United States. Bureau of Animal Industry.

Special report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding online

. (page 19 of 56)
Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Animal IndustrySpecial report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding → online text (page 19 of 56)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

trated urine, but will press the stone onward toward the bladder, and
even in certain cases will tend to disintegrate it by solution of some of


its elements, and thus to favor its crumbling and expulsion. This is a
principle which must never be lost sight of in the treatment of calculi :
The immersion of the stone in a liquid of a lower specific gravity than
that in which it has formed and grown tends to dissolve out the more
soluble of its component parts, and thus to destroy its density and
cohesion at all points, and thereby to favor its complete disintegration
and expulsion. This explains why cattle taken from a herd on our
magncsian limestone in spring, after the long dry feeding of winter,
usually furnish renal calculi, while cattle from the same herd in the
fall, after a summer's run on a succulent pasture, are almost aways free
from concretions. The abundance of liquid taken in the green food and
expelled through the kidneys and the low density or watery nature of
the urine have so opened the texture and destroyed the density of the
smaller stones and gravel that they have all been disintegrated and
red. This, too, is the main reason why benefit is derived from
a prolonged stay at mineral springs by the human victims of gravel.
If they had swallowed the same number of quarts of pure water at
home, and distributed it at suitable intervals over each day, they
would have benefited largely without a visit to the springs.

It follows from what has been just said that a succulent diet, includ-
ing a large amount of water (gruels, sloppy mashes, turnips, beets,
potatoes, apples, pumpkins, ensilage, succulent grasses), is an impor-
tant factor in the relief of the milder forms of stone and gravel.

Prevention of calculus especially demands this supply of water and
v. at cry rations on all soils and in all conditions in which there is a
predisposition to this disease. It must also be sought by attempts to
obviate all those conditions mentioned above as causative of the malady.
Sometimes good rainwater can be furnished in limestone districts-, but
putrid or bad smelling rainwater is to be avoided as probably more
injurious than that from the limestone. Unsuccessful attempts have
ben made to dissolve calculi by alkaline salts aud mineral acids respect-
ively, but their failure as a remedy does not neressarity condemn them
as preventives. One dram of caustic potash or of hydrochloric acid
maybe given daily in the drinking water. In diametrically' opposite
ways these attack and decompose the less soluble salts and form new
ones which are more soluble and therefore little disposed to precipitate
in the solid form. Hoth are beneficial as increasing the secretion of
urine. In cases where the diet has been too highly charged with phos-
phate* (wheat bran, etc.), these aliments must be restricted and water
allowed ad libitum. Where the crystals passed with the urine are tho
sharp angular (octahedral) ones of oxalato of lime, then the breathing
should be made more active by exercise, aud any disease of the lungs
Kiibj<!cted to appropriate treatment. If the crystals are triangular
prisms of ammonia magnesium phosphate or star-like forms with feathery
rays, the indications are to withhold the food or water that abounds in
magnesia and cheek the fermentation in the urine by attempts to destroy


its bacteria. In the latter direction plenty of pure water, diuretics, and
a daily dose of oil of turpentine in milk, or a dose thrice a day of a
solution containing one-tenth grain each of biniodide of mercury and
iodide of potassium would be indicated.

In considering the subject of prevention it must never be forgotten
that any disease of a distant organ which determines the passage from
the blood into the urine of albumen or any other colloid (uncrystalliz-
able) body is strongly provocative of calculus, and should, if possible,
be corrected. Apart from cases due to geological formation, faulty
feeding, and other causes, the grand preventive of calculus is a long
summer's pasturage of succulent grasses, or in winter a diet of ensilage
or other succulent food.

The calculi formed in part of silica demand special notice. This
agent is secreted in the urine in the form of silicate of potash and is
thrown down as insoluble silica when a stronger acid displaces it by
combining with the potash to its exclusion. In cases of siliceous calculi,
accordingly, the appropriate chemical prevention is caustic potash,
which being present in the free state would attract to itself any free
acid and leave the silica in its soluble condition as silicate of potash.


Stone in the bladder may be of any size, but in the ox does not
usually exceed half an inch in diameter. There may, however, be a
number of small calculi; indeed, they are sometimes so small and
numerous as to form a small pulpy magma by which the bladder is
considerably distended.

