distance by a lever on the handle. The incisions are made in four
directions and as deep as may be necessary, and the walls can then be
held apart by the spring dilator until they heal. In case the constric-
tion and thickening of the canal extend the whole length of the teat,
it is practically beyond remedy, as the gland is usually involved so as
to render it useless.
CLOSURE OF THE MILK-DUCT BY A MEMBRANE.
In this form the duct of the teat is closed by the constriction of its
lining membrane at one point, usually without thickening. The clos-
ure usually takes place while the cow is dry, otherwise its progress is
gradual and for a time the milk may still be pressed through slowly.
In such a case, if left at rest, the lower part of the teat fills up and the
milk flows in a full stream at the first pressure, but after this it will
not fill up again without sufficient time for it to filter through. This is
to be cut open by the hidden bistoury (Plate xxiv, Fig. 2), which may be
first passed through the opening of the membrane, if such exists. If
not it may be bored through, or it may be pressed up against the mem-
brane at one side of the teat and opened toward the center, so as to
cut its way through. Incisions should be made in at least two oppo-
site directions, and the edges may be then held apart by wearing the
spring dilator until healing has been completed.
In all cases of operations on the teats the instruments must be thor-
oughly disinfected with hot water, or by dipping in carbolic acid, and
then in water that has been boiled.
OPENING IN THE SIDE OF THE TEAT MILK FISTULA.
This may occur from wounds penetrating the milk duct and failing
to close, or it may be congenital, and then very often it leads to a dis-
tinct milk duct and an independent portion of the gland. In the first
form it is only necessary to dissect away the skin leading into the open-
ing for some distance down, to close the orifice with stitches, and to
cover the whole with collodion. A teat tube or spring dilator may be
worn to drain off" the milk and prevent distension and reopening of the
orifice. In case of an independent milk-duct and gland one of two
courses may be selected : to open the one duct into the other by inci-
sion and then close the offending opening, or to inject the superfluous
gland through its duct with a caustic solution so as to destroy its secre-
ting power. In both cases it fs desirable to wait until the cow goes dry.
DISEASES FOLLOWING PARTURITION.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.
PLATES XXII, XXIII :
Illustrate various appliances used in prolapse or inversion of the uterus. The
uterus should first be returned to its proper situation and then some appa-
ratus applied to prevent a recurrence of the inversion or protrusion.
Fig. 1. Crupper, strap truss taken from Hill's Bovine Medicine and Surgery.
Fig. 2. Renault's rope truss. The rope for this truss should be from 25 to 30 feet
long, and about the thickness of the little finger.
Fig. 1. Cow to which Delwart's rope truss has been applied.
Fig. la. Shows the loop of Delwart's truss.
Fig. 2. Zuudel's labial sutures. These consist of two wires passed through the
lips of the vulva in a horizontal direction, and two additional wires passed
through the loops at the ends of the horizontal wires in order to hold them
Fig. 3. Iron truss for holding the vagina or uterus in place after calving. The
cords are passed through the eyes at the corners of the triangular iron ; the
base of the triangle fits under the tail. The truss is from 5 to 7 inches long,
and about 2^ inches wide.
Fig. 1. Liithi's perforating sound, for opening the milk canal through the teat
when this has become occluded. A, the sound one-half the natural size; B,
section of head of sound, natural size, showing cutting edge.
Fig. 2. Histouri cache". A blade hidden in its sheath which by pressure of the
finger may be made to protrude a certain distance. This distance is regu-
lated by the screw near the handle. The instrument is used to open the
milk canal when closed up. It is introduced into the milk canal with its
blade in the sheatu and withdrawn with the blade protruding.
Fig. 3. Spring teat dilator, about J natural si/c, for dilating the milk canal.
Fig. 4. Ring teat syphon, for withdrawing milk when the teat is sore or injured.
Fig. ft. Gutta-percha bougie, for dilating the opening of the teat.
