Copyright
United States. Bureau of Animal Industry.

Special report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding online

. (page 1 of 56)
Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Animal IndustrySpecial report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding → online text (page 1 of 56)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

AT LOS ANGELES




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.



SPECIAL REPORT



DISEASES OF CATTLE



AND OX



CATTLE FEEDING.



PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

Dr. D. E. SALMON,

CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,

BY

Drs. MDRRAY, ATKINSON, HARBAUGH, LOWE, LAW, DICKSON, TRDMBOWER,
SMITH, AND Prof. HENRY.



PUBLISHED &Y AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OP AGRICULTURE.



WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHIC'K.
1892.



S F



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Page.
Letter of Transmittal,

By Dr. D. E. SALMON, Chief of Bureau 7

Administration of Medicines,

By A. J. MURRAY, M. R. C. V. S 9

n of the Digestive Organs,

By A. J. MURRAY, M.R. C.V.S 15

Poisons and Poisoning,

By the late V. T. ATKINSON, V. S 63

Jjixi-nnes of the Heart and Blood- Vessels,

By W. H. HARBAUGH, V. S 77

yoncontagious Diseases of the Organs of Respiration,

By Dr. WILLIAM HERBERT LOWE 101

- of the ferrous System,

By W. H. HARBAUGH, V. S.-. Ill

Diseases of the Urinary Organs,

By JAMES LAW, F. R.C. V. S 137

I 'i -<mes of the Generative Organs,

By JAMES LAW, F. R. C.V.S 1G9

Diseases following Parturition,

By JAMES LAW, F. R. C. V. S 235

Diseases of Young Calces,

By JAMES LAW, F. R. C. V. S 207

Hintn Diseases and Accidents,

By the lato V. T. ATKINSON, V. 8 281

Surgical Operations,

By the late Dr. WILLIAM DICK.SON and Dr. WILLIAM HERBERT LOWE . . 301
Tumor*,

By Dr. WILLIAM HERBERT LOWE 321

< * of the Skin,

By M.R.TRU.M BOWER, D. V. 8 325

Disease H of the Foot,

By M. R. TRUMBOWER, D. V. S 349

iC9 of the Eye and its Appendages,

By M. R. TnrMnowF.it, D. V. S 353

DisraMfH of the Ear,

By M. R. TitfMiiowEK, I). V. S 307

liifn-tion* Dined* of Cattle,

By Dn. D. E. SALMON and TUEOBAI.I* SMITH 371

The feeding and Management of Cattle,

By Prof. W. A. HENRY IW



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Page.

TLATK I. The position of the rumen 62

II. Stomach of ruminant 62

III. Miscellaneous Clinical thermometer; simple probang; grasp-

ing or forceps probang; wooden gag; trocar and canula; sec-
tion showing hernia 62

IV. Microscopic anatomy of the liver 62

V. Ergot in hay 62

VI. Ergotism 62

VII. Diagram of the circulation 100

VIII. The position of the lung 110

IX. Kidney and generative organs 168

X. Microscopic anatomy of the kidney . 168

XI. Calculi of kidney and bladder 168

XII. Fatal calf within its membranes 234

XIII. Pregnant uterus with cotyledons 234

XIV. Vessels of umbilical cord 234

XV- Normal position of calf in utero 234

XVI. Abnormal positions of calf in utero 234

XVII. Abnormal positions of calf in utero 234

XVIII. Twin pregnancy; abdominal dropsy of the fetus; crotchet for-
ceps ; clamp for ear, skin, etc '. 234

XIX. Monstrosities 2&1

XX. Instruments used in difficult labor 234

XXI. Instruments used in difficult labor 234

XXII. Supports for prolapsed uterus 266

XXIII. Supports for prolapsed uterus 266

XXIV. Instrument for opening milk canal; Bistouri cache*; spring teat

dilator; ring teat syphon; gutta-percha bougie; truss for

navel hernia ; iron clnmp for navel hernia 266

XXV. .Skeleton of the cow 300

XXVI. Devices for casting rattle 320

XXVII. Tracheotomy and venesection 320

XXVIII. Surgical instruments and sutures 320

XXIX. Bacilli and microrocci of contagious diseases 376

XXX. Upper surface of tlie lungs of the ox 388

XXXI. Broncho-pneumonia 388

XXXII. Contagious plenro-pneumonia 388

XXXIII. Infarctions in plciiro-pncuinonin 388

XXXIV. Tuberculosis of the lungs 4 OS

XXXV. Tuberculosis of the liver 4()

XXXVI. A lymph gland laid open 108

XXXVII. Tuberculosis of the omentnm (cuul) 408



6 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page.
PLATJ: XXXVIII. Lymphatic glaml of mesentery cut open; omentuni or caul