The symptoms of stone in the bladder may be absent until one of the
masses escapes into the urethra, but when this occurs the escape of
urine is prevented, or it is allowed to pass in drops or dribblets only,
and the effect of such obstruction becomes manifest. The point of
obstruction is not always the same, but it is most frequently at the
S-shaped curve of the penis, just above the testicles or scrotum. In
cows and heifers the urethra is so short and becomes so widely dilated
during the urination that the calculi easily escape in the flow of liquid
and dangerous symptoms practically never appear.

Even in the male the signs of illness are at first very slight. A close
observer may notice the cylinders of hard earthy materials encircling
the tufts of hair at the opening of the prepuce. It may further be
observed that the stall remains dry and that the animal has not been
seen to pass water when out of doors. The tail may at times be gently
raised and contractions of the muscle (accelerator urinai) beneath the
anus (Plate ix, Fig. 2) may take place in a rythmical or pulsating man-
ner. But as a rule no symptom is noticed for a couple of days, only the
animal is lacking in his usual spirits. By this time the constantly
accumulating urine has distended the bladder beyond its power of
resistance and a rupture occurs, allowing the urine to escape into the


cavity of the abdomen. Then dullness increases; the animal lies down
most of his time; he becomes stupid and sometimes drowsy, with red-
dish brown congestion of the lining membrane of the eyelids; pressure
on the abdomen causes pain, flinching, and perhaps groaning, and the
lowest part of the belly fluctuates more and more as the escaping urine
accumulates in greater and greater amount. If at this stage the oiled
hand is introduced into the rectum (last gut) the animal flinches when
pressure is made downward on the floor of the pelvis, and no round
distended bladder is felt. If the same examination is made prior to
the rupture the rounded, tense, elastic bladder is felt extending for-
ward into the abdomen containing one or two gallons of liquid. There
may be uneasy shifting of the hind liinbs and twisting of the tail, also
frequent lying down and rising, but these symptoms are exceptional.

When the obstruction is low down between the thighs (at the S-
sliaped flexure), the line of the pulsating urethra from the anus down-
ward may be felt distended with liquid, and though it is seldom easy
to distinguish the exact seat of the stone by the hard swelling of the
urethra, yet there is usually tenderness at the point of obstruction, and
from this it may be accurately located.

The treatment of stone in the bladder or urethra consists in the
removal of the stone by incision and the use of forceps. (Plate xi, Fig. 4.)
When the stone has been arrested at the S-shaped flexure just above
the scrotum, the patient being lean, the thickened tender part of the
penis may be seized between the fingers and thumb of the left hand,
while the calculus is exposed by a free incision with the knife held in
the right. If there is no other obstruction between this point and the
bladder, and if the latter has not yet ruptured, a flow of urine should
take place from the opening. If there is no escape of liquid a catheter
or sound, one-fourth of an inch in diameter, must be passed up through
the canal (urethra) until it is arrested by the next stone, on which a
similar incision should then be made to e fleet its extraction. In case
the stone has been arrested in the portion of the urethra which is in
front of the arch of the hip bone and inside the pelvis, it can only be
reached by making an opening into the urethra beneath the anus and
over the arch of the hip bone, and from this orifice exploring the urethra
with fine forceps to the neck of the bladder or until the stone has been
reached and extracted. The operation requires a very accurate knowl-
edge of the parts, owing to the small size of the canal (urethra) to be
opened and the great thickness of erectile tissue to be cut through,
while the free flow of blood is blinding to the operator. A staff should
always be passed up through the urethra from the lower wound if such
has been made, or, in ease of its absence, through the whole length of
the penis, that organ having been drawn out of its sheath until the
S shaped curve has been effaced and the course of the canal rendered
straight. Upon the end of this staff the incision can be made with
far more confidence and certainty. The oj>eration can only be under-


taken by a skilled veterinary anatomist, but the hints given above
may be valuable in showing the stock owner when he is being properly
served in such a case.

In outlying districts, where no skilled operator can be had, a trans-
verse incision may be made with a clean sharp knife through the root
of the penis, just over the arch of the hip bone, when the urine will
flow out in a full stream. The attendant bleeding may be ignored, or
if profuse it may be checked by packing the wound firmly with cotton
wool for some hours. The urine will continue to escape by the wound,
and the ox should be fattened for the butcher.

The immediate relief is not to be looked upon as a permanent cure,
as the calculi in the affected ox are usually numerous, and later attacks
are, therefore, to be looked for. Hence it is desirable to fatten and
kill such cases after a successful operation. If a breeding animal is too
valuable to be killed he should be subjected to preventive measures, as
laid down under Stone in the Kidney.

It should be added that when the bladder is filled with a soft magma
a catheter may be introduced through the whole length of the urethra,
to be employed in pumping water into the bladder. This water is
extracted through the same channel when it has been charged with
the suspended solids by manipulations of the bladder with the oilep
hand introduced through the rectum.

Calculi or grarel in the prepuce or sheath. This is usually a collection
of gravel, or a soft putty-like material which causes a distinct swelling
of the sheath and gives it a soft, doughy feeling when handled. It may
be removed in part by the oiled fingers introduced into the cavity,
assisted by manipulation from without, or a tube may be inserted
behind the collection and water pumped in until the whole mass has
been evacuated. Should even this fail of success the sheath may be
slit open from its orifice back in the median line below until the offend-
ing matter can be reached and removed. In all such cases the interior
of the sheath should be finally lubricated with sweet oil or vaseline.
It is unnecessary to stitch up the wound made in the sheath. (See
Inflammation of the Sheath.)




Fig. 1. Kidney of the ox. Taken from Handbuch des Vergleichendcn Anatomic des
Hans Saugetkiere, Vol. 7, 1890: A, renal artery carrying blood into the kid-
ney ; V, renal vein carrying blood from the kidney back to the heart ; H,
ureter, the tube carrying the urine from kidney to bladder. It is formed by
the union of a number of branches which begin as cups (calices), each
inclosing the tip of a conical mass of tissue from which the urine exudes.
1, Showing such papilla through the cups or calyx surrounding it; 2, papil-
}te with the cups inclosing them out in half to show their relation to each

Fig. 2. The male genital organs of the ox. Taken from Leisering, Mueller &
Ellenborger, Handbuch des Vcrg. Anat. des Hans Stittgelhiere: 1, scrotum, or
the pouch containing the testicles; 2, tunica vagiualis, the serous membrane
enveloping the testicles; 3', right testicle, outer view; 3', left testicle, inner
view; 4, epididymis, or the beginning of the excretory canal of the testicle;
4', globus major, 01 the head of the epididymis; 4", globus minor, or the tail
of the epididymis; 5, vas deferens, the duct through which the seminal
fluid reaches the ejaculatory ducts; 5', pelvic dilatation of the vas deferens;
6, vesicula sominalis. The vesiculic seminalcs are two oval pouches, which,
in addition to their own secretions, receive the semen conveyed by the sem-
inal ducts and hold it in reserve until copulation; 7, membranous or intra-
pelvic portion of the urethral caual covered by Wilson's muscle; 8, part of
the prostate gland covered by Wilson's muscle; 9, Cowper's gland. This
gland, like the prostate glaud, secretes a fluid which is thrown into the
urethral canal in abundance immediately before ejaculation; the expulsion
of the semen is by this means facilitated; 10, ejaculator seminis, or accel-
erator ir.iu.i- muscle; 11, penis; 11', cut portion of same; 12, cut suspensory
ligaments of penis; 13, sheath, or prepuce laid open; 14, retractor muscles
of hheath; 15, cremaster muscle cut at superior extremity ; 16, duplicatnre
of peritoneum; 17, ureters carrying urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

FIR. 1. In this figure the minute apparatus for the secretion, collection, and dis-
charge of the urine into the pelvis of the kidney (see preceding plate) is
shown. The course in ns follows: The iirino is secreted from the blood-ves-
sels in the. little round bodies called glomcruli (12), and by the minute cells
in the curved tul>c8 (11, J). 10, 8), and passes through the convoluted and
straight tulxvs (7, 6) into the larger tube, (1), and then out into the pelvis,
thence through the ureters into the bladder. The fluid and salts dissolved
in the urino are taken from the blood, and the minute blood vessels are there-
fore very abundant in the kidneys, a* is shown by the branches and network
on the left of the figure. The blood passes into the kidney in the artery
(13), then divides into branches which pass into the glomcruli (12) and also



PLATK X Continued.

form networks around the secreting tubules (11, 9). The urine and salts
pass from these vessels through the cells lining the tubules into the latter,
and are discharged as described above. The blood is again collected in veins
drawn black in the figure.