Fig. 6. Truss applied to calf for umbilical or navel hernia. From Fleming's
Fig. 7. Armatage's iron clam for umbilical or navel hernia. When thin clam is
applied care must bo taken not to include a portion of tlio bowel.
sri'i'oins KOH IMU>I.AI>SI-:I> ITKHIS
SIIM'UMIS I OH I'KOI.AI'SKN I IKUI s
DISEASES OF YOUNG CALVES.
By JAMES LAW, F. R. C. V. S.,
Professor of Veterinary Science, etc., in Cornell University.
The moment the circulation through the navel string is stopped the
blood of the calf begins to get overcharged with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ),
and unless breathing is speedily established death promptly follows.
Fortunately the desire to breathe, roused by the circulation of the venous
blood and the reflex action from the wet and chilling skin, usually at
once starts the contractions of the diaphragm and life is insured. Among
the obstacles to breathing may be named suffocation before or during
birth from compression of the navel cord and the arrest of its circula-
tion ; the detachment of the fetal membranes from the womb before
the calf is born ; a too free communication between the two auricles of
the heart (foramen ovale) by which the uon aerated blood has mixed too
abundantly with the aerated and induced debility and profound weak-
ness; a condition of ill health and debility of the calf as a result of
semi-starvation, overwork, or disease of the cow; fainting in such de-
bilitated calf when calving has been difficult and prolonged; the birth
of the calf with its head enveloped in the fetal membranes so that it
has been unable to breathe; and the presence of tenacious phlegm in
the mouth and nose, acting in the same manner.
Beside the imi>ortance of proper care and feeding of the cow as a
preventive measure, attention should be given at once to relieve the
new-born calf of its investing membrane and of any mucus that has
collected in mouth or nostrils. Wiping out the nose deeply with a
finger or feather excites to sneexing, hence to breathing. Hlowing into
the nose has a similar effect. Sucking the nostril through a tube applied
to it is even more effective. Slapping the chest with the palm of the
hand or with a towel dipped in cold water, compression and relaxation
alternately of the walls of tho chest, may start the action, and ammonia-
or even tobacco smoke blown into the nose may suffice. Kvery second
is precious, however, and if possible the lungs should be dilated l>y
forcibly introducing air from a bellows or from the human lungs. As
the air is blown in through bellows or a tube the upper end of the wind-
pipe must be pressed back against the gullet, as otherwise the air will
268 DISEASES or CATTLE.
go to the stomach. In a large dairy a piece of elastic tubing one-third
of an inch in bore should be kept at hand for sucking and blowing in such
BLEEDING FROM THE NAVEL.
This may occur in two conditions, when the cord is cut off too close
to the navel and left untied, and when it tears off at the navel (Plate
xiv). It may also bleed when torn across naturally, if it is sucked by
the dam or another calf. In an animal with little plasticity to its blood
it will flow under almost any circumstances. Where any cord is left it
is always safe to tie it, and it is only when it is swollen and may possi-
bly contain a loop of the bowel that there is danger in doing so. By
pressing upward any bulky contents such danger is avoided. If torn,
or cut too close to be tied, the bleeding may be checked by applying
alum, copperas, or for a fraction of a second the end of an iron rod at a
dull-red heat. If much blood has been lost it may be requisite to trans-
fuse several ounces of blood, or of a weak common-salt solution, into the
open umbilical vein.
URINE DISCHARGED THROUGH THE NAVEL PERSISTENT URACHUS.
Before birth the urine passes from the bladder by a special tube
through the navel and navel-string into the outer water-bag (allantois)
(Plate xn). This closes at birth, and in the calf the tube is drawn in
toward the bladder. It is only in the bull calf that it is likely to
remain open, doubtless because of the long narrow channel through
which the urine must otherwise escape. The urethra, too, is sometimes
abnormally narrow, or even closed in the male. If part of the cord
remains, tie it and allow the whole to wither up naturally. If the cord
has been removed and the tube (urachus) protrudes, discharging the
urine, that alone must be tied. If there is nothing pendent the urachus
must be seized, covered by the skin, and a curved needle being passed
through the skin and above the duct it may be tied along with this
skin. A blister of Spanish flies, causing swelling of the skin, will often
close the orifice. So with the hot iron. If the urethra of the male is
impervious it can rarely be remedied.
INFLAMMATION OF THE URACHUS (NAVEL URINE-DUCT).
This may originate in direct mechanical injury to the navel in calv-
ing, or shortly after, with or without the lodgment of irritant and sep-
tic matter on its lacerated or cut end. The mere contact with healthy
urine, hitherto harmless, can not be looked on as becoming suddenly
irritating. The affection is usually marked by the presence of redness
and swelling at the posterior part of the navel and the escape of urine
and a few drops of whitish serous pus from the orifice of the urachus.
DISEASES OF YOUNG CALVES. 269
In those cases in which urine is not discharged a tender swelling, like
a thick cord extending upward and backward from the navel into the
abdomen, may be identified. The navel enlargement may be consider-
able, but it is solid, does not gurgle on handling, and can not be done
away with by pressing it back into the abdomen as in a case of hernia.
In cases at first closed the pus may burst out later, coming from the
back part of the navel and the swelling extending backward. In other
cases whitish pus may pass with the urine by the ordinary channel,
showing that it has opened back into the bladder. In other cases the
umbilical veins become involved, in which case the swelling extends
forward as well as backward. Thus the disease may result in destruc-
tive disorders of the liver, lungs, and, above all, of the joints.
The disease may usually be warded off or rendered simple and com-
paratively harmless by applying antiseptics to the navel-string at
birth (carbolic acid 1 part, water and glycerine 5 parts each, or wood
tar). Later, antiseptics may be freely used (hyposulphite of soda 4
drams, water 1 quart) as an application to the surfa.ce and as an injec-
tion into the urachus, or even into the bladder if the two still commu-
nicate. If they no longer communicate, a stronger injection may be
used (tincture of perchloride of 'iron 60 drops, alcohol 1 ounce). Sev-
eral weeks will be required for complete recovery.
ABSCESS OF THE NAVEL.
As the result of irritation at calving or by the withered cord, or by
licking with the rough tongue of the cow, inflammation may attack the
loose connective tissue of the navel to the exclusion of the urachus
and veins, and go on to the formation of matter. In this case a firm
swelling appears as large as the fist, which softens in the center and
may finally burst and discharge. The opening, however, is usually
small and may close prematurely, so that abscess after abscess is
formed. It is distinguished from hernia by the fact that it can not be
returned into the abdomen, and from inflammations of the veins and
urachus by the absence of swellings forward and backward along the
lines of these canals.
Treatment consists in an early opening of the abscess by a free incision
and the injection twice a day of an astringent antiseptic (chloride of
zinc dram, water 1 pint).
INFLAMMATION OF THE NAVEL VEINS UMBILICAL PHLEBITIS.
In this affection of the navel the inflammation may start directly
from mechanical injury, as in either of the two forms just described,
but on this are inoculated infective microbes, derived from a retained
and putrefying afterbirth, an abortion, a metritis, a fetid discharge
from the womb, an unhealthy open sore, a rase of erysipelas, from over-
270 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
crowding, from filthy floor or bedding, or from an offensive accumula-
tion of manure, solid or liquid. As the microbes vary in different cases,
given outbreaks will differ materially in their nature. One is erysipe-
las ; another purulent infection with the tendency to secondary abscesses
in the joints, liver, lungs, etc. j another is due to a septic germ and is
associated with fetid discharge from the navel and general putrid
blood poisoning. In estimating the causes of the disease we must not
omit debility of the calf when the mother has been underfed or badly
honsed, or when either she or the fetus has been diseased.
The symptoms will vary. With the chain-form germs (streptococci)
of erysipelas the navel becomes intensely red, with a very firm, painful
swelling ending abruptly at the edges in sound skin, and extending
forward along the umbilical veins. The secondary diseases are circum-
scribed black engorgements (infarctions) or abscesses of the liver, lungs,
kidneys, or other internal organs, and sometimes disease of the joints.
With the ordinary pus-producing germs (Staphylococcuv pyoycnes
aureus and Streptococcus pyogencs), the local inflammation in the navel
causes a hot, painful swelling, which rapidly advances to the formation
of matter (pus), and the raw exposed surface, at first bright red,
becomes dark red or black, soft, friable, and pultaceous. If the pus is
white, creamy, and comparatively inoffensive in odor, the secondary
formations in internal organs and joints are mainly of the same purulent
character (secondary abscesses).
If, on the other hand, the discharge is very offensive and the pus
more serous or watery or bloody, there is reason to suspect the presence
of some of the septic bacteria, and the results on the general system are
a high fever and softening of the liver and spleen, and no tendency to
abscesses of the internal organs. Diarrhea is a common symptom, and
death ensues early, the blood after death being found unclotted.
Complicated cases are common, and in all alike the umbilical veins
usually remain open and can be explored by a probe passed at first
upward and then forward towards the liver.
Prevention is sought by applying a lotion of carbolic acid to the
navel string at birth, or it may be smeared with common wood tar,
which is at once antiseptic and a protective covering against germs.
In the absence of either a strong solution of oak bark may be used.
Local treatment consists in the application of antiseptics to the sur-
face and their injection into the vein. As a lotion use carbolic acid, 1
ounce in a quart of strong decoction of oak bark, or salicylic acid or
salol may be sprinkled on the surface. The interior of the vein should
be swabbed out with a probe wrapped around with cottonwool and
dipped in boracic or salicylic acid.
If complications have extended to the liver or other internal organs,
or the joints, other treatment will be demanded. In acute cases of
general infection an early fatal result is to be expected.
DISEASES OF YOUNG CALVES. 271
PY^EMIC AND SEPTIC^EXIC INFLAMMATION OF JOINTS IN CALVES.
This occurs in young calves within the first months after birth; it
persists in the joints when once attacked, and is usually connected with
disease of the navel. Rheumatism, on the other hand, rarely occurs in
a calf under a month old. It tends to shift from joint to joint and is
independent of any iiavel disease. Rheumatism, again, affects the fibrous
structures of the joints, and rarely results in the formation of white
matter, while the affection before named attacks the structures outside
as well as inside the joints and above all the ends of the bones, and
tends to the destruction and crumbling of their tissue, and even to the
formation of open sores through which the fragile bones are exposed.
The microbes from the unhealthy and infected wound in the navel pass
into the system through the veins, or, in the case of the erysipelas germ,
through the lymphatics, and form colonies and local inflammations and
abscesses in and around the joints.
The symptoms are swelling of one or more joints, which are very hot and
tender. The calf is stiff and lame, lies down constantly, and cares not
to suck. There is very high fever and accelerated breathing and pulse,
and there is swelling and purulent discharge (often fetid) from the navel.
There may be added symptoms of disease of the liver, lungs, heart, or
bowels, on which we need not here delay. The important point is to
determine the condition of the navel in all such cases of diseased and
swollen joints beginning in the first month of life, and in all cases of
general stiffness, for beside the diseases of the internal organs there
may be abscesses formed among the muscles of the trunk, though the
joints appear sound. Cases of this kind, if they do not speedily die,
tend to become emaciated and perish later in a state of weakness and
Prevention must begin with the pifrity of the buildings and the navel,
as noted in the last article.
Treatment is in the main antiseptic. The slighter forms may be
painted daily with tincture of iodine; or an ointment of biniodide of
mercury (1 dram) and lard (2 ounces) may be rubbed on the affected joints
daily until they are blistered. In case of swellings containing matter
this may l>e drawn off through the nozzle of a hyiMMlennic syringe and
the following solution injected: Compound tincture of iodine, 1 dram;
distilled (or boiled) water, 2 ounces. Internally the calf may take 5
grains quinia twice daily and 15 grains hyi>osulphite of soda, or 20
grains salicylate of soda three times a day.
UMBILICAL IIKBMA BHKACH AT THE NAVEL.
This may exist at birth from imperfect closure of the muscles around
the opening; it may even extend backward for a distance from two
sides failing to come together. Apart from this the trouble rarely
272 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
appears after the calf has been some time on solid food, as the paunch
then extends down to the right over the navel, and thus forms an
internal pad preventing the protrusion of intestine.
The symptoms of umbilical hernia are a soft swelling at the navel,
with contents that usually gurgle on handling, and can be entirely
returned into the abdomen by pressure. The diseases of the navel
hitherto considered have not gurgling contents, and can not be com-
pletely returned into the abdomen. The only exception in the case of
the hernia is when the walls of the sack have become greatly thickened ;
these will, of course, remain as a swelling after the bowel has been
returned 5 and when the protruding bowel has contracted permanent
adhesions to the sac it is impossible to return it fully without first sev-
ering that connection.
Treatment is not always necessary. A small hernia, like an egg, in a
new-born calf, will usually recover of itself as the animal changes its
diet to solid food and has the paunch fully developed as an internal pad.
In other cases apply a leather pad of 8 inches square attached around
the body by two elastic bands connected with its four corners, and an
elastic band passing foin its front border to a collar encircling the neck,
and two other elastic bands from the neck collar along the two sides of
the body to the two bands passing up over the back. (Plate xxiv,
For small hernias nitric acid may be used to destroy the skin and
cause such swelling as to close the orifice before the skin is separated.
For a mass like a large goose-egg one-half ounce of the acid may be
rubbed in for three minutes. No more must be applied for fifteen days.
For large masses this is inapplicable, and with too much loss of skin the
orifice may fail to close and the bowels may escape.
The application of a clamp like those used in castration is a most
effective method, but great care must be taken to see that all the con-
tents of the sack are returned so that none may be inclosed in the
clamp. (Plate xxiv, Fig. 7.)
Another most effective resort is to make a saturated solution of com-
mon salt, filter and boil it, and when cool inject under the skin (not
into the sack) on each side of the hernia a dram of the fluid. A band-
age may then be put around the body. In ten hours an enormous
swelling will have taken place, pressing back the bowel into the abdo-
men. When this subsides the wound will have closed.
DROPSY OF THE NAVEL.
A sack formed at the navel, by contained liquid accumulated by rea-
son of sucking by other calves, is unsightly and sometimes injurious.
After making sure that it is simply a dropsical collection it may be
deeply punctured at various points with a large-sized lancet or knife,
fomented with hot water and then daily treated with a strong decoc-
tion of white-oak bark.
DISEASES OF YOUNG CALVES. 273
THE BLUE DISEASE CYANOSIS.
Tliis appearing in the calf at birth is due to the orifice between the
two auricles of the heart (foramen ovale) remaining too open, allowing
the nonaerated (venous) blood to mix with the aerated (arterial) blood,
and it is beyond the reach of treatment. It is .recognized by the blue-
ness of the eyes, nose, mouth and other mucous membranes, the cold-
ness of the surface, and the extreme sensitiveness to cold.
At birth the bowels of the calf contain the meconium, a tenacious,
gluey, brownish-yellow material largely derived from the liver, which
must be expelled before they can start their functions normally. The
first milk of the cow (colostrum, beestings), rich in albumen and salts,
is nature's laxative to expel this now offensive material, and should
never be withheld from the calf. If, for lack of this, from the dry
feeding of the cow, or from any other cause, the calf is costive, strain-
ing violently without passage, lying down and rising as in colic, and
failing in appetite, no time should be lost in givin g relief by an ounce
dose of castor oil, assisting its action by injections of soapsuds or oil.
Whatever meconium is within reach of the linger should be carefully
removed. It is also important to give the cow a sloppy laxative diet.
This may occur from many different causes, as costiveness, a too
liberal supply of milk; too rich milk; the furnishing of the milk of a
cow long after calving to a very young calf; allowing a calf to suck the
first milk of a cow that has been hunted, driven by road, shipped by
rail or otherwise violently excited ; allowing the calf too long time
between meals so that impelled by hunger it quickly overloads and
clogs the stomach; feeding from the pail milk that has been held over
in unwashed (unscalