afterwards a watery discharge appears, and later on in severe cases the
discharge becomes mucopurulent. In mild cases there is little or no
fever, but in severe cases the fever may run high. The animal becomes
dull, languid, and is not inclined to move about, and the appetite may
104 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
become impaired; there is variable temperature of the horns and ears.
If in a cow giving milk, the secretion diminishes; the mucus from the
eyes and nose becomes thicker and yellower. Afterwards, as the symp-
toms increase in severity, the discharge becomes mucopurulent.
Treatment. The animal should be housed in a well-ventilated place,
with good hygienic surroundings. In cold and damp weather it
should be kept warm with blanketing. Give hot, medicated inhal-
ations in severe cases. If the fever is high this may be reduced by
giving nitrate of potassium, from 1 to 2 ounces, in the drinking water,
three times daily. Diffusible stimulants are beneficial in most cases.
Too much importance can not be attached to good nursing. There is
no necessity to resort to the old system of bleeding, purging, or the use
of powerful sedatives.
EPISTAXIS BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE.
Bleeding from the nostrils is rather rare in cattle. It may arise
from any one of a variety of causes, but usually results from disease or
injury to the mucous membranes, or to violent exertions in coughing and
sneezing. It is seldom serious. The bleeding generally occurs in
drops from one nostril only, accompanied by sneezing, and without
frothing. Bleeding from the lungs comes from both nostrils, is bright
red, frothy, and accompanied by a cough.
Treatment. In many cases the bleeding will cease spontaneously,
and all that is necessary is to keep the animal quiet and bathe the head
and nostrils with cold water. Ascertain the cause of the bleeding and
be governed accordingly in the treatment. In severe and exceptional
cases, where the hemorrhage is persistent and long continued, tie the
animal's head to a high rack or beam and apply cold water, ice, or have
recourse to styptic injections. If the hemorrhage is profuse and per-
sistent give either a drench composed of 1 drams of acetate of lead
dissolved in a pint of water, or 1 drams of gallic acid dissolved in a
pint of water.
LARYNGITIS SORE THROAT.
Laryngitis consists of an inflammation of the mucous membrane lin- '
ing the larynx. It may be either a primary or a secondary disease,
complicated or uncomplicated. In the majority of cases it is due to
some form of exposure, a sudden change from warm to cold surround-
ings, or exposure to cold storms. It may also arise from inhaling
irritating gases. It may be the result of external violence. In an acute
attack of laryngitis there is an elevation of temperature, pain on pres-
sure over the region of larynx, violent paroxysms of coughing, difficult,,
and noisy respiration. The nostrils are dilated, the nose extended, and
the animal has a frightened expression. There is marked difficulty in
NONCONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF RESPIRATION. 105
Treatment. This consists of fomentations and hot applications over
the throat. Stimulating liniments, mustard, or other forms of counter
irritation, may be applied in severe cases. Hot inhalations should be
frequently resorted to, and often afford much relief to the suffering
animal. In this disease medicines should be given as far as possible in
the form of electuaries (soft solid), on account of the difficulty of degluti-
tion. Large drafts of medicines have a tendency to produce violent
spells of coughing, and in this way retard recovery. The subjoined
formula for an fleet unry will be found to answer the purpose in ordinary
cases: Chlorate of potassium, pulverized, 8 ounces; fluid extract of
belladonna, 2 ounces; powdered opium, 1 ounce; powdered licorice
root, 8 ounces; sirup, sufficient quantity, and mix. At frequent inter-
vals place a small tablespoonful of the mixture on the tongue or back
t -eth. Or the following may be used instead:
Aloes, powdered opium, and gum camphor in equal parts. Mix.
Rub an ounce on the molar teeth every four or five hours. The bowels
should be kept open and the diet should be such as the patient can
easily swallow. Warm sloppy mashes, boiled oatmeal gruel, linseed
tea, and the like, are the most suitable substances. If suffocation be
threatened during the course of the disease tracheotomy should be per-
formed without delay. The details of the operation are fully described
in the chapter on Surgical Operations. (See p. 308.)
When the disease assumes a chronic form strong counter irritation
is indieated. A cantharides blister may be .applied, or the following
ointment may be used: Biniodide of mercury, 1 part; lard, C parts.