Fig. 2. Illustrates the manner in which the blood is distributed in the glomeru-
lus /, and also to the secreting tubules (e).

Fig. 3. Shows the relation between the blood vessel in the glomerulus (e) and
the tiibule which conducts the urine therein secreted from the blood vessel ;
(c) represents a glomerulus from which the urinary tubule has been removed.

Fig. 1. Calculus or stone from the kidney. These are located in the pelvis or
portion of the ureter receiving the urine. The prolongations are casts of
the branches of the pelvis. See the plates of the kidney for further descrip-

Fig. 2. Calculus made up of oxalate of lime magnified 215 times.

Fig. 3. Phosphatic calculus containing a nucleus of uric acid, sawn through to
show concentric layers.

Fig. 4. Straight forceps used in removing stones from the bladder.

Fig. 5. Casts of the minute tubules of the kidney found in the urine in various
kinds of kidney disease. Highly magnified.

PI. ATI: ix





Marx. *l>r PArteval


ATI: xi





By JAMES LAW, F. R. C. V. S.,

Professor of Veterinary Science, etc., in Cornell University.

Diseases of the generative organs are practically confined to animals
which are kept for reproduction and the dairy. The castration of the
bull condemns these organs to inactivity and protects them from the
many causes of injury attendant on the engorged blood-vessels in the
frequent periods of sexual excitement, on the exposure to mechanical
violence, and on the exposure to infective inoculation. In three
respects the castrated male is especially subject to disease: (1) To
inflammation and tumefaction of the cut end of the cord that supported
the testicle and of the loose connective tissue of the scrotum; (2) to
inflammation of the eheath and penis from the accumulation of gravel
iu the former, from which the penis is not usually protruded in passing
water; and (3) to bruising, abrasion, and inflammation of the sheath
and penis during suspension in the stocks for the purpose of shoeing.
Apart from these the ox is practically almost exempt from the inflam-
mations and injuries of the genital organs. The same applies to the
castrated heifer. Inflammation may occur in the broad ligament of the
womb whence the ovary has been removed, or inflammation in the
abdominal cavity (peritonitis) in case the operation has been performed
through the flunk, as it usually is in the young heifer. Apart from
these the castrated heifer is practically immune from any trouble of the
generative apparatus. Even the virgin heifer is little subject to such
troubles, though she is not exempt from inflammations, and above all,
morbid growths in the ovaries which remain in place and are function-
ally very active after the first year, or in precocious animals after tho
first few months of life. The breeding cow on the other hand is sub-
jected to all the disturbances attendant on the gradual enlargement of
the womb, the diversion of a large mass of blood to its walls, the con-
stant drain of nutrient materials of all kinds for the nourishment of tho
fetiu, the risks attendant and consequent on abortion and parturi-
tion, the dangers of infection from the bull, the risks of sympathetic
disturbance in case of serious diseases of other organs, but preemi-
nently of the urinary organs ami the udder, and finally the sudden
extreme derangements of the circulation ami of the nervous functions



which attend on the sudden revulsion of a great mass of blood from the
walls of the contracting womb into the body at large immediately after

In reviewing this class of diseases, therefore, we have to note, first,
that they are almost exclusively restricted to breeding animals; and,
second, that in keeping with the absolute difference of the organs in the
male and female we find two essentially distinct lists of diseases affect-
ing the two sexes.