resting upon the paunch 408

XXXIX. Actiuomycosis of the ja\v 416

XL. Actiuomycosis of the lungs 416

XLI. Actinomycosis of the jaw 416

XLII. Spleen in health and in Texas fever 438

XLIII. The liver and the urine in Texas fever. The microorganism

of Texas fever 438

XLIV. The cattle tick, the carrier of Texas fever 438



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,

Washington, D. C., May 14, 1892.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith a report upon the diseases
of cattle, to which has been added a section upon cattle-feeding, the
whole forming the second volume of the series of reports upon the dis-
eases of the domesticated animals. The large demand for and the great
popularity of the report on the diseases of the horse has been an addi-
tional reason for adhering as closely as possible to the plan adopted in
the preparation of that volume. In preparing the illustrations for the
report on diseases of cattle an effort has been made to supplement, as
far as possible, the illustrations which appeared in the report on the
diseases of the horse, so that the two series would together cover the
lit- Id of veterinary surgery, which it is important to present to the
n-ailer in a graphic manner. On account of the importance of the ali-
nifiit.it ion as a factor in the maintenance of health and cure of disease,
as well as in the profitable management of cattle, a section has been
added on cattle-feeding, which has been written both from a practical
;ui(l scientific point of view. This may justly be regarded as the clear-
< - t and most succinct presentation of this subject which has ever been
published, while it is probably the only article of the kind in which the
results of the latest scientific researches have been incorporated. 1

The writer has seen no reason to change his views, presented in the
N-tter of transmittal accompanying the report on the diseases of the
horse, as to the value of such publications to the farmers of the coun-
try. On the contrary, many letters have been received testifying that
the writers had saved valuable animals by following the advice given
in that report. In most of these cases it has been stated that no vet-
erinarian was accessible, and that except for the report the animals
would have been without intelligent treatment. In so large a country
as ours there must for years to come be many sections in which no
skilled veterinarian is located, and, consequently, there must continue
to be many demands from stock-owners for information of this kind.

It is well, however, to remind the reader who has not made a special
study of this subject that it would bo absurd for him to conclude that
even with the best of books he can treat his animals as well as they



8 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

could be treated by a properly educated veterinarian. Careful study
of the allied sciences and practical experience are as necessary to make
a man successful in the treatment of diseased animals as in the case of
sick people. The employment of a veterinarian is, therefore, advisable
in all cases where a competent one can be obtained. In the many
cases, however, where professional examination of the affected animal
is out of the question, the reader may feel assured that the treatment
here recommended is safe and the best that can be advised for his use.

It is hoped that this volume may have an important influence in
bringing about more intelligent and more humane care and treatment
of animals in health and disease. To this end the writers of the sev-
eral sections have been requested to give a brief description of the
various organs of the animal body, and a statement of their normal
functions. This information is essential to a proper understanding of
the nature of disease or the principles of treatment. When carefully
studied it should do much to prevent the unnecessarily cruel and inju-
rious practices which are still too common in the treatment of sick ani-
mals even in our enlightened country.

It is plain from what has just been said that this report has been
prepared for the farmer and stock-owner rather than for the student or
veterinarian. As much practical information as possible has been
brought together on the subjects treated, but it has been stated in brief
and plain language. Readers desiring a more detailed account of any
subject are referred to the various special treatises. ^Notwithstanding
the popular character of this work there is no doubt that it will be found
useful to the veterinarian as well as to the farmer. The preceding
volume of the series is found on the shelves of many practitioners who
regard it as the most valuable work in their library, and it is believed
that the accompanying report will be equally serviceable.
Very respectfully,

D. E. SALMON,
Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry.

Hon. J. M. BUSK,

Secretary of Agriculture.



SPECIAL REPORT

ON

DISEASES OF CATTLE AND ON CATTLE FEEDING.



ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES.



By A. J. MURRAY, M. R. C. V. S., Detroit, Mich.



As medicines may be given in different ways, we will consider in detail
the most common methods of administering- them to bovine animals.