.Mix. In some cases it will be found necessary to repeat the above
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bron-
chial tubes. When a primary disease it is generally the result of what
is commonly know as " catching cold." It may be secondary to or
complicated with many of the diseases of the respiratory system. It
also be caused by breathing irritating gases, or by the introduc-
tiin of foreign bodies into the bronchial tubes, which sometimes result
I'm m injudicious and careless drenching when the larynx is in a tem-
IHM ,,i ily relaxed state. It may be acute or chronic, and is divided ac-
cording to the seat of the inflammation into bronchitis proper, where
the large tubes are affected, or capillary bronchitis, where the smaller
tu lies are affected.
^Hinptonm. Loss of appetite, elevation of temperature, generally 104
or 105 F. The inspiration is incomplete, short, and painful, and the
expiration is prolonged. The pulse is increased in frequency, and is
hard. A characteristic ami painful cough is present, but it is paroxys-
mal and incomplete. Auscultation and percussion greatly aid us in a
A normal sound is observed on percussion. On auseulta
106 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
tion, iii the early stages, rhonchusrale.-. are detected if the larger tubes
are affected, and sibilus rales if the smaller tubes are affected. Later
on mucous rales are noted, and sometimes all sounds in certain parts
are absent, which is due to the plugging up of the tubes. This plug
giug of the tubes if extensive enough is sometimes the cause of death,
or death may result from extension of the disease to the lungs or pleura.
Treatment. The animal should be placed in a light, well ventilated
box, and the bowels kept in a soft condition by enemas, etc. Avoid
violent purgatives. The body should be kept warm by blanketing. In
the early stages give three times daily a draft composed as follows:
Extract of belladonna, 2 drams 5 solution of acetate of ammonium, 4
fluid ounces; water, one-half pint. In the later stage of the disease
substitute the following formula, which maybe given twice daily: Car-
bonate of ammonium, 3 drams; solution of the hydrochlorate of strych-
nine, 2 fluid drams; spirits of nitrous ether, 1 fluid ounce: water, one-
In some cases the following is preferable to either of the above, and
may be given in a pint of linseed tea every four hours: Spirits aether,
nit., H ounces; spirits ammon. arom., 2 ounces; camphor, powdered. 2
drams. The food should be light and nutritious.
Bronchitis is liable to assume a chronic form if not properly treated
in the earliest stage. Kemedial treatment is of little value when the
disease becomes chronic.
Pleurisy is an inflammation of the serous membrane lining the chest
cavity and enveloping -the lungs. It rarely occurs as an independent
disease, but is generally complicated with pneumonia. It may be cir-
cumscribed or diffused, unilateral or double. It arises from exposure
to cold and wet, as with pneumonia and bronchitis. It occasionally is
caused by a penetrating wound.
Symptoms. In the first stage there is great pain, due to the dry and
inflamed surfaces of the pleura rubbing together. This gives rise to
the friction murmur. The temperature ranges from 104 to 105 F.
The pulse is small, quick, frequent, and hard. The respirations are
abdominal, the breath being taken in short jerking inspirations and
emitted in long expirations. The cough is sharp, suppressed, and
painful. Pressure in the intercostal spaces give rise to pain, the ani-
mal flinching and giving a grunt.- The muzzle is dry and hot, the mouth
slimy and secretions scant. The symptoms increase in severity as the
disease advances, and in the second stage effusions are poured out into
the thoracic cavity. The pulse becomes soft and remains frequent and
small. The elbows are turned out and the animal has a diagnostic
grunt. On percussion a dull sound is observed as high up as the fluid
has risen in the chest, and on auscultation there is an absence of all
respiratory murmur below this line.
NOXCOXTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE OBGAXS OF RESPIRATION. 107
Treatment. Give the same general care as recommended iu bron-
chitis or pneumonia. In the early stages give a febrifuge to reduce the
fever, as directed for pneumonia. For relief of the cough give electuary
formula, which will be found in the treatment of laryngitis. The bowels
must be kept relaxed and the kidneys secreting freely. In the stage of
effusion give the following three times daily : Digitalis tinct., 1 ounce :
iodide of potassium, 30 to 60 grains j mix. Apply strong counterirritant
to chest and put setou in dewlap. (See Setouing, p. 308.) If collapse
of the lung is threatened a surgical operation is sometimes performed,
termed paracentesis thoracis. which consists in puncturing the chest
cavity and drawing off a part of the fluid. The instruments used
a iv a small trocar and cannla, which are introduced between the eighth
and ninth ribs. Draw the skin forward so that the external wound
may not correspond with the puncture of the chest, to prevent the en-
trance of air. Only a portion of the fluid should be removed. The
animal gets immediate relief, but it is generally only temporary, as
there is a tendency for the fluid to accumulate again.
This is an inflammation of the lung substance. It is divided into three
diftVrent forms, viz: First, croupousj second, eatarrlial; and third, in-
itial pneumonia. But these various forms can only be differen-
tiated by the expert, and I therefore deein it necessary for the purposes
of the present work to treat the subject under the general head of
The causes of pneumonia in general are the same as those of the
various other inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. It mostly
follows congestion of the lungs, but may in rare cases have a parasitic
Symptoms. In the first stage, that of congestion, the disease is
usually ushered in by a chill, although this may not always be observed
Ity the attendant. This is followed by an elevation of temperature,
usually 105 to 106 F., or it may be even higher. The respirations are
iuick and shallow; the nostrils are dilated; the pulse is full and hard.
< 'oiigh may or may not appear in this stage. The nose is hot and dry;
the tongue sometimes protrudes and is slimy: the coat is staring, and
the .-Kin dry and harsh. The urine is usually diminished in quantity,
high colored, and the bowels constipated. The animal stands with the
lore-legs wide apart to facilitate respiration. On auscultation crepita-
tion will be observed over the portion of the lung affected. The sounds
elicited on percussion are practically normal in this stage.
In the second stage the temperature generally drops one or two de-
S and respiration is j>erformed with much difficulty. The cough is
tie<|iicntand painful. The animal still stands with the forelegs wide
apart and the elbows turned outwards. If it assumes the reonml>ent
position it rests ou the sternum. All *><>retions are more or less BUS-
108 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
peiided, particularly the milk in cows. The animal has a haggard
appearance, and the pulse becomes small and wiry at this period. The
extremities are hot and cold alternately; the crepitation which was
present in the first stage is now absent, and no sound on auscultation
will be heard, except it be a slight wheezing or whistling noise. On
percussion dullness over the diseased lung is manifested, indicating
consolidation. The lung has now assumed a characteristic liver-like
In the third stage, if the disease is going to terminate favorably, the
cough becomes loose; the animal improves; the appetite returns, and
the symptoms above detailed rapidly subside. But if, on the other
hand, resolution is not progressing, the lung substance is broken down,
is heavy, and will sink in water. In fatal cases the breath has a pecu-
liar fetid, cadaverous odor, and is taken in short gasps; the horns,
ears, and extremities become cold and clammy, and the pulse is imper-
ceptible. On auscultation, when suppuration is taking place and the
lung structure is breaking down, a bubbling or gurgling crepitation,
caused by the passage of air through pus, will be heard.
Treatment. Good hygienic surroundings and good nursing are essen-
tial in connection with the medical treatment. The probability of cure
depends largely on the extent of the lung tissue involved, as well as on
the intensity of the inflammatory process. In the early stage, when
the fever is high, give febrifuges. If the pulse be strong and full,
aconite (Fleming's tincture, 2 to 5 minims every four or five hours)
may be given for a short time, but should be discontinued as soon as
the fever begins to abate. Aconite is a valuable drug in the hands of
the intelligent practitioner, but my experience leads me to believe that
not infrequently animals are lost by its injudicious use. For in many
febrile conditions it is positively contraindicated, owing to its action
upon the heart. In a plethoric animal, with a strong bounding pulse,
bleeding may be resorted to instead of administering aconite. If the
bowels are constipated give calomel, one to three drams, which acts as
a cathartic and a febrifuge. In the second stage diffusible stimulants
are required, viz: Spirits of ether nit., 2 ounces; spirits ammonia
aromatic, 1 ounce. Mix and give in gruel three times daily. If the
above is not at hand give an alcoholic stimulant. Half a pint of brandy
or whisky may be given in a quart of gruel three times daily. In some
cases carbonate of ammonia, 2 to 5 drams, has been found beneficial.
