gun materiel, model of 1916:

Rear view of carriage in battery position : 49

Carriage and ammunition cart, limbered 50

Left side view of tripod mount in battery position 51

Tripod mount in firing position 53

Gun disassembled on the march (wheels and axles left in the rear) 54

Gun and personnel on the march (ammunition cart left in the rear) 55

37-millimeter (1-pounder) gun carriage (Bethlehem):

Side view of carriage 57

Rear view of carriage 58

2.95-inch Vickers-Maxim mountain -gun materiel (with pack outfit):

Carriage in firing position 60

Pack outfit on mule back 61

Rear view of carriage in battery - .62

Detailed view of gun 63

Side view of carriage in battery 64

75-miUimeter gun materiel, model of 1916:

Right side elevation of carriage 66

Front view of carriage 66

Plan view of carriage 67

Rear view of carriage 68

Left side view of carriage 69

Breech mechanism 72

Longitudinal section of recoil and counterrecoil mechanism 73

Gun at maximum elevation 74

Elevating mechanism 75

Carriage and limber in traveling position 76

Traversing mechanism 77

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8

75-millimeter materiel, model of 1897 Ml (French) : Page.

Left rear view of carriage 81

Front view of carriage 82

Longitudinal section of gun and carriage 84

Breech mechanism 85

Right side elevation of carriage 87

Traversing and brake operating mechanism 88

Left side view of carriage 89

Abatage positions of carriage 90

Plan view of carriage 91

Sight, model of 1901 92

75-millimeter gun materiel, model of 1917 (British):

Front view of carriage 94

Left side elevation of carriage 95

Rear and front elevations of carriage 96

Rear view of carriage 97

Breech mechanism 99

Recoil-controlling system 101

Elevating and range gear 103

Traversing gear 104

75-millimeter gun carriage limber, model of 1917 (British):

Front view of limber 106

Right side elevation of limber 107

Rear and front elevations 108

Rear view of limber 109

75-millimeter gun carriage limber, model of 1918:

Rear view of limber. 1] 1

Front view of limber Ill

Assembled views of limber 112

75-millimeter gun caisson, model of 1918:

Front view of caisson 113

Assembled views of gun caisson 114

Gun caisson and gun caisson limber, limbered 115

75-millimeter gun caisson limber, model of 1918:

Front view of caisson limber. . 116

Assembled views of gun caisson limber 117

3-inch gun materiel, model of 1902:

Front view of carriage 119

Rear view of carriage 119

Left side elevation of carriage 121

Gun, models 1902, 1904, and 1905, 122

Breech mechanism 123

Recoil -controlling mechanism 125

Carriage and limber, hauled by tractor 126

Carriage and limber in traveling position . . . .^ 126

Range quadrant 127

Rear sight 128

3-inch gun limber, model of 1902:

Rear view of limber 130

3-inch gun caisson, model of 1902:

Front view of caisson 132

3-inch gun caisson, model of 1916:

Front view, showing door swung upward exposing ammunition 134

Front and side elevations of caisson. . 135



9

3-inch gun caisson limber, model of 1916: Page.

Side and rear elevations of caisson limber 136

Battery wagon, model of 1902 Ml:

Rear view of battery wagon > 138

Store wagon, model of 1902:

Side view of store wagon 140

Side view showing store wagon and limber, limbered 142

Forge limber, model of 1902 Ml:

*Top view showing interior of forge limber 143

Assembled views of forge limber 144

Store limber, model of 1902 Ml:

Top view showing interior of store limber 146

Battery and store wagon, model of 1917:

Rear right side view of battery and store wagon 147

Assembled views of battery and store wagon 148

Battery reel, model of 1917:

Left side view of battery reel . 150

Reel, model of 1909 Ml:

Rear view of reel 152

Assembled views of reel 153

Front view of reel 154

Cart, model of 1918:

View showing reel and cart, limbered 155

Rear view of cart 155

Assembled views of cart , 156

56-inch wheel :

Side view of wheel 158

Reel, model of 1917, for caissons:

View showing reel mounted on caisson 159

Front and side elevations of reel 160

Automatic pole support:

Sectional diagram of pole support 160

4. 7-inch gun materiel, model of 1916:

View showing carriage and limber in traveling position 161

Left side view of carriage in battery 162

Assembled views of carriage equipped with band brakes 163

Left front view of carriage equipped with band brakes : 164

Assembled views of carriage equipped with tire brakes 165

Front view of carriage equipped with tire brakes 166

Breech mechanism 166

Firing mechanism 167

Longitudinal section of gun and carriage 168

Front view of carriage equipped with band brakes 169

Rear right view of carriage 170

Elevating and traversing mechanisms 170

Range quadrant 171

Rear view of carriage equipped with band brakes 172

Rear sight 173

Front view of carriage equipped with tire brakes 174

4.7-inch gun carriage limber, model of 1905:

Front view of limber 175

Assembled views of limber 176

4.7-inch gun caisson, model of 1908:

Right side view of caisson 178



10

4. 7 -inch gun limber, model of 1908: Page.

View showing gun caisson and limber, limbered 180

4.7-inch gun caisson, model of 3916:

Right front view showing chest doors open exposing diaphragms 182

Assembled views of gun caisson 183

Front view of gun caisson 184

4.7-inch gun caisson, model of 1917:

Assembled views of gun caisson 187

5-inch (60-pounder) gun materiel (British):'

Rear left view of carriage in battery 189

Carriage and limber in traveling position 190

View showing trail connected to limber 191

Rear right view of carriage 194

5-inch (60-pounder) gun carriage limber, Mark II (British):

Front view of carriage limber . . 196

Rear view of carriage limber 197

5-inch (60-pounder) ammunition wagon, Mark II (British):

Front view of ammunition wagon 199

Rear view of ammunition wagon 200

Ammunition wagon and ammunition wagon limber, limbered 202

5-inch (60-pounder) ammunition wagon limber, Mark II (British):

Front view of ammunition wagon limber 203

Rear view of ammunition wagon limber 204

155-millimeter howitzer materiel, model of 1917 (Schneider):

Right side view of carriage in traveling position 207

Carriage in battery position (rear view) 208

Front view of carriage in battery position 209

Side view of carraige en route 209

155-millimeter howitzer materiel, model of 1918 (Schneider):

Traveling position of carriage and limber 210

Assembled views of traveling position 212

Detail view of howitzer . . . . 214

Breech mechanism 215

Firing mechanism 217

Recoil and counterrecoil mechanism 218

Longitudinal section of howitzer and carriage 220

Quadrant sight 221

155-millimeter howitzer carriage limber, model of 1918 (Schneider):

Plan and right side elevations 224

155-millimeter caisson, model of 1918 (Schneider):

Rear view of caisson 225

General assembled views 226

Front view of caisson 228

155-millimeter gun materiel, model of 1918 (Filloux):

Traveling position (right side) 229

Left-side view of carriage and limber in traveling position 230

Rear view of carriage in battery position 231

Carriage in traveling position (rear view) . ; 231

Longitudinal section of gun and carriage 232

Maximum elevation of gun 234

Breech mechanism 235

Breech mechanism and counterbalance cylinder 236

Carriage in firing position 237

Rear view of carriage in traveling position 238

Accessories and caterpillar wheel shoes 239

Elevating and traversing mechanism 240



11

155-miilimeter gun carriage limber, model of 1918 (Filloux): Page.

Front view of limber 242

Front view of limber, showing caterpillar wheel shoes, mounted on wheels . . 243

Detailed view of limber 244

6-inch gun materiel, model of 1917 (British):

Plan view of carriage 246

Left-side elevation of carriage .' 247

7-inch naval tractor mount, Mark V:

Carriage and limber in traveling position (front view) 249

Rear view of carriage 250

Left-side view of carriage in battery 251

Carriage and limber in traveling position (rear view) 253

Top carriage and axle details 254

Assembled view of hydraulic brake 255

View of axle mounted in track layer 256

Side elevation of track layer ." 257

Carriage in battery position, showing maximum elevation of gun 258

8-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers):

Carriage in battery position (Mark VI) 259

Carriage and limber in traveling position (rear view) 260

Carriage in battery position (Mark VII) 262

Rear view of carriage, showing maximum elevation of howitzer 263

Right-side view of carriage in battery 264

Left-side elevation of Mark VI carriage 267

Rear right-side of carriage in firing position 268

Detailed view of howitzer (Mark VI) 269

Breech mechanism of Mark VI howitzer 270

Breechblock 271

Firing mechanism 272

Front view of howitzer carriage 273

Elevating and traversing mechanism 274

Howitzer carriage mounted on firing platform ; 275

Sight assembled 276

8-inch howitzer carriage limber, firing platform and wagon, model of 1917
(Vickers):