BY THE MOUTH.

Medicines may be given by the mouth in the form of draughts or
drenches, powders, electuaries, and balls or pills.

Draught* or drenches. This is the form in which medicine is usually
given to cattle. The medicine should be dissolved in water, beer, or
any other suitable liquid. Medicines which are soluble should be well
shaken up with the liquid in which they are given, so as to insure their
complete solution. For example, if we are giving an ounce of sweet
spirits of niter the medicine should be shaken up with at least half a
pint of water before giving it. If instead of doing this we give the
medicine without diluting it, a sore and inflamed condition of the month
and throat is produced. The materials which enter into the composi-
tion of some drenches .in- not soluble, that is, no amount of shaking
will dissolve them in the liquid in which they are given. As examples
of such medicines we may mention powdered ginger, powdered gentian,
and carbonate of iron, but by shaking they may be temporarily sus-
pended in the liquid in which they are given, so that by agitating such
medicines while in the act of giving them they are temporarily mixed
with the liquid and may consequently be given in a draught, though
not quite s easily as medicines that are soluble. In giving drenches
we must always ascertain to what degree the medicine or medicines
composing the drench should be diluted. Carelessness in this matter



10 DISEASES OF CATTLE.

may be attended with dangerous and even fatal consequences, and it is
well to make it a rule not to give medicines unless they are prescribed
by some one who is competent to give directions in such matters. Of
course this rule will not apply to those who possess a sufficient knowl-
edge of medicine to prevent a mistake being made. In giving a drench
to an ox the hand should be passed in front of the horns and the fingers
take hold of the septum nasi (partition between the nostrils) ; the nose
should be raised in a slightly upward direction, and the neck of the bot-
tle should then be introduced at the side of the mouth so as to allow the
medicine to flow gradually out of the bottle. In doing this the animal's
neck should not be twisted to the side on which the person adminis-
tering the medicine stands, nor should the nose be raised higher thai/is
necessary to allow the draught to flow easily down the throat. The
neck and head ought to form a straight line of which the nose is the
highest point. When an animal is inclined to resist it is necessary for
an assistant to take hold of the horns so as to steady the head, and in
this way to assist the person giving the medicine. If the animal tries
to cough the head should be released for two or three minutes.

Poicders. The medicines which are to be given in the form of pow-
der should be pulverized or finely divided, and also should be well
mixed together if there are several ingredients in the powder. Mate-
rials should not be used in making up powders which will exercise a
caustic or irritating action on the mouth, or which are possessed of a
nauseating and disagreeable taste. As powders are usually mixed with
food it is obvious that substances possessing a disagreeable taste will
be refused by the animals to which they are given.

Electuaries are frequently used in treating sore throat, or when an
animal is troubled with a cough. Electuaries are usually composed of
a powder, such as chlorate of potash or alum, which is rubbed into a
thick paste with sirup or molasses and is then smeared on the animal's
tongue with a flat wooden spoon. Any powder, however, may be given
in the form of an electuary as long as it is not possessed of caustic and
irritating properties, or is not chemically unsuitable for giving in, this
way.

Balls or pills, though frequently used in treating the diseases of the
horse, are not well adapted for the treatment of diseases of cattle. As
cattle have four stomachs, solids pass rather slowly through these capa-
cious digestive organs, so that very few veterinary practitioners resort
to this form of administering medicine, which is found to be much less
effectual than when it is dissolved or mixed with liquid.

BY THE BOWEL.

Injections of medicinal agents. When the mouth is swollen or affected
in such a manner that administration of medicine by that way is not
practicable, the agent to be used may, after proper dilution, be given
by the rectum, but it is usual to give a double dose when it is adminis-



ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES, 11

tered by this channel, as the action of medicine is less prompt and pow-
erful than when given by the mouth. Before giving medicine in this
way the rectum should first be emptied by a warm water injection.

Encmata or injections of hot water are also used in cases of constipa-
tion. It is unnecessary to mention what the temperature of water
should be for giving an injection, as no one ever uses a thermometer to
ascertain the temperature of water which is to be used for this purpose.
When the hand is placed in the water to be used the water should feel
pleasantly warm, and an injection should never be given without first
testing the temperature of the water with the hand. Two quarts is a
sufficient quantity to use as an injection, and if it is desired to render
the injection stimulating a little soap may be added, though it should
be borne in mind that the injection will be retained longer if no soap is
added to it. If it is therefore desired that the injection should be
retained as long as possible it is best not to add soap. We may men-
tion that injections are not so much used, nor do they prove as servicea-
ble in treating the diseases of the ox as they do in those of the horse.

Suppositories. A suppository is usually composed of agents which
exercise a soothing and anodyne effect on the part to which it is applied,
and this effect is in time diffused to the adjoining parts. It is depos-
ited in the rectum in the solid form and is usually cone-shaped. The
rectum should be evacuated before introducing the suppository. They
are not frequently used in veterinary practice.

BY THE VAGINA.

Inflammation is sometimes set up in the walls of the vagina, which
maybe occasioned by the bull during service, or while the calf is being
c\ 1 1 acted during difficult labor. In such cases the antiseptic and heal-
ing agent should be dissolved in tepid water and applied once or twice
a day to the affected parts with a syringe. When the cleaning (pla-
centa) has been retained in the womb instead of coming away shortly
after calving, a purulent (mattery) discharge is set up, which is com-
monly known as the whites (leucorrhea). In such cases the womb
should be washed out daily by connecting a long flexible tube with a
syringe, which is passed by the hand into tlie month of tbc womb so a,s
to wash out, cleanse, and set up a healing action in the surface of that
organ.

BY THE NOSTRILS.

Inhalation. Medicinal agents which arc volatile that is, capable
of being diffused in the air an- >omrtim-> administered in this way.
The object may be to diffuse a certain quantity of gas, such as chlorine
or .sulphurous acid gas in the air of a utable, which the animals sub-
jected to such treatment must breathe for a certain length of time.
This system of treatment is frequently resorted to when the bronchial
tubes of young cattle are infected with worms. Volatile agents, such a<*



12 DISEASES OF CATTLE.

chloroform and sulphuric ether, are frequently administered in this way.
If a cloth is saturated with chloroform or sulphuric ether and applied to
one of the animal's nostrils while the other nostril breathes air, the vapor
of either of the before-mentioned agents will pass through the nostrils
into the lungs, but the wet cloth applied to the nostril should be cov-
ered with a dry one, folded several times on itself, so as to prevent the
vapor escaping into the air. This medicinal treatment may alsobe applied
in verminous bronchitis above mentioned, and it is also employed by
surgeons to prevent an animal feeling the pain which attends an ope-
ration, though in the latter case the administration of the vapor must
be carried to the extent of producing insensibility, and should only be
applied for this purpose by a veterinarian.

Insufflation. The agent to be employed in insufflation must be in the
form of a fine powder, which is blown up the animal's nostrils. This
mode of treatment is seldom employed in cattle diseases.

BY THE WINDPIPE.

The method of injecting medicines into the windpipe should only be
applied by veterinarians.

BY THE VEINS.

What is termed intravenous injection, or th injection of medicinal
agents into the veins, is not much practiced, and should only be resorted
to by veterinarians.

BY THE SKIN.

Rubbing the agent on the skin. This method of applying medicine is
practiced chiefly in parasitic diseases, and the end aimed at is to destroy
the parasite whether it be of an animal or a vegetable nature. In mak-
ing such applications that form of ointment which will enable the opera-
tor by rubbing to work the medicinal agent thoroughly into the skin
should be preferred. In applying an ointment to the skin of cattle it
is desirable to avoid the use of poisonous materials, such as mercury
and arsenic. Instances have frequently happened in which, when poi-
sonous ingredients have been used in making an ointment, that the ani-
mals have licked themselves after it has been applied, and have conse-
quently been poisoned. Another source of danger when poisonous
ointments or solutions are employed is that animals affected with a skin
disease frequently present raw patches of skin on different parts of
their bodies, and it has frequently been found that when the solution
or ointment is applied on such raw surfaces absorption takes place,
and dangerous and even fatal results are rapidly produced. The treat
meut of skin diseases not unfrequently is unsuccessful owing to the fail-
ure to wash the skin well with soap and water so as to remove scabs
and thus to allow the ointment to be applied thoroughly to the affected
parts. When animals are affected with neuralgic or irritating forms of



ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES. 13

skin disease, loeal applications are of great service in allaying irritation
or pains.

