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United States. Bureau of Animal Industry.

Special report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding online

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other is illustrated on the following plate.
PLATE XIII:

Fig. 1. Uterus of the cow during pregnancy, laid open to show the cotyledons
(d) on the internal surface of uterus (c). The ovary (a) is shown cut across,
and the two halves laid open to show the position of the discharged ovum
at a'.

Fig. 2. Illustrates the relation of the fetal and maternal parts of a cotyledon.
A portion of the uterus ( A) is shown with the maternal cotyledon (BB)
attached to it. The fetal portion (D) consists of a mass of very minute
hairlike processes on the chorion (E), which fit into corresponding depres-
sions or pits of the maternal portion. Each portion is abundantly supplied
with blood vessels, so that a ready interchange of nutritive fluid may take
place between mother and fetus.
PLATE XIV :

Fig. 1. Taken from Fiirstenberg-Lciscrtnfj, Anatomic und Physiologic des Rindes.
Fetal calf with a portion of the wall of the abdominal cavity of the right
side and the stomach and intestines removed to illustrate the nature of the
umbilical or navel cord. It consists of a hollow tube (1-1') into which pass
the two umbilical arteries (3) carrying blood to the placenta in the uterus
or womb and the umbilical vein (4) bringing the blood back and carrying
it into the liver. The cord also contains the urachus (2'), which carries
urine from the bladder (2) through the cord. These vessels are all oblit-
erated at birth. 5, liver; 5', lobe of same known as the lobus Spiegelii; 5",
gall bladder; 6, right kidney; G', left kidney; 6", ureters, or the tubes con-
ducting the urine from the kidneys to the bladder ; 7, rectum where it has
been severed in removing the intestines; 8, uterus of the fetus, cut off at
the anterior extremity ; 9, aorta ; 10, posterior vena cava.
230



DISEASES OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 231

! I..YTK XIV Continued.

Fig. 2. Taken from Quain's Anatomy, Vol. 11, showing the blood vessels passing
through the umbilical cord in a human fetus : L, liver; , kidney ; I, intes-
tine; U C, umbilical cord; Ua, umbilical arteries. The posterior aorta
coming from the heart passes backward and gives rise to the internal iliac
arteries, and of these the umbilical arteries are branches. Uv, umbilical
vein; this joins the portal vein; passes onward to the liver, breaks up into
smaller vessels which reunite in the hepatic vein ; this empties into tho pos-
terior vena cava, which carries the blood back to the heart.
PLATE XV:

Showing the most favorable position of the calf or fetus in the womb at birth,
and the position, iu which it is most frequently found. This is known as tho
normal anterior position. The back of the fetus is directly towards that of
the mother, the fore legs are extended back towards the vulva of the
mother, and the head rests between them. The birth of the calf in this posi-
tion usually takes place without artificial assistance.
PLATE XVI :

Fig. 1. Anterior presentation; one fore limb completely retained. From Flem-
ing's Veterinary Obstetrics. The retained limb must be reached if possible,
and brought forward joint by joint and the fetus then extracted.

Fig. 2. Anterior presentation ; fore limbs bent at knee. From Fleming's Veter-
inary Obstetrics. The limbs must be extended before delivery can be accom-
plished.

Fig. 3. Anterior presentation; fore limb crossed over neck. From Fleming's
Veterinary Obstetrics. The leg should be grasped a little above the fet-
lock, raised, drawn to its proper side, and extended in the genital canal.

Fig. 4. Anterior presentation ; downward deviation of head. After St. Cyr, from
Hill's Bovine Medicine and Surgery. The head must be brought into posi-
tion seen in Plate XV before delivery can take place.

Fig. 5. Anterior presentation; deviation of the head upwards and backwards.
From Fleming's Veterinary Obstetrics. Eetroj.ulsion is the first indication,
and will often bring the head into its normal position.

Fig. 6. Anterior presentation; head presenting with back down. From D'Ar-
boval, Diet, de Med. et de (Jhir. The fetus should bo turned by pushing
back the; fore parts and bringing up the hind so as to make a posterior pre-
sentation, i
PLATK XVII:

Fig. 1. Anterior presentation, with hind feet engaged in j>elvis. A very serious
mnlprcsentation, in which it is generally impossible to save the fetus if
delivery it* fur advanced. The indications are to force back the hind feet.

