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United States. Army. Ordnance Dept.

Handbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench matériel online

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feet . .


33









Mark II.



109

14, 700
5,200
6,250
8,450



9.2-INCH HOWITZER CARRIAGE TRANSPORT WAGON (VICKERS).

The carriage transport wagon consists of a front and rear axle,
cross-bar, brake fittings, draft connection, and four wheels.

The front axle is of forged steel equipped with arms on each end
and to which are fitted the wheels. The raising screws for lifting the
carriage into position, functions through two vertical holes in the axle.

The draft frame is built up of steel plate and angles; is triangular
in shape and formed to take a draft pole fitted with draft hooks for
singletrees also joints for a tractor draft connector. The draft pole
is the same as that used with the howitzer transport wagon.

The rear axle is of steel, having its arms cranked and fitted with
dust excluders, linch pins, and adjusting collars which are secured in
position when traveling by the blocks and pivot on the front of the
carriage body. These fittings allow of an oscillation which com-
pensates for any unevenness in ground.

Biake levers for each of the brake shoes, on each side of the vehicle,
may be applied independently. The mechanism consists of brake
screws, handwheels, brake nuts, and bands for connection to the
axle.

The roller scotch and drag shoe furnished are the same as those
used with howitzer transport wagon.

Weights and dimensions.







Mark I.


Mark II.


Overall height


inches


103


Ill


Overall width '. .


. .do .


%|


109


Weight complete with load
Weight complete without load


pounds..
... . . .do . .


12,600
2,600


14,800
3,600


Weight on front axle (loaded)


do


5 000


5,500


Weight on rear axle (loaded)


do


7 600


9 300


Weight of each wheel.


do


336


336


Width of track .


inches


82


86


Distance between axles . .


do


115


129


Turning angle


degrees


32


f30 right.


Turning circle, diameter.


feet


34


\36 left.
25











299



9.2-INCH HOWITZER PLATFORM TRANSPORT WAGON (VICKERS).

The howitzer platform-transport wagon in general is very similar
to the howitzer carriage-transport wagon. The front axle and draft
connections are entirely similar to those on the howitzer carriage-
transport wagon, except that only one hole in the center of the axle
is provided for the raising screw. When preparing for travel the
rear axle, which is fitted with two vertical holes for lifting screws, is
attached to rear of the bed. The axle is fitted with dust exchider,
linch pins and adjusting collars, and a brake gear which is operated
from the rear by handwheels, each side being operated independently.
The roller scotch and drag shoe are similar to those used wath* the
howitzer carriage- transport wagon.

Weights and dimensions.







Mark I.


Mark II.


Overall height


.inches .


65ft


60


Overall width


do


964


109


Weight complete with load


pounds..


10,000


12,500


Weight complete without load.


do


2 700


3 500


Weight on front axle (loaded)


do


4 900


5 700


Weight on rear axle (loaded)


do


6 000


6*800


Weight of each wheel


do....


336


336


Width of track .


inches


82


86




do


160


174


Turning angle....


degrees


40


f36 right.


Turning circle, diameter


feet


48


\40 left.
43











240-MILLIMETER HOWITZER MATERIEL, MODEL OF
1918 (SCHNEIDER).



The 240-millimeter howitzer unit, a French design translated to
accommodate American manufacturing practice, differs from the
smaller type of field artillery pieces in that it is split up into a number
of loads for transport. When arranged for firing the carriage is set
upon a structural-steel platform which rests in a special prepared pit
and has a large trunk portion embedded in the ground to absorb the
reaction of the recoiling parts. The platform is stabilized by two
hinged floats at the rear.



FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE, SHOWING MAXIMUM ELEVATION OF HOWITZER.

Although approximately the same size as the British 9.2-inch how-
itzer (the exact diameter of the bore of the 240 being 9.45 inches) and
only a little larger than the 8-inch howitzer, the French gun is by far
more powerful than either. The 8-inch and 9.2-inch howitzers have
ranges in the neighborhood of 6 miles, their shell weighing 200 and 290
pounds, respectively. On the other hand, the 240 hurls a shell weigh-
ing 356 pounds and carrying a bursting charge of 45 to 50 pounds of
high explosive, obtaining a range of almost 10 miles. It is-estimated
that the life of the 240-millimeter howitzer before relining is approx-
imately 5,000 rounds.

(300)



301




302




303



Comparative characteristics of heavy artillery.





8-inch howitzer carriage.


9.2-inch howitzer carriage.


240-millime-
ter howitzer
carriage.


Mark VI.


Mark VII.


Mark I. j Mark II.


Weight of projectile pounds


200
1,300
10,760

29,540

19,100
Hydropneu-
matic.
50-24
0-50
152


200
1,522
12,360

30,490
1

20,048
Hydropneu-
matic.
52-24
0-45
152


290
1,187
10,060

10,640
3

16,240
Hydropneu-

40-25
15-50
60


290
1,500
13,080

14,410

19,040
Hydropneu-
matic.
44-19
15-50
60


356
1,790
17,009

14,000
4

37,920
Hydropneu-
matic.
46.7
-1-60
20


Muzzle velocity, feet per second
Maximum range, yards


Weight behind tractor heaviest load,




Weight of carriage and gun in firing




Length of recoil inches . .




Total traverse degrees





* Traverse when firing platform is used; without platform a traverse of 8 is obtainable.

In firing position the howitzer proper interlocks and becomes inte-
gral with the sleigh containing the recoil mechanism. A liquid con-
sisting of glycerine and water boiled for 15 minutes is used in the
recoil cylinders and a mixture of glycerine, water, and caustic soda
is used in the recuperator.

The sleigh has two bronze-lined slideways which engage the clips
on the cradle so that the sleigh slides upon the cradle when the how-
itzer recoils. At the front of the cradle there is attached a cast-steel
beam to which the piston rods of the recoil and recuperator cylinders
are bolted. The cradle also carries the elevating segments, the firing
mechanism, the quick-return mechanism, and a trunnion band which
supports the cradle in the trunnion bearings of the top carriage.

The top carriage is composed of two steel flasks united by cross
transoms and end plates, and at the rear end carries the brackets
which support the loading platform and crane. The top carriage is
pivoted at the front on a pintle seat supported by a set of Belleville
springs in a pintle socket on the platform. This facilitates traversing
the top carriage to its limits of 10 degrees either to the right or left.

The howitzer is served by a shot truck which carries two 356-
pound projectiles and runs on an industrial track to and from the
ammunition dump. The projectiles are lifted from the shot truck
and placed on a rammer car by shot tongs and cable operated by a
hand crane, all of which is supported by a loading platform at the
rear of the top carriage. The rammer car, operated by hand cranks,
moves along a track into the cradle, registering and locking with
the breech of the howitzer, after which the projectile is pushed into
position by a semiflexible chain, the powder charge being pushed in
by hand.

For transportation the complete howitzer unit is divided into four
loads, namely, howitzer, cradle, top carriage, and platform. Each

18322820 20



304

unit is composed of a limber, false trail, and a rear two-wheeled wagon.
The tools and accessories for each unit are carried on two 4-ton trail-
ers and the six loads are drawn by caterpillar tractors.

In assembling and dismounting, an erecting device made of struc-
tural steel is used for placing the platform and top carriage in posi-
tion. The cradle and howitzer are drawn into place by a cable and
windlass which is attached to the forward part of the top carriage.
This erecting device is also used for lifting and placing projectiles
on the shot truck from the shell storage.

The howitzer, when elevated to about 43 J and using a propelling
charge of 35 pounds, giving a pressure of about 33,000 pounds per
square inch on the base of the projectile, will fire a projectile weigh-
ing 356 pounds and containing a bursting charge of about 49 pounds
of T. N. T. to a distance of approximately 10 miles.




METHOD OF LOADING THE HOWITZER WITH RAMMER CAR.

The following sighting equipment is carried with the 240-millimeter
materiel :

Quadrant sight, model of 1918.

Panoramic sight, model of 1917.

Peep sight.

Sight extension.

Gunner's quadrant, model of 1918.

Night lighting equipment for sights.

Ammunition of the separate loading type is used with this how-
itzer, consisting of point-fuzed high-explosive common-steel shell
and point-fuzed gas semisteel shell. The shells are issued filled but
not fuzed, the fuze hole being closed with a suitable plug. The
components of each round are the primer, the propelling charge, the
filled projectile, and the fuzes.

To transport the complete carriage, there are provided four trans-
port vehicles howitzer trans'port wagon, top carriage transport
wagon, platform transport wagon, and cradle transport wagon.



305




306




307

Each transport vehicle consists principally of a limber, faJse trail,
and rear axle and wheels.

The limber consists of wheels, axle, pole, and turning arc and is
similar for each wagon. It is equipped with a pintle, over which
fits the lunette ring of the false trail. The turning arc is attached
to the axle, and the false trail bears on it as it rotates around the
pintle.

Four false trails are provided, one for -each wagon. They are
fitted at the front end with a lunette ring and at the rear with a
locking arrangement for attachment to the unit to be transported.

The rear axles are provided with suitable means for attachment to
their respective units, and band brakes are fitted on all the rear
axles.

When the complete carriage is set up for firing, the transport
vehicles are close coupled by means of the false trail and form short
units, having four wheels, which can be drawn away. All wheels
are equipped with solid rubber tires.
240-millimeter howitzer materiel, model of 1918 (Schneider}, consists of:

Howitzer and carriage, model of 1918.

Howitzer carriage limber, model of 1918.

Howitzer transport wagon, model of 1918.

Howitzer cradle transport wagon, model of 1918.

Howitzer top carriage transport wagon, model of 1918.

Howitzer platform transport wagon, model of 1918.

The above materiel is of French design, but was manufactured
only in the United States.

240-MILLIMETER HOWITZER AND CARRIAGE, MODEL OF 1918

(SCHNEIDER).

The howitzer is built up of alloy steel and consists of a tube, a
jacket, and hoop. The jacket is shrunk on the rear end of the tube
and is secured from slippage by threads cut in its inner surface,
which screw r over corresponding threads on the tube, the rear end
of which is prepared for the reception of the breechblock. The
hoop is shrunk and screwed on the tube forward of the jacket, which
is fitted at its rear end with a hinge lug, vertical clips for joining the
howitzer to the sleigh, and guide bosses for joining the sleigh to the
howitzer; also a T slot to suit the false trail when entrain. At the
front end of the hoop is a boss to accommodate the axles of the
transport wagon and lugs for rollers used in the dismounting and
mounting of the howitzer.

The breech mechanism is of the interrupted-screw type and is
fitted with a plastic obturator. One motion of the breech lever
swinging from left to right turns and swings the breech clear.



308

The firing mechanism is of the French percussion type, the same
as used on the 155-millimeter howitzer, and is interchangeable with
the mechanism of the following materiel:

155-millimeter gun, model of 1918 (Filloux).
155-millimeter howitzer, model of 1918 (Schneider).
8-inch howitzer, Marks VI and VIII (Vickers).

The sleigh, a steel forging, is bored out to house the recoil mechan-
ism and supports the howitzer, being attached to it by lugs and
locking clips, and therefore recoils with the howitzer when in action.
Grooves in the sleigh house guides fastened to the cradle which
serve to guide the howitzer in recoil. The sleigh is also fitted with
two tracks for the rollers on the howitzer, which are used in mounting
and dismounting.

The cradle carries the trunnions and is a nonrecoiling part. The
recuperator piston rod and the recoil piston rods being attached
to it.




MOUNTING THE CRADLE.

The recoil mechanism is of the hydropneumatic, long-recoil type,
the length of recoil being constant for all elevations. In the sleigh
forging are bored five longitudinal cylinders, the upper two being
bored about half the length of the sleigh and are closed at the front
end by caps, forming air reservoirs. The left reservoir has an open-
ing in which the pressure gage is fitted to test the pressure of air or
gas.

The lower cylinders extend the full length of the sleigh, while the
two outer cylinders form the recoil and the middle the recuperator
cylinder. The recuperator cylinder is connected by passages to the
two air chambers, permitting the liquid from the recuperator to flow
into them.

The recoil piston rods are hollow and are fixed rigidly to the
cradle. In the hollow space travel the throttling rods, which move
with the recoiling parts. These rods are so shaped that they give
a throttling effect on the liquid which passes through annular open-
ings around the piston. On return to battery the throttling rods
act as a buffer to prevent violent return into batten-.



309




310




311

The air (or nitrogen gas) in the recuperator is maintained at a
pressure of 568 pounds per square inch, which is sufficient to keep
the howitzer in battery at all elevations. Tanks of compressed
nitrogen are kept at hand to replenish that in the recuperator in
case the pressure gets low. The liquid used in both recuperators
and recoil cylinders is a mixture of glycerine and water. Suitable
pumps are provided for filling these cylinders.

A firing handle is fitted on the left side of the cradle, which, through
a system of shafts, operates the percussion hammer on the breech
the firing handle being accessible at all elevations of the howitzer.
In case of emergency the piece may be fired by means of a lanyard.

The elevating mechanism consists of elevating arcs, which tip the
cradle, is operated by a handwheel on the left side of the carriage




MOUNTING THE TOP CARRIAGE.

through a system of gearing. A maximum elevation of 60 can be
obtained.

In connection with the elevating gear a quick-loading gear is
provided, by means of which the howitzer can be quickly brought to
the loading angle (9 15') and again elevated without the use of the
slower method of using the elevating gear. A handwheel on the
right side of the carriage is used to operate the quick loading gear.

The top carriage is a structural steel, built-up unit. The top of the
flasks forming the top carriage carry the trunnion bearings for the
cradle. At the front of the carriage a pintle bearing is provided,
which bears on the pintle of the platform, thus providing a means of
rotating the top carriage and traversing the piece. A pinion at the
roar of the carriage meshing with a rack on the platform swings the



312

rear end of the carriage in traverse. A traverse of 10 each side of
center is thus obtained.

A windlass mounted on the top carriage is used for setting up and
dismounting the unit.

At the rear of the top carriage is attached a loading platform on
which is mounted a loading crane for handling the shells. On the
loading platform tracks are provided for a rammer car which is used
to transport a projectile from the loading crane to the breech and to
ram it into the bore of the howitzer. This ramming of the projectile
is accomplished by means of a movable; chain on the rammer car
which has suitable lugs for engaging the shell and is operated by
cranks on the rammer car.

The platform on which the top carriage rests is a structural-steel
unit composed of a top and bottom plate secured by channels. The
middle portion is open and has a trunk section to provide a space
for the howitzer to recoil at high angles of elevation. The traversing




METHOD OF LOWERING PLATFORM.

rack is secured to the rear end of the platform. Built-up steel floats
are attached to the rear of the platform by swinging arms, which
function to give stability to the mount at extreme angles of azimuth.
Axle brackets and attachments for the false trail of the transport
wagon are provided for use when traveling.

Accessories. A considerable number of tools and accessories are
required for the erection, operation, and maintenance of the piece.
The principal ones are as follows: Erecting frame, shot truck, sights,
transport wheel tracks, track for shot truck, shell tongs, shot barrow,
air pump, liquid pump, hydraulic jacks, wheel blocks and mats, axle-
lifting levers, etc.

The erecting frame is composed of structural-steel beams. It is
operated by hydraulic jacks and is used in assembling and dismount-
ing the piece. It may also be used as a derrick for handling shells.
When used for this purpose, a trolley attachment with shell tongs is
provided.



313




314




315

The shot truck is a four-wheeled vehicle with flanged wheels fitting

a track which is laid from the magazine to the piece, and will carry
two of the projectiles. The track for this truck is 600 millimeters
(23 1 inches) gauge. It is supplied in built-up lengths of light steel
rails joined by pressed-steel ties.

Weights, dimensions, and ballistics.

Weight of howitzer pounds. . 10, 790

Length of howitzer inches. . 399. 6

Rifling Right hand, 1 turn in 40 calibers at origin to 1 turn in 20 cali-
bers at a point 24.369 inches from the muzzle.

Weight of powder charge pounds. . 38

Weight of projectile do 356

Muzzle velocity ft. per sec.. 1,700

Maximum range yards. . 18, 000

Weight of howitzer and breech mechanism pounds. . 10, 831

Amount of traverse (right and left) degrees. . 10

Maximum angle of elevation of howitzer do 60

Maximum angle of depression of howitzer do 1

Loading angle do 9

Normal length of recoil inches. . 44. 83

Maximum recoil allowable do 46. 73

Height to center of trunnions do 64. 5

Weight of howitzer and transport wagon pounds. . 15, 220

Weight of cradle and transport wagon do 14, 605

Weight of top carriage and transport wagon do 12, 545

Weight of platform and transport wagon f do 16, 230

Weight of complete unit in firing position do 41, 296

Weight of erecting frame do 33, 024

Sleigh (complete, filled with liquid and all pistons, packings, caps, etc.) -do 5, 747

Cradle (complete, but without elevating arms) do 4,068

Recuperator (steel forging only), completely machined do 3, 931

Elevating arms (including quick-loading gear) do 855

Top carriage (complete, with elevating and traversing gear, windlass,
footboards, bearing caps, traversing rollers, rear clips, draft hook, cradle

lock, jack rollers, etc pounds. . 6, 685

Rammer car do 540

Loading platform do 555

Loading-crane bracket and loading crane do 441

Shell tongs do 39

Shot truck do 430

Platform (complete, with pintle springs, swinging arms, and floats) do 11, 895

Transport wheel tracks with inclined planes do 1, 175

Erecting frame (complete, with hydraulic jacks) do. ... 3. 024



316




317




240-MILLIMETER HOWITZER TRANSPORT LIMBERS

AND WAGONS.



In order to transport the complete carriage there are provided
four transport vehicles, namely, the howitzer transport wagon, top
carriage-transport wagon, platform-transport wagon, and cradle-
transport wagon. Each wagon consists principally of a limber, false
trail, rear axle, and wheels.




HOWITZER TRANSPORT WAGON.



The limber consists of two wheels, an axle, pole, and turning arc, all
of which are similar for each wagon.

The pole is composed of two steel parts joined with a flexible
spring coupling, consisting of a coil spring, plunger, and hinged joint,
providing a movement of about 15 inches at the end of the pole to




CRADLE TRANSPORT WAGON.

make up for any difference in height between the limber and the
vehicle to which it may be coupled. This spring coupling also
relieves the vehicles of any sudden shocks during transportation.

Each limber is provided with a pintle over which fits the lunette
ring of its false trail. Safety chains are attached to the pole to hold
the false trail on the pintle in proper position.

(318)



319



The turning arc is attached to the axle and the false trail bears on
it as it rotates around the pintle.

Four false trails are provided, one for each wagon. They are
similar in most respects, especially the front end that has the lunette
ring. This lunette ring floats in the trail and is surrounded by
coiled springs which take up the shocks incidental to transportation.




TOP CARRIAGE TRANSPORT WAGON.

The body of the false trail is formed to suit the heights of the unit to
which it attaches and has brace rods for stiffening. A locking
arrangement is provided to lock the units to the false trails and is
operated by means of a hand lever.

The rear axle of the transport wagon is made of a special forging
shaped to suit the unit which it carries. The axle for the howitzer-



Ij^V <PMj

^^mn r?1i








PLATFORM TRANSPORT WAGON.

transport wagon is curved to suit the radius of the howitzer and has
pawls which lock the howitzer in place.

Band brakes are used and are alike for all four types of rear axles,
but the brake-operating mechanism is different for the various trans-
port wagons. The brakes on each vehicle are connected by a con-
necting lever shaft which is operated by a lever with ratchet and
pawl. Provision is made for the setting of the brakes by the operator
18322820 21



320

of the hauling tractor by means of a rope attached to the operating
lever and extending to the tractor.

When the complete carriage is set up for firing, the transport

vehicles are close coupled by the false trail and form short units,
having four wheels which can be drawn away. Brackets are provided
attached to each axle for the brace rods which are used when the
vehicles are unloaded and close coupled.

Both the limber and rear axles are equipped with standard rubber-
tired wheels.

Weights and dimensions.

Howitzer and transport wagon (complete) pounds. . 15, 200

Weight of transport wagon (close coupled) do 4, 385

Weight of front wheels and axle do 1, 185

Weight of rear wheels, axle, and brake do 2, 750

Weight under front wheels do 4, 864

Weight under rear wheels do 10, 356

Wheel base inches. . 162

Overall length do. ... 314

Cradle (with elevating arms and sleigh) transport wagon pounds. . 14, 605

Weight of transport wagon (close coupled) do 4, 335

Weight of front wheels and axle do 1, 185

Weight of rear wheels, axle, and brake do 2, 700

Weight under front wheels do 3, 530

Weight under rear wheels do 11, 075

Wheel base inches. . 150

Overall length do. ... 267

Top carriage (with rammer car, loading platform, loading crane) and trans-
port wagon pounds. . 12, 545

Weight of transport wagon (close coupled) do 4, 285

Weight of false trail complete for platform do 475

Weight of false trail for cradle, howitzer and top carriage, each do 450

Weight of front wheels and axle do. . ., 1, 185

Weight of rear wheels, axle, and brake do 2, 650

Weight under front wheels do 4, 030

Weight under rear wheels do 8, 515

Wheel base . ? ..i inches. . 181

Overall length do. ... 280

Platform and transport wagon (including brake lever and draft hook). pounds 16, 230

Weight of transport wagon (close coupled) do 4, 335

Weight of front wheels and axle do 1, 185

Weight of rear wheels, axle, and brake do 2, 675

Weight under front wheels do 4, 485

Weight under rear wheels do 11, 745

Wheel base inches. . 153

Overall length do 292

Weight of limber wheel pounds. . 350

Weight of transport wagon wheel do 1, 050

Howitzer transport wagon (close coupled) do 4, 385

Cradle transport wagon (close coupled) do 4, 335

Top carriage transport wagon (close coupled) . do 4, 285

Platform transport wagon (close coupled) do 4, 335



321

Maximum width of transport wagons (platform) inches. . 102

Maximum height of transport wagons (top carriage) do 102

Minimum road clearance (distance between lowest point of wagon and ground)


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Online LibraryUnited States. Army. Ordnance DeptHandbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench matériel → online text (page 15 of 19)