This may occur in the male from too frequent sexual intercourse, or
from injury and congestion of the base of the brain (vaso-dilator center
in the medulla), or of the posterior end of the spinal cord, or it may be
kept up by congestion or inflammation of the testicles or of the mucous
membrane covering the penis. It may be manifested by a constant or
frequent erection, by attempts at sexual connection, and sometimes by
the discharge of semen without connection. In bad cases the feverish-
ness and restlessness lead to loss of flesh, emaciation, and physical

It is, however, in the female especially that this morbid desire is
most noticeable and injurious. It may be excited by the stimulating
quality of the blood in cows fed to excess on highly nitrogenous food,
as the seeds of the bean, pea, vetch, tare, wheat bran, middlings, etc. ?
especially in the case of such as have no free exercise in the fields, and
are subject to constant association with a vigorous young bull. A more
frequent cause is the excitation or congestion of some part of the geni-
tal organs. Disease of the ovaries is preeminently the cause, and this
may be by the formation of cysts (sacs containing liquid), or of solid
tumors or degenerations, or, more commonly than all, the deposition of
tubercle. Indeed, in case of tuberculosis attacking the abdominal
organs of cows the ovaries or the serous membranes that support and
cover them (the broad ligaments of the womb) are peculiarly subject
to attack and the animal has constant sexual excitement, incessantly
riding or being ridden by other cattle, having no leisure to eat nor chew
the cud, but moving restlessly, wearing the flesh off its bones and grad-
ually wasting. In some localities these cows are known as " bullers,"
because they are nearly always disposed to take the bull, but they do
not conceive, or if they do they are subject to early abortions. They
are therefore useless alike for the dairy and for the feeder, unless the
removal of the ovaries subdues the sexual excitement, when in the
absence of tuberculous disease elsewhere they may be fattened for the

Among the other sources of irritation charged with causing nympho-
mania are tumors aud cancers of the womb, rigid closure of the neck of
the womb, so that conception can not occur and the frequent services


by the male stimulate tlie unsatisfied appetite, and inflammation ami a
purulent 'discharge from the womb or vagina.

The treatment in each case will vary with the cause, and is most satis-
factory when that cause is a removable one. Overfeeding on richly
nitrogenous food can be stopped, exercise in the open field secured, dis-
eased ovaries may be removed (see Castration, p. 317), catarrhs of the
womb and passages overcome by antiseptic astringent injections (see
Leucorrhoea), and tumors of the womb may often be detached and
extracted, the mouth of that organ having been first dilated by sponge
tents or otherwise. The rubber dilator (impregnator) though some-
times helpful in the mare is rarely available for the cow, owing to the
different condition of the mouth of the womb.


This will occur in either sex from low condition and ill health. Long
standing chronic diseases of important internal organs leading to
emaciation and weakness, or a prolonged semi-starvation in winter,
may be a sufficient cause. It is, however, much more common as the
result of degeneration or extensive and destructive disease of the secret-
ing organs (testicles, ovaries), wliich elaborate the male and female
sexual products respectively. Such diseases are therefore a common
cause of sterility in both sexes. The old bull, fat and lazy, becomes
sluggish and unreliable in serving, and finally gete to be useless for
breeding purposes. This is not due to his weight and clumsiness alone,
but largely to the fatty degeneration of his testicles and their excretory
hich prevents the due formation and maturation of the semen.

I : he has been kept in extra high condition for exhibition in the show
ring this disqualification comes upon him sooner and becomes more

Similarly the overfed, inactive cow, and above all the show cow, fails
to come in lieat at the usual intervals, shows little disposition to bike
the bull, and fails to conceive when served. Her trouble is the same
in kind, namely, fatty degeneration of the ovaries and of their excretory
ducts (Fallopian tubes), which prevents the formation or maturation of
the ovum, or when it has formed, hinders its descent into the womb.
Another common defect in such old fat cows is a rigid closure of the
mouth of the womb, wliich prevents conception, even if the ovum
reaches the interior of that organ, and even if the semen is discharged
into the vagina.

The true preventive of uch conditions is to be found in a sound
hygiene. The breeding animal should be of adult age, neither over nor
under fed, but well fed and moderately exercis**!; in other words, the
most vigorous health should be sought, not only that a strong race may
be propagated, but that the whole herd, or nearly so, may breed with

Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Animal IndustrySpecial report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding → online text (page 19 of 56)