Subcutaneous injection. Medicines are sometimes injected beneath
the skin so that they may be absorbed and pass into the blood. This
method of administering medicine is becoming more extensively used,
and in various forms of disease proves of great service; but the practice
of it is limited to veterinarians, as it requires special instruments and
a special knowledge of the medicines and also of the modes of prepar-
ing them, to administer medicine in this way.



DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS.



By A. J. MURRAY, M. R. C. V. S., Detroit, Mich.



It is not proposed to enter into any elaborate consideration of the
nature and chemical composition of food under this title, but rather to
touch on such general aspects of this subject as are within the experi-
ence of farmers, with the view of indicating what may be done to pre-
vent the occurrence of disease. It is a matter of general experience that
disorder of the digestive organs is frequently occasioned by defects in
the quality of the food supplied to cattle. Hay which is coarse and
fibrous overtasks the digestive powers, irritates the mucous surface of
the stomachs and bowels, and may lead to a torpid and inactive condi-
tion of the stomachs, or when it acts on the bowels may lead to the de-
vel< >pinent of dysentery. Timothy hay may be of good quality for feeding
to horses, but when fed to cows, especially those which do not get
exercise, it will produce a constipated condition of the bowels. Hay
fed to cattle should always contain a considerable proportion of clover,
which, from its laxative effect, keeps their bowels in a natural condition.

Food which is finely divided, such as corn meal and fine middlings,
fed alone, is not adapted for the digestive organs of cattle. It does not
pass readily through the stomachs, and frequently gives rise to severe
attacks of indigestion. When fine middlings and corn meal are used
t hey should be mixed up with chopped hay, or what is commonly known
as cut feed, as this tends to prevent those finely divided foods clogging
together and giving rise to fermentation in the stomach, and they should
even then be used in moderate quantity. The chemical composition of
a food is not always a safe criterion for estimating its value. Its digest-
ibility must always be taken into consideration, as the physical charac-
ters may render it liable to disorder digestion. Hay which has been
much exposed to the rain while drying is innutritions and is likely to
produce intiamiuatory affections of the stomach and bowels, and the
same remark will apply to musty oats. Ergot not only diminishes the
nutritive value of hay, but has a special effect in producing gangrene
of the extremities, which is I >est counteracted by feeding roots to cattle
when it is absolutely necessary to feed them on hay made from crgotcd
grass. (See Plate V.) Rusty straw is also a dangerous article of food,
and will produce disease if fed to cattle. Smut on corn impairs its

15



16 DISEASES OF CATTLE.

nutritive qualities, and animals which are fed on siich corn lose weight,
so it appears also to interfere with assimilation. In some instances the
indigestion which smutty corn produces terminates in inflammation of
the fourth stomach and portions of the intestinal canal. In what
is termed " cornstalk disease," indigestion followed by delirium and
coma is produced in cattle by feeding them on corn which is supposed
by some writers to be infested by a minute parasitic fungus. These
living organisms are found on the lower leaves of the corn, which, when
invaded by those parasites, has a dwarfed appearance. The diseased
leaves become yellowish-green, then yellow, and then wither away.
Upon closer examination it will usually be seen that there are certain
spots, more especially about the base of the leaf, which is closely
wrapped around the stalk, having a different discoloration. These are
brown, watery-looking objects at first; then darker, and finally dead.
Occasionally there are livid red spots and patches in the same situa-
tion. These specially affected spots vary in size from mere points to
those of several inches across, often longer, in the direction of the
veins of the leaf or leaf sheath (Burrill). Whenever this disease ap-
pears in a cornfield it is advised that every stalk and leaf in the field
should be burned, and that the field be seeded down to grass. The
writer has observed during some years, and usually after a spell of dry,
warm weather, that cattle grazing on pastures usually considered as
sound and healthy have become affected with indigestion, followed by
delirium and coma, but he has been iinable to satisfy himself as to the
causation of such outbreaks of disease. The explanation of such facts
remains a matter of future investigation. Grass growing on wet,
marshy land is favorable to the production of dysentery, and we have
sometimes seen animals die suddenly while grazing on such pastures,
and have traced such deaths to a form of anthrax introduced through
the digestive system. Frozen turnips and potatoes produce very dan-
gerous attacks of indigestion when eaten by cattle, and grass which is
wet by dew or rain, or covered with hoarfrost, should also be regarded
as dangerous. The sudden chilling of the stomachs when a quantity



Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Animal IndustrySpecial report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding → online text (page 1 of 56)