Moat practitioners apply counterimtants externally, such as mustard
plasters, turpentine, and ammonia liniment, or cantharides.
EMPHYSEMA HEAVES. .
Emphysema consists of a rupture of the minute air vesicles of the
lung substance, and maybe either inter-lobular or vesicular. There
is an extreme interference with respiration, inspiration being short and
expiration prolonged. It is a nonfebrile condition, in which the appe-
NONG'ONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF RESPIRATION. 109
tite is not decreased and the milk secretion is kept up. It may be
caused by an attack of asthma, or may result from chronic bronchitis.
The disease can be diagnosed by the marked interference with respira-
tion. The animal, as a rule, is emaciated, has a staring coat, and is
hidebound. If percussion is resorted to, the animal's chest will give
a tympanic, drum-like sound. The normal resonant sound is exagger-
Treatment. The disease is incurable, and only a palliative form of
treatment can be carried out. The destruction of the animal is often
advisable, from a humane as well as from a financial point of view.
Cattle that are overdriven or overworked are liable to pulmonary
congestion in an acute form, and sometimes pulmonary apoplexy. In
such cases the animal should be allowed to rest, and if the weather be
hot put in a shady place. Give stimulants internally, and apply stim-
ulating applications to the legs, and bandage.
This is a term used to signify bleeding from the lungs. The trouble
may result from a previous congestion of the lungs, or from a breaking
down of the lung substance, or from specific disorders.
Bleeding from the lungs comes from both nostrils and from the mouth.
The blood is bright red, frothy, and accompanied by a cough, the flow
being somewhat profuse and intermingled with mucus. It may cease
<>f its own accord. Internally haemostatics are indicated, and locally over
the sides cold applications have a tendency to check the hemorrhage.
( ' ive tin- animal a drench composed of 1 drams of gallic acid dissolved
in a pint of water.
ABSCESS OF THE LUNG.
An abscess of the lung sometimes forms during the course of or sub-
sequent to certain pulmonary diseases. An animal affected with abscess
of the lung usually has a protracted, feeble cough, and a general appcar-
i'.iisc of emaciation and antenna. The pulse is feeble and the breath
foul. An offensive discharge from the lungs frequently occurs. Per-
ion and auscultation will aid in making a diagnosis in this condi-
tion. The appetite is poor. Such animals go from bad to worse, and
their prompt destruction would, as a rule, be to the interest of the
IlydiDthorax, or dropsy of the chest, is not a disease in itself, but is
simply a condition where an effusion takes place in the chest cavity,
and is the result or effect of some disease', mostly pleurisy. This con-
110 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
dition can be easily diagnosed by physical signs. A loss of the respi-
ratory murmur \vill be noticed on auscultation, and on percussion dull-
ness or flatness on a line as high as the effusion has taken place.
When there is a large amount of effusion present, tapping with the
trocar and canula is generally resorted to. The proper method of per-
forming this operation will be found uuker the head of Pleurisy.
Aii accumulation of gas in the pleural sac is known as pneumothorax.
The presence of air may either result from an injury of the lung or a
wound communicating from the exterior. The indications for treat-
ment are to exclude the further entrance ,of the air into the cavity by
the closure of the external opening. The air already in the cavity will
in most cases be absorbed.
DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
By W. H. HARBAUGH, V. S., Richmond, Va.
lu a work of this kind anything approaching a detailed description
of the anatomy and physiology of this subject is simply out of the
qu< -stion, as the space it would require forbids the attempt; but a few
of the important points will be noticed so that what follows will be
The nervous system is the distinguishing feature of animal life; with-
out it there can be no intelligence, no instinct, no sensibility, no per-
ception : in fact, existence would be nothing more than vegetable life.
The senses touch, taste, sight, hearing, smell all depend on the
nervous system. Motion depends on it. A muscle can not contract
without receiving the stimulus from the nervous system. For example,
if a nerve passing from a nerve center to a muscle is severed, the par-
ticular muscle that is supplied by the cut nerve is paralyzed.
In the living animal the muscle is the power; but without the stimu-
lus it receives from the nerves it is powerless. The muscle and the
nerve, in their relationship, may be compared to the powder and the
match in a blast. The hole drilled into the rock may be packed with
j:i;tut powder, the fuse maybe in readiness, but the powder can not
rend the rock unless the match is applied to the fuse. The nervous
M >tem originates and conveys the stimulus or impulse which excites
the muscle. The contraction of the muscle is the source of movement.
lu the description of the blood it is stated that all nutrition and
all vitality depend on the blood and, although the nervous matter
receives its nutrition from the blood, the blood is only capable of
fulfilling its proper functions by the aid of the nervous system
Without nervous stimulus the heart can not beat. All the other systems
in the body are excited and regulated by the nervous system.
The nervous system, for various reasons, is studied in two divisions,
but it must be Inmie in mind that the two divisions are closely con-
nected one with the other.
The cerfbro-nphial diriftion consist* of the brain and spinal cord,
nerves, and ganglia. The nerves of this division convey the impulses
of motion and sensation, and supply all parts which arc under the con*
112 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
trol of the will. For example, the voluntary muscular tissue includes
all the muscles which act as the will directs. Another example, if
anything comes in contact with any part of the skin, the impression is
immediately perceived. All the special senses belong to this division.
The sympathetic division consists of nerves and ganglia. The muscu-
lar tissue which acts independently of the will, as, for example, the
stomach, intestines, womb, blood-vessels, ducts, etc., is called involun-
tary muscular tissue, and receives nervous stimulus from the sympa-
The brain, spinal cord, and the ganglia are the central organs of the
nervous system. The nerves conduct the nervous influence. The nerves
terminate differently according to their function. The terminations are
called end organs. The terminal end organs in the skin and other parts
endowed with sensation receive the impressions, which are conveyed to
the brain, where they are appreciated. They are so sensitive that the
most gentle zephyr is perceived. They are so abundant that the point
of the finest needle can not pierce the skin without coming in contact
with them, and the sensation of pain is instantly conveyed to the brain.
The terminal end organs of the nerves that supply the muscles are
different, as they give the impulse which is conveyed by the motor
nerves to the elements which constitute the muscle, and this impulse is
the excitation which causes the muscle to contract. The terminal end
organs of the special senses of taste, smell, etc., receive their respect-
ive impressions, and their respective nerves carry the impressions to
There are two divisions of nerves, the efferent and the afferent.
The efferent nerves are those which convey the nervous impulse out-
ward from the nerve centers, and they are further classified according
to the function of their respective centers. For example : Motor fibers
carry the impulse from the nerve center to a muscle to cause contrac-
tion. Vaso-motor fibers carry the impulse to the muscular tissue in
the blood vessels, which regulates their caliber. The secretory fibers
convey the impulse to the cells of the glands, and excite the activity of
the gland, and its particular product is secreted or evolved, as for in-
stance, milk in the mammary gland. Inhibitory fibers control or inhibit
the action of the organ to which they are distributed, as, for instance,
The afferent nerves are those which convey the impulse to the nerve
centers. All the sensory nerves belong to this division.
Nerve centers may be considered as a collection or group of nerve
cells. Both the cerebro-spinal and the sympathetic divisions Lave nerve
centers. The centers derive their special names from their functions.
The brain, as a matter of course, is the great center of the nervous sys-
tem, as it is the center of intelligence and perception. The centers of
all the special senses, as well as the centers of various functions, are
located" in different parts of the brain. Nerve centers also exist in the
DISEASES OF THE .NERVOUS SYSTEM. 113
spinal cord, and in connection with the sympathetic system. Nerve
centers are classed as the automatic and the reflex centers, but these
two divisions are subdivided again according to the function of each
respective center of either of the great divisions. The action of an
automatic center occurs independent of any influence external to the
center itself. To illustrate the action of the reflex centers, the familiar
example of a piece of food accidentally getting into the larynx (or into
the windpipe, as it is popularly termed) may be considered. Nature has
endowed the mucous membrane the internal surface of the larynx with
the most exquisite sensitiveness, which is due to the terminal end organs
in the membrane being connected by means of their sensory nerves
with a nerve center. No sooner does the particle of food drop into tho
larynx than the terminal end organs receive the extraordinary irrita-
tion it causes, and the impression is conveyed by the fibers of the sen-