Fig. 2. Thigh and croup presentation, showing the fetus corded. From Flem-
ing's Veterinary Obstetrics. The cord has a ring or noose at one end. Tho
two emlnof the cord are passed between tho, thighs, brought out at the flanks,
and tho plain end passed through the noose at the top of the back and brought
- nt-iili- tho vulva. The fetim must bo punhod hack and an attempt made
to bring tho limb* properly into the genital passage.

Fig. 3. Croup and hock presentation. From Firming'* Veterinary Obstetrics.
Tho indication* in this abnormal presentation are the same as described for
Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. Posterior pre,Hentatinit ; tho fetus on its back. From D'Arboval, IHcl. tic
Med. ft df f'fcir. Turn the feltis no at HO make a normal anterior presentation.

Fig. .". Sterno-abdomina! presentation. From D'Arboval. IHcl. df Mcd. rt d>-
C'kir. The fetus is on its side with limbs rroxning and presenting. Tho
limb* least eli/rible for extraction should be forrod back into the uterus.

Fig.6. Dorno-liunbar presentation ; the back presenting. From D'Arbuval, JKrt.
de Med. et de Chir. The fetus must IMS turned o that one or the other ex-
tremity can enter the passage.



232 DISEASES OF CATTLE.

PLATE XVIII:

Fig. 1. Twiii pregnancy, showing the normal anterior ana posterior presenta-
tions. From Fleming's Veterinary Obstetrics.

Fig. 2. Abdominal dropsy of the fetus; normal presentation; fore limbs corded.
After Armatage. The drawing illustrates the method of puncturing the
abdomen through the chest with a long trocar and canula, The fluid is
represented escaping from the canula after the withdrawal of the trocar.

Fig. 3. Tallich's short, bent, crotchet forceps. The forceps have bent and toothed
jaws, which are intended to take hold of the fetus where neither cords or
hooks can be applied, as the ear, nose, or skin of cheek.

Fig. 4. Clamp for ear, skin, etc : 1-1, blades with hooks and corresponding holes ;
2, ring to close the blades; 3, stem with female screw for handle; 4, handle,
which may be either straight or jointed and flexible.
PLATE XIX :

This plate illustrates various malformations and diseases of the fetus which act
as the cause of difficult parturition.

Figs. 1, 2, 3. Represent the fetuses with portions of their bodies double. Fig.
1 (from Fleming's Veterinary Obstetrics), double head, neck, and fore limbs.
Fig. 2 (from Encyclop. der Gesam. TJiierheilkunde, 1886), double head, neck,
fore limbs, and body. Fig. 3 (from Fleming's Veterinary Obstetrics), double
faced.

Fig. 4. Fetus with head very much enlarged. From Fleming's Veterinary
Obstetrics. This affection is known as hydrocephalus or dropsy of the
brain, and is due to a more or less considerable quantity of fluid in the cra-
nial cavity of the fetus.

Fig. 5. Skull of the calf represented in Fig. 4. The roof of the skull is absent.

From Fleming's Veterinary Obstetrics.
PLATE XX :

Fig. 1. Long embryotome with joint.

Fig. 2. Long sharp hook. This instrument is about 3 feet in length, including
the handle. Hooks of this kind, both blunt and sharp, are applied directly
to the fetus to assist in delivery.

Fig. 3. Giinther's long-handled embryotome. This instrument and that repre-
sented in Fig. 1 are of special value in cutting through muscular tissue and
in separating the limbs from the trunk when the fetus can not be removed
entire. These embryotomes are usually 30 inches long, but may be made
either longer or shorter.

Fig. 4. Jointed cord-carrier, used in difficult parturition to carry a cord into
regions which can not be reached by the arm.

Fig. 5. Instrument used to rotate or turn the fetus, known as a rotator.

Fig. 6. Dilator of the neck of the womb, used when conception can not take
place owing to a contracted condition of the neck of the womb.

Fig. 7. Repeller. An instrument from 2 to 3 feet long, used to force the fetus
forward into the Avoinb. This operation is generally necessary Avhen the
presentation is abnormal and the fetus has advanced too far into the narrow
inlet to the uterus to be moved.

Fig. 8. Cartwright's bone chisel. Including the handle this instrument is about
32 inches in length, the chisel portion is a little more than 2 inches long and
1 to 1A broad. Only the middle portion is sharp, the projecting corners are
blunt and the sides rounded. This instrument is used for slitting up the
skin of a limb and as a bone chisel when it is necessary to mutilate the fetus
in order to effect delivery.
PLATE XXI :

Fig. 1. Embryotome, an instrument used when it is necessary to reduce the size
of the fetus by cutting away certain parts before birth can be affected. This
instrument may be long or short, straight or curved.



