United States. Bureau of Animal Industry.

Circular (United States. Bureau of Animal Industry). no. 138-150a, 1909-11 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Animal IndustryCircular (United States. Bureau of Animal Industry). no. 138-150a, 1909-11 → online text (page 3 of 21)
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Va., during 1907-8. Heavy lines represent average scores of all dairies for each month.
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The unprovement in the dairies supplying milk to Richmond fol-
lowing the introduction of the score-card system is graphically shown
by the accompanying diagrams. It will be noted from figure 1 that

FiQ. 2.— Diagram showing improyement in dairies supplying milk to Richmond, Va. Dairies are
classed according to scores, th« lieavy lines Indiratlng the proportion in each dasa from month to

[Cir. 139]

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the average score for all dairies was 41.5 at the start and that at the
end of the twelve months it had increased to 72, a gain of 30.5 points,
or 71 per cent. The higher score in May than in June is due to the
fact that only a part of the dairies were scored in May and those were
of the better class.

Figure 2 shows the condition of the dairies supplying Richmond,
classed according to their scores. The shaded columns represent
the percentages of dairies found in each class in each month, the
exact percentages being shown by the figures. It will be observed
that the number of dairies in the classes having the lower scores
gradually decreased and disappeared from month to month, while
the number of dairies in the higher classes increased correspondingly.
For example, dairies scoring below 40 disappeared at the end of the
fourth month, while those scoring between 80 and 90 first appeared
in the seventh month and reached one-sixth of the total in the
twelfth month.

The Richmond health officer says:

Common justice demands that very full credit should be given to the milk producers
and to the city dairymen for their share in what has been accomplished. To anyone
who was familiar with the conditions under which milk was produced and sold in the
city of Richmond a year ago, a visit to the dairy farms supplying us with milk at the
present time would prove little short of astounding. On every hand new stables
have been erected and old ones improved, milk houses have gone up, stable yards
have been improved, and, most important of all, better methods of milking, handling,
and transporting the milk have been introduced. Both of our large city dairies have,
of their own initiative, introduced bottled milk, and, in short, methods have been
completely revolutionized.

Marked improvement has also been made in the milk supply of
Montclair, N. J., by the use of the score-card system of inspection,
as shown by the following statement comparing conditions in 1906
with those in 1907:

[Extract from the Thirteenth Report, Board of Health, Montclair, N. J., showing improvement in dairy





Number of

of total.

Number of

of total.






















Total 70-100


The tabulation shows that the number of dairies scoring between
70 and 100 in 1906 was 35, or 76.09 per cent, while in 1907 the num-
ber had increased to 46, or 90 per cent of the whole. Of the 6 dairies

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that scored below 50 points in 1906, 5 have ceased to supply Mont-
clair and the remaining 1 has so improved that it now scores 62
points. It should be noted that by this system of scoring the
tuberculin test counts for 8 points and in the best dairies the applica-
tion of this test has accounted for the gain in the score.


Shows (he inspector what to looJc for. — The score-card system is
of particular value to the inspector in pointing out conditions, thus
making it impossible to overlook any point of importance. All
these items are kept in a permanent record by this system and com-
parisons can readily be made.

Incites competition. — ^Where the score-card system is in use there
is frequently more or less competition for high scores. No dairyman
wants the name of being the poorest. This competition makes it
easier for the inspector to improve conditions, as his suggestions
are readily heeded.

Cooperation between inspector and producer. — The system is
generally well received by the dairymen, for the reason that it is
clear, thorough, and absolutely fair. There is nothing mysterious
about it. The inspector makes his explanations and becomes an
instructor and a friend rather than an officer whose visits are to be

Vahie of the system to inexpert inspectors. — ^Whatever be the sys-
tem of dairy inspection the inspector can not know too much about
his business. Too much can not be said about the importance of
competent inspectors. But with the score-card system the value
of the intelligent inspector, interested in his work, is emphasized.
Not only can he make a more satisfactory examination of the various
details on the card and assign more accurate values to each, but in
explaining his work to the dairyman he can be of great service as a
teacher and helper. On the other hand, the score card fs the sal-
vation of the inexperienced, inefficient appointee, who, without some
kind of a chart, would be hopelessly at sea and his work a failure.
It is the evidence of competent observers in some cities that the milk
supply has been improved even with poor inspectors, because they
could not help securing some good results with a proper detailed
score card in hand.

The score card was introduced in one large city and on exam-
ining the results of the first week's work, there being a variation of
25 points between the highest and lowest scores, the chief health
officer remarked that never under the old system had the inspectors
foimd anything to criticise or any suggestions to make in regard to
the dairies scored that week; but when the results of inspection
were expressed numerically, inspectors inexperienced in the use of

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the score card could see and report 25-point differences. If the
inspector does not attend to his business and has no interest in his
work, the dairymen as well as the health officer will soon find it
out. In the one or two instances where the system has failed it
has been due to the inspector not desiring to compare results with
his previous work.


EducationaUy. — It points out details in the production and
handling of milk; makes clear what the defects are and what the
ideal conditions should be. It also leads the dairyman to ask ques-
tions and to take more interest in his business.

It gives little opportunity for favoritism, — Inasmuch as each con-
dition in the dairy has a definite number of points assigned to it
the inspector is forced to be impartial, since his score once made is
a permanent record of the office, and any unfairness can be at once
detected if complained of by the dairyman.

It encourages confidence. — ^All dairymen feel that they are being
treated alike.

It leads to greater profits. — ^More attention is given to details,
which is an important economic factor in any business.


The score-card system is of value to the dealer in assisting him to
locate the better dairies, thus making it easier to secure a supply of
milk to meet the demand made upon him for a good product. With
a supply of good milk to handle there is less trouble with sour milk
and less complaint from consumers. Many large dealers employ
an inspector to give dairies supplying them with milk a rating on
the basis of the score card, requiring them to reach a certain stand-
ard or stop shipping milk. To illustrate, one large milk company
added the following note to the list of prices published January 1,

These prices apply only to those dairymen whose premises are scored 60 per
cent or higher by the department of health. Those whose premises score less will
have a reduced price paid, and milk from dairies scoring less than 50 per cent is not
desired and will not be accepted.

On the other hand, some dealers are offering premiums for good
dairies and good milk. One dealer in Washington, D. C, offered a
bonus of 3i cents a gallon for milk from dairies scoring 70 or above
and where the cows were tuberculin tested. This same dealer
offered a present of $25 to each one of his shippers who improved
his methods in such manner as to entitle him to a score of 80 points
or better, in addition to giving him 3 cents a pound more for his
butterfat; those scoring 70 or over were to receive $20, and those


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with 60 or over $15, with the same advanced price for butterfat.
One dealer succeeded in raising the standard of the 25 or more dairies
supplying him with milk from an average of 56 points to 70 points,
a gain of 14 points, or 25 per cent.

The score-card system has also been used wiUi success in the
improvement of the product sent to the creameries.


City milk inspection a few years ago was merely a matter of
detecting added water or preservative. With recent progress in
sanitary science the work has broadened and boards of health are
investigating the sanitary phases of milk production, transportation,
and distribution.

In the smaller cities most of the milk consumed is retailed by the
producers, and even in places of considerable size many producers
are also retailers. In all cases where the functions of producer and
retailer are merged in one person an inspection of the dairy farm
discloses the methods of distribution as well as of production. The
dairy-farm score card answers all purposes imder such conditions.

As cities grow, however, the producers can not personally deliver
milk to all the consumers; consequently middlemen become a neces-
sity. These nCiiddlemen have places of business which are designated
by different names in different places, but in these pages they will be
referred to as ''city milk plants."

These city milk plants have a wide range of capacity, equipment,
and methods. At one extreme is a building 300 to 400 feet long on a
spur of a railroad, where milk is received by the train load, cooled,
mixed, filtered, perhaps pasteurized, canned or bottled, and held in
cold storage imtil retailed in the city. The building has ample
modem machinery for all these processes and for washing and
sterilizing cans and bottles. At the other extreme is the dealer
retailing only a few gallcms. He may have no * 'plant,'' and his
equipment may consist of only a carrier can and quart measure,
which are washed in the kitchen sink with the family dishes. Or he
may have fitted up the dark, illy ventilated basement of his resi-
dence as a "milk plant," with a wooden, musty tank for cooling
milk, a few dozen bottles and a washtub in which to cleanse them, a
dipper for filling bottles, and a brush to agitate lukewarm water
inside the bottles. It does not necessarily follow that all small
dealers adopt improper practices; but the chances are that the
ordinary man with small capital and with only a little at stake will
not take as much care as a pers(m differently situated.

All of the varying styles of city milk plants need careful iniq>ection,
but the principles are the same as in dairy inspection: Milk should
be exposed to the air as little as possible, and the air should be pure.

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It should not be handled in unclean utensils, and it should always be
kept cool. Based on these principles a score card for city milk plants
has been devised by the Dairy Division and is used in a number of
different cities. It has been found in practice to be adapted to
both large and small plants. A copy of the score card follows:

{United States Department of Agrictdture, Bureau of Animal Industry, Dairy Di\ision.]

Sanitary Inspection op Cttt Milk Plants.

Owner or manager: . Trade name: .

City: . Street and No.

Number of wagons:


Permit or license No. :

fMilk: .

Gallons sold daily: jOi^eam: .

iButt^Tnilk: —
-. Date of inspection: , 190






















Convenieiioe 6

Surroundings 12


Floor 6

Cealls 4

Wllings 1

Doors 1

Windows 1

Goodorder 1

Freefromodors 1

Machinery and utensils:


Properrooms 3

Convenience 4


Floor 5

Walls 3

Ceiling 1






Kind and quality 7

(Steam or hot water, bot-
tle and can washer, bottling
machine, drying racks,
crates, sinks, pasteurizer,
cold storage.)

CondiUon 7

Arrangement 6

WfttftF for «lf»ftnlng- _

46*F. or below 20

45«>to50»F 15

50»to65«F 10


Cons^uction, condition


Cteanliness 3

Protection of product 3


Location 4

Construction 4

Equipment 3


For exceptionally, bad condi-




For exceptionally bad condi-

Total deductions

Total deductions

Net total

Net total


Score for methods.
Score for equipment.

Total, to be divided by 3.
Final score..

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_; multiplied by 2.
_; multiplied by 1.

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What has been said elsewhere of the advantages of the score card
in dairy-farm inspection will apply here with equal force. The merits
of the system are the same on the farm as in the city milk plant, but
the latter usually scores higher than the former. The average score
of the District of Columbia milk plants in 1907 was 72, on the basis
of 100 points for perfect. This is considerably above the average for
the dairy farms supplying milk to Washington, which was 45. The
difference is partially explained by the fact that the number of city
milk plants is about 80, while the number of dairy farms is about
1,000. It is further explained by the fact that the city milk plant
must conform to the building and plumbing regulations. Such plants
are more easily reached by the inspector than the remote dairy farms.
They have the regular city water supply, which is presumed to be satis-
factory for cleansing utensils. They are also required to be reasonably
clean; otherwise they will create a nuisance by reason of bad odor^.

Similar conditions have been found to exist in other places; that is,
the score of city plants is generally higher than the average for the
dairies. The District of Columbia perhaps presents a condition differ-
ent from that in most other places in that it has many small city
plants with relatively poor equipment, with a marked deficiency of
light and ventilation, with lack of faciUties for washing bottles, and
with a close association of family and business quarters. On the
other hand, in many other cities the producers retail their own product
until the growth of the place leads some person or corporation with a
fair amount of capital to erect a building planned especially for the
business, having modem and effective machinery, maintained in a
sanitary condition, having provision for ample refrigeration, and with
plenty of steam for cleansing and steriUzing utensils and bottles.
Therefore many cities have only a few estabUshments of the grade of
city milk plants which may be contrasted on the score-card basis with
the dairy farms.

The average of all the plants (about 80) in the District of Columbia
was 72.58; 4 per cent scored 90 or above; 16 per cent scored in the
80s; 49 per cent scored in the 70s; 25 per cent scored in the 60s; and
6 per cent scored in the 50s. On the other hand, the "average'' of
plants in Richmond, Va. (only one), was 87; Memphis, Tenn. (two),
74; St. Louis, Mo. (five), 73; and Hannibal, Mo. (three), 65.


Most of the items on the score card are self-explanatory; a few,
however, call for special mention. The surroundings of the plant are
important. Note should be made of the more apparent objectionable
features, such as the proximity of horse stables or too close connection
with sleeping rooms or rooms used for domestic purposes. It should
also be remembered that even a detached building in a residential

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district, especially a tenement district, may have its dangers. For
instance, windows may be located so as to catch the dust from rugs
as they are being shaken from the windows of an adjoining tenement.

In the smaller plants all of the processes will be carried on in one
room, but different rooms for handhng milk and washing bottles are
desirable. When a plant has several rooms the scoring will be more
difficult, but the inspector must use judgment in approximating a
reasonable average where there is any defective construction or insan-
itary condition.

The kind and quality. of machinery and utensils has reference both
to their efficiency and sufficiency. Under this heading the larger
plants will naturally receive a better score, because of complete equip-
ment. The arrangement of the machinery refers to its adaptability
with a view to sanitary work. Convenience promotes efficient or
thorough work. In considering the handling of milk, note whether
it is allowed to remain in uncovered tanks, vats, botthng machines,
cans, or bottles any longer than is absolutely necessary before
placing in storage. Notice whether coolers, receiving tanks, and
the hke are protected by cheese-cloth or other covers when not
located in specially constructed sanitary rooms. Note whether milk
is passed through piping that can not be taken apart and properly

The health of employees is an important consideration and should
receive the careful attention of inspectors. This is not given space on
the score card for the reason that where unhealthy persons are hand-
hng milk that dairy should be refused a score and compelled by the
health officials to discontinue business until the cases of disease are
isolated and properly quarantined if contagious.


The inspection of market milk in the city includes: (1) collecting
samples; (2) taking temperatures; (3) examinations for dirt; (4) tests
for number and kind of bacteria, pus cells, etc.; (5) tests for fat and
sohds; (6) tests for adulterations and preservatives.

Collecting samples. — Samples of milk should be taken at regular
intervals for analysis. These should be collected largely from retail
deUvery wagons, so that they will represent the product received by
consumers. Where the milk is bottled, sampUng is a simple matter,
as one bottle will suffice for a sample. Where milk is dipped from
cans or drawn from faucets, sampling is not so easy. However, if the
inspector puts himself in the position of a consumer, taking the prod-
uct sold to him for a sample, this will represent what the dealer is
actually selling. In the inspection of hotels and restaurants the best
plan is to order milk at the table the same as an everyday patron,
then take for analysis what is actually served. This method some-

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times requires a temporary assistant who is not known to the hotel or
restaurant manager. Persons collecting samples should be familiar
with the manner of taking evidence in court and should be able to
prove the identity of the sample delivered to the analyst. It should
not pass out of sight of the inspector until personally deUvered to the
man in the laboratory who is to examine it, unless it is imder seal and
properly marked for identification. When the inspector takes several
samples on a single trip, each sample should be marked as soon as
taken, so that no question can be successfully raised as to the possible
Tnjying up of the samples.

Temperature. — ^Many cities are now requiring that the temperature
of all milk brought to or deUvered within their limits must be below
50® F. An accurate thermometer is all that is necessary for the in-
spector to determine whether the milk comes up to this requirement.

Examinations for dirt, — ^This is now an important part of the work
of milk inspection, and dairymen are frequently fined as heavily for
dirty milk as for milk that is below the standard in fat or solids. The
dirt in milk can be detected by examining the bottom of the bottle
after the sample has stood for an hour. It is also determined quanti-
tatively by means of the centrifuge, which is now a part of the equip-
ment of the modem city laboratory.

Tests for nurriber and Tcind ofhacteria, pus cells, etc. — ^The principal
value of the bacteria count in milk is as an indicator. If the number
of bacteria is high this indicates that the milk has not been produced
and handled imder sanitary conditions; that it has not been properly
cooled at the farm and in transit, or that it is too old. The bacteria
count, then, is valuable in the work of milk inspection, and gives the
health officer some tangible clue to the dairyman who is careless
and negligent. The bacteria standal-ds of cities vary from 100,000 to
500,000 per cubic centimeter. A few cities place a limit for the
number of pus cells and carefully examine the cows in dairies where
the number is large, requiring the dairyman to discontinue the milk
from imhealthy animals. No attempt will be made in this publica-
tion to describe the proper procedure in examining milk for bacteria,
as standard methods have frequently been published. (See Farmers'
Bulletin 348, "Bacteria in Milk.")

Tests for fat and solids. — ^The Babcock test is the simplest method
for determining the fat in milk, and the lactometer in connection with
the Babcock test will give a fairly accurate idea of the total soUds.
Other methods that are more accurate and which require much more
time may be followed where the laboratory facilities permit.

Tests for adulterations and preservatives. — ^The necessity for these
tests is becoming less from year to year. In many cities adulterations
are seldom found. Simple methods have been worked out for their
detection which can be readily followed even by an inexperienced

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analyst. Attention is ceJled particularly to Bulletin 100^ Bureau of
Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture, entitled "Some
Forms of Food Adulteration and Simple Methods for Their Detection."


Present conditions indicate that a more rigid inspection is neces-
sary and that more competent inspectors should be employed.
They should be well trained along the lines of dairy sanitation and
the production and distribution of milk, and capable of instructing
the dairyman in all details of his work. Further, when instruction
fails to bring about the desired results, there should be enough back-
bone in the system to enforce the regulations prescribed by the board
' of health and to keep all dairies up to the standard.


In order to do the most effective work imder the score-card
system some inspectors should devote their entire time to looking
after conditions on the dairy farms. With farms widely scattered
one inspector should be provided for, approximately, every 100.
One-half of the force should be skilled veterinarians and the other
half should have had good dairy training or its equivalent. The
corps of inspectors should be responsible to a chief inspector whose
duty it is to supervise the whole work. The chief inspector should
be responsible to the health officer or commissioner. Full power
should be vested in the board of health to make proper rules and
regulations and to enforce the same, thus protecting the health of
the pubUc.


In smaller cities there will not be enough work to warrant so
large a force or so much outlay as outlined above. Frequently it
will be necessary for one man to inspect dairies, make the sanitary

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Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Animal IndustryCircular (United States. Bureau of Animal Industry). no. 138-150a, 1909-11 → online text (page 3 of 21)