Limber in traveling position (front view) 279

Materiel en train and in battery 280

9.2-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers):

Left-side elevation of carriages assembled 284

Front view showing maximum elevation of howitzer 285

Loading position, showing shell on tray ^ 286

Longitudinal section of carriage 287

Rear view of carriage, showing howitzer at maximum elevation 288

Breech mechanism (Mark I) 289

Breech mechanism (Mark II) 290

Gear regulating recoil 291

MetKod of loading, showing loading gear mechanism in action 292

Right-side view of carriage in battery 292

Traversing gear 1 293

Sight assembled 294

9.2-inch howitzer transport wagon (Vickers):

Method of mounting howitzer 296

Materiel en train. . 297



12

240-millimeter materiel, model of 1918 (Schneider): p age .

Front view of carriage, showing maximum elevation of howitzer 300

Materiel e"n train 301

Carriage in loading position 302

Method of loading the howitzer with rammer car 304

Left elevation of carriage with howitzer at maximum elevation 305

Breech mechanism 306

Mounting the cradle 308

Recoil and recuperator mechanism 309

Elevating and quick-loading gear mechanism 310

Mounting the top carriage 311

Method of lowering platform 312

Sight assembled 313

Erecting frame in position 314

Left-side view of carriage 316

Mounting the howitzer 317

240-millimeter howitzer transport limbers and wagons:

Howitzer transport wagon 318

Cradle transport wagon 318

Top carriage transport wagon 319

Platform transport wagon 319

Antiaircraft artillery:

Antiaircraft artillery in action 323

3-inch antiaircraft gun materiel, model of 1918:

Carriage in traveling position 325

Carriage in battery position (front view) 327

View showing outriggers folded 328

Longitudinal section of carriage 329

Breech mechanism 330

View showing right rear outrigger with jack spade and float removed 332

Side view of carriage in battery position 333

Assembled view showing carriage in firing position 335

Front view of trailer 336

Sight on left side of carriage 337

Sight on right side of carriage 338

3-inch antiaircraft gun mount, model of 1917:

View showing mount in action 340

Longitudinal section of gun mount 341

Right side elevation of gun mount 342

View showing right side of mount 343

Breech mechanism 345

Vertical .section showing breech open 346

Elevating and traversing mechanisms 349

Left side elevation of gun mount 350

7 5 -millimeter antiaircraft truck mount, model of \917:

Truck in traveling position (right side view) 354

Plan view of truck mount 355

Sectional elevation of gun mount 356

View showing truck mount in action 357

Gun mount showing gun at maximum elevation 360

Truck in traveling position (left side view) 361

Firing and stability jacks 363

Truck mount in battery position 364



13

Trench warfare materiel: Page

Trench warfare 366

Arrangement of trenches 367

3-inch Stokes's trench mortar, Mark I:

Mortar in action 369

Front view of trench mortar 370

Rear view of trench mortar 371

fi-inch trench mortar, Mark I :

Diagrams showing preparation of trench mortar for action 374

Left side view of mortar 375

Method of loading trench mortar 376

Rear view of mortar 377

Self-propelled caterpillar Mark II:

Plan view 379

Traveling position, front view 380

Traveling position, rear view 381



TABLE OF EQUIVALENTS.



1 mil 3.37 minutes.

1 degree 17.777 mils.

1 meter (m) 39.37 inches.

1 centimeter (cm) 0.3937 inch.

1 millimeter (mm) 0.03937 inch.

1 kilogram, (kg) 2.2046 pounds.

1 dekagram (dk) 0.3527 ounce.

1 gram '. 15.432 grains.

1 liter 1 .05671 quarts (U. S.).

1 quart (U. S.) 0.9463 liter.

1 inch 2.54 centimeters.

1 foot 0.3048 meter.

1 yard 0.9144 meter.

1 square inch 6.452 square centimeters.

1 kilogram (kg) per square centimeter- 14.223 pounds per square inch.

1 cubic inch 16.39 cubic centimeters.

1 cubic foot 0.02832 cubic meter.

1 cubic yard 0.7645 cubic meter.

1 ounce 28.35 grams.

1 pound 0.4536 kilogram.

(14)



A BRIEF HISTORY OF GUNS AND ARTILLERY

MATERIEL.



In taking up the study of guns, the student should know something
of their history, the development of guns and gun carriages, and the
reason for the various changes in ordnance materiel which have
taken place from time to time.

The first use of guns or cannon as a medium for hurling projectiles
by means of gunpowder is buried in obscurity; we have knowledge
of Chinese using a form of gunpowder, not, however, for military
purposes, but for pyrotechnics, at a period long before the Caucasians.

From the earliest times man has felt the want of arms that would
kill at a distance, and the ingenuity of the talented has successively
been taxed to produce such weapons. The readiest means at first
was the throwing of stones or spears with the hand; but the effect of
the missile proved so often insufficient that at once a desire arose to
assist the muscles by the aid of some mechanical force. The sling
was probably the first weapon used for hurling missiles. Its inven-
tion is attributed to the Phoenicians or the inhabitants of the Balearic
Isles, who were extremely expert in its manipulation. The sling was
used for many centuries as a military weapon, and its last appearance
was at the Huguenot War of 1572.

The bow was probably invented about the same time as the sling,
and for many centuries was considered the most effective offensive
weapon in warfare. Great skill was attained by the ancients in its
use, and many accounts are to be found relative to the extraordinary
force and precision with which an arrow might be projected. The
long-bow has always been more essentially the universal weapon, the
cross-bow being a comparatively modern invention, and its use
confined almost entirely to Europe. The cross-bow was greatly
used for sporting as well as military purposes ; and it must have been
a cross-bow that William Tell employed in his notable feat. The
Genoese and Gascons were the most famous cross-bow men in the
armies of Europe. The cross-bow of the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries were sometimes made with sights affixed to them. Some
specimens possessed a back sight having three or more peepholes,
one over the other, which were evidently intended as guides for
elevation.

The invention of gunpowder is possible to trace back to many
centuries prior to the Christian era. Most writers upon this subject
seem agreed that it was known to the Chinese and Indians, but the
18322820 2 (15)



16



descriptions given are so vague that it is difficult to make the
various accounts coincide. The earliest mention we have of gun-
powder is in the Gentoo Laws, where it is mentioned as applied to
firearms. This particular code is believed to have been coeval with
the time of Moses.

Gunpowder has been known in India and China far beyond all
periods of investigation. There are many ancient Indian and
Chinese words signifying weapons of fire, " heaven's thunder,"
" devouring fire," "ball containing terrestrial fire," and such like
expressions.

The ancient Indians made great use of explosives, including gun-
powder, in pyrotechnical displays. The introduction of powder
into Europe took place early in the Christian era; some believe it was
brought by the Moors into Spain and others that it came through
the Greeks at Constantinople. Both may be correct, but certain it
is that it, or a substance closely akin to it, was used at the siege of

Constantinople in A. D. 668.
The Arabs, or Saracens, are
said to have used it in A. D.
690, at the siege of Mecca.

The earliest mention of
guns we have is that Seville
was defended in 1247 by can-
non throwing stones ; Mibela
in Spain was also defended by
a machine resembling can-
non, when besieged in 1259;
in 1273, Abou Yousof made use of cannon throwing stone balls at the
siege of Sidgilmessa; and in 1308, Ferdinand IV of Castile, at the siege
of Gibraltar, employed guns (or Marquinas de Truenas); and in 1311,
Ismail attacked Bazas, a town of Granada, with machines throwing
balls of fire with a noise resembling thunder. These seem to 4 confirm
the opinion that the use of cannon and powder was known to the
Arabs or Moors and introduced by them into Spain, from whence it
spread over Europe.

In the chronicle of the town of Ghent for 1313 it is stated that the
town was possessed of a small cannon; and in the records of the
Florentine Republic mention is made in the year 1325 of two officers
being ordered to manufacture cannon and iron bullets for the defense
of the castles and villages belonging to the Republic. The first
German cannon belonged to the town of Amberg, and bears the
date of 1301. The English appear to have imported them from
Flanders, for King Edward III in 1327 employed some Hainaulters
who used them in his war with the Scotch. In 1331 cannon were
used by the King of Granada against Alicante, in 1339 at the siege of




ARTILLERY OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.



17

Puy-Guillem, and in the same year at the siege of Cambray by


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Online LibraryUnited States. Army. Ordnance DeptHandbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench matériel → online text (page 1 of 19)