DISEASES OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 233

PLATE XXI Continued.

Fig. 2. Also an embryotome. The blade cau bo made to slide out of or into the

handle. The instrument can thus be introduced iuto or withdrawn from tho

genital passage without risk of injury to the mother.
Fig. 3. Schaack's traction cord. This is merely a cord with a running noose at

one end and a piece of wood at the other, to offer a better hold for the hand.
Figs. 4a and 46. ReufPa head collar for securing the head of the fetus.
Fig. 5. Curved cord-carrier, used in difficult parturition to carry " cord into

regions which can not be reached by the arm.
Fig. 6. Blunt hook, used iu difficult parturition.
Fig. 7. Short hook forceps, used in difficult parturition.
Fig. 8. Blunt finger hook.



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PLATK XIV




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DISEASES FOLLOWING PARTURITION.



By JAMES LAW, F. R. C. V. S.,
Professor of Veterinary Science, etc., in Cornell Unirersif:,.



FLOODING BLEEDING FROM THE WOMB.

Though not so common in the cow as in the human female, flooding
is sufficiently frequent to demand attention. It may depend on a too
rapid calving, and a consequent failure of the womb to contract when
the calf has been removed. The pregnant womb is extraordinarily rich
in blood- vessels, and especially in large and tortuous veins, which
become compressed and all but obliterated under contraction, but remain
overfilled and often bleed into the cavity of the womb should no con-
traction take place. Cox records cases in which the labor pains had
detached and expelled the fetal membranes, while the calf, owing to
large size or wrong presentation, was detained in the womb, and the
continued dilatation of the womb in the absence of the fetal membranes
led to a flow of blood which accumulated in clots around the calf.
Other causes are laceration of the cotyledons of the womb, or from an
antecedent inflammation of the placenta, and the unnatural adhesion of
the membranes to the womb, which bleeds when the two are torn apart.
Weakness of the womb from overdistension, as in dropsy, twins, etc., is
not without its influence. Finally, eversion of the womb (casting the
withers) is an occasional cause of flooding. The trouble is only too evi-
dent when the blood flows from the external passages in drops or in a
fine stream. But when it is retained in the cavity of the womb it may
remain unsuspected until it has rendered the animal almost bloodless.
The symptoms in such a case are paleness of the eyes, noso, mouth, ami
of the lips of the vulva, a weak rapid pulse, violent and perhaps loud
Ix.iating of the heart (palpitations), sunken, staring eyes, coldness of the
skin, ears, horn*, and limbs, perspiration, weakness in standing, stag
goring gait, and finally inability to rise, and death in convulsions. If
these symptoms arc seen the oiled hand should be introduce*! into tin-
womb, which will be found open and flaccid, and containing large blood
clots.

Treatment consists in the removal of tin- fetal membranes ami blood
clots from the womb (which will not contract while they are present),

235



236 DISEASES OF CATTLE.

the dashing of cold water on the loins, right flank, and vulva, and if
these measures fail, the injection of cold water into the womb through
a rubber tube furnished with a funnel. In obstinate cases a good-
sized sponge soaked in tincture of muriate of iron should be introduced
into the womb and firmly squeezed, so as to bring the iron in contact
with the bleeding surface. This is at once an astringent and a coagu-
lant for the blood, besides stimulating the womb to contraction. In
the absence of this agent, astringents (solution of copperas, alum,
tannic acid, or acetate of lead), may be thrown into the womb, and one-
half-dram doses of acetate of lead may be given by the mouth, or 1
ounce powdered ergot of rye may be given in gruel. When nothing
else is at hand, an injection of oil of turpentine will sometimes promptly
check the bleeding.

EVERSION OF THE WOMB CASTING THE WITHERS.

% %

Like flooding, this is the result of failure of the womb to contract
after calving. If that organ contracts naturally, the afterbirth is
expelled, the internal cavity of the womb is nearly closed, and the
mouth of the organ becomes so narrow that the hand can not be forced
through, much less the whole mass of the matrix. When, however, it
fails to contract, the closed end of one of the horns may fall into its open
internal cavity, and under the compression of the adjacent intestines,
and the straining and contraction of the abdominal walls, it is forced far-
ther and farther until the whole organ is turned outside in, slides back
through the vagina, and hangs from the vulva. The womb can be
instantly distinguished from the protruding vagina or bladder by the
presence over its whole surface of 50 to 100 mushroom-like bodies
(cotyledons), each 2 to 3 inches in diameter, and attached by a narrow
neck. (Plates xn, xin.) When fully everted it is further recognizable
by a large, undivided body hanging from the vulva, and two horns or
divisions which hang down toward the hocks. In the imperfect ever-
eions the body of the womb may be present with two depressions lead-
ing into the two horns. In the cases of some standing the organ has
become inflamed and gorged with blood until it is as large as a bushel
basket, and its surface has a dark, red, blood-like hue, and tears and
bleeds on the slightest touch. Still later lacerations, raw sores, and
even gangrene are shown in the mass. At the moment of protrusion
the general health is not altered, but soon the inflammation and fever
with the violent and continued straining induce exhaustion, and the cow
lies down, making no attempt to rise. -

Treatment will vary somewhat, according to the degree of the ever-
sion. In partial eversiou, with the womb protruding only slightly from
the vulva and the cow standing, let an assistant pinch the back to
prevent straining while the operator pushes his closed fist into the cen-
ter of the mass and carries it back through the vagina, assisting in
returning the surrounding parts by the other hand. In more complete



DISEASES FOLLOWING PARTURITION. 237

eversion, but with the womb as yet of its natural bulk and consistency,
and the cow standing, straining being checked by pinching the back, a
sheet is held by two men so as to sustain the everted womb and raise
it to the level of the vulva. It is now sponged clean with cold water, the
cold being useful iu driving out the blood and reducing the bulk, and
finally it may be sponged over with laudanum or with a weak solution
of carbolic acid (1 dram to 1 quart water). The closed fist may now be
planted in the rounded end of the largest horn and pushed on so as to
turn it back within itself and carry it on through the vagina, the other
hand being used meanwhile to assist in the inversion and in pushing
the different masses in succession within the lips of the vulva. In case
of failure, resort should be had at once to a plan which I have success-
fully followed for many years, but which has never been described save
by a short notice in my "Farmers' Veterinary Adviser," eighth edition.
Take a long linen or cotton bandage, 5 or G inches wide, and wind it
around the protruding womb as tightly as it can be drawn, beginning
at the free end and gradually covering the entire mass up to the vulva.
By this means the greater part of the blood will be forced out of the
organ and its bulk greatly reduced, so that its reduction is much facil-
itated. An additional advantage is found in the protection given to
the womb by its investing bandage, while it is being pushed forward
into the vagina and abdomen. In manipulating the exposed womb
there is always danger of laceration, but when the organ is covered
with a sheet it is next to impossible to tear it. The subsequent ma-
nipulation is as in the other case by pushing the blind end forward
within itself with the closed fist and carrying this on through the vagina
into the abdomen with the constant assistance of the other hand. It
will often be found convenient to use the edge of the left hand to push
the outer part of the protruding mass inside the lips of the vulva, while
the right hand and arm are carrying the central portions forward
through the vagina. An intelligent assistant, pushing with the palms
of both hands on the outer portion of the mass, will also afford material
assistance. As the womb is turned within itself the wrapping band-
age will gradually loosen, but once Ihe great mass has entered the
passages it is easy to compel the rest to follow, and the compression by
the bandage is no longer so important. When the womb is fully re-
placed the bandage is left in its interior in a series of loose folds, and
can be easily withdrawn. It is well to move the hand from side to
side to insure that the two horns of the womb are fully extended and
on about the same level before withdrawing the arm ami applying a
truss.

When the womb has been long everted and is gorged with Mood,
inflamed and friable, there is often the additional disadvantage that the
animal is unable or unwilling to rise. When lying down the straining
can not be controlled so cfteetiially, and the compression of the belly
is so great as to prove a serious obstacle t< reduction, even in the



238 DISEASES OF CATTLE.

absence of straining. The straining may be checked by 2 or 3 ounces
of laudanum, or 2 ounces of choral hydrate, or by inhalation of chloro-
form to insensibility, and then by raising the hind parts on straw bun-
dles the gravitation of the abdominal organs forward may be made to
lessen the resistance. If success can not be had in this way the cow
may be further turned on her back, and if return is still impossible, the
hind limbs may be tied together and drawn up to a beam overhead by
the aid of a pulley. In this position, in place of the pressure backward
of the bowels proving a hindrance, their gravitation forward proves a
most material help to reduction. In seeking to return the womb the
sponging with ice-cold water, the raising on a sheet and the wrapping
in a tight bandage should be resorted to. Another method which is
especially commendable in these inflamed conditions of the womb is to
bring a piece of linen sheet 30 inches by 36 under the womb with its
anterior border close up to the vulva, then turn the posterior border
upward and forward over the organ, and cross the two ends over this,
and over each other above. The ends of the sheet are steadily drawn
so as to tighten its hold on the womb, which is thus held on the level
of the vulva or above, and cold water is constantly poured upon the
mass. The reduction is further sought by compression of the mass
-vith the palms applied outside the sheet. Fifteen or twenty minutes
are usually sufficient to cause the return of the womb, provided strain-
ing is prevented by pinching of the back or otherwise.

In old and aggravated cases, with the womb torn, bruised, or even
gangrenous, the only resort is to amputate the entire mass. This is
done by tying a strong waxed cord round the protruding mass close up
to the vulva, winding the cord round pieces of wood so as to draw them
as tightly as possible, cutting off the organ below this ligature, tying a
thread on any artery that may still bleed, and returning the stump well
into the vagina.

Retention of the returned womb is the next point, and this is most
easily accomplished by a rope truss. Take two ropes, each about 18
feet long and an inch in thickness. Double each rope at its middle,
and lay the one above the other at the bend so as to form an ovoid of
about 8 inches in its long diameter. Twist each end of the one rope
twice round the other so that this ovoid will remain when they are
drawn tight. (Plates xxn and xxin.) Tie a strap or rope around the
back part of the neck and a surcingle around the body. Place the rope
truss on the animal so that the ovoid ring shall surround the vulva,
the two ascending ropes on the right and left of the tail and the two
descending ones down inside the thighs on the right and left of the
udder. These descending ropes are carried forward on the sides of the
body and tied to the surcingle and to the neck collar. The ascending
ropes proceed forward on the middle of the back, twisting over each
other, and are tied to the surcingle and collar. The upper and lower
ropes are drawn so tightly that the rope ring is made to press nrnJy



DISEASES FOLLOWING PARTURITION. 239

all around the vulva without risk of displacement. This should be worn
for several days until the womb shall have closed, and a 11 risk of further
eversion is at an end. Variations of this device are found in the use
of a narrow triangle of iron applied around the vulva and fixed by a
similar arrangement of ropes, surcingle, and collar (Plate xxiu, Fig. 3),
a common crupper similarly held around the vulva (Plate xxn, Fig. 1),
stitches through the vulva, and wires inserted through the skin on the
two hips (Plate xxiu, Fig. 2), so that the}* will cross behind the vulva;
;ilso pessaries of various kinds inserted in the vagina. None of these,
however, presents any advantage over the simple and comparatively
painless rope truss described above. Such additional precautions as
keeping the cow in a stall higher behind than in front, and seeing that
the diet is slightly laxative and nonstimulating may be named. If
straining is persistent, ounce doses of laudanum may be employed twice
a day, and the same may be injected into the vagina.

If the womb has been cut off, injections of a solution of a teaspoon-
ful of carbolic acid in a quart of water should be employed daily, or
more frequently, until the discharge ceases.

EVERSION OF THE BLADDER.

A genuine eversion of the bladder is almost unknown in the cow,
owing to the extreme narrowness of its mouth. The protrusion of the
bladder, however, through a laceration in the floor of the vagina sus-
tained in calving, and its subsequent protrusion through the vulva, is
sometimes met with. In this case the protruding bladder contains
urine, which can never be the case in a real eversiou, in which the inner
surface of the bladder and the openings of the ureters are both exposed
outside the vulva. The presence of a bag containing water, which is
connected with the floor of the vagina, will serve to identify this con-
dition. If the position of the bladder in the vulva renders it imprac-
ticable to pass a catheter to draw off the urine, pierce the organ with
the nozzle of a hypodermic syringe, or even a very small trocar and
cauula, and draw off the water, when it will be found an easy matter
to return the bladder to its place. The rent in the vagina can be
stitched up, but as then' would be risk in any subsequent calving it is
best to prepare the cow for the butcher.

RUPTURE OF THE BLADDER.

This lias been known to occur in protracted parturition when the
fetus finally passed while the bladder was full. The symptoms are
those of complete suppression of urine and tenderness of the abdomen,
with a Steady accumulation of liquid ami fluctuation on handling it



Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Animal IndustrySpecial report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding → online text (page 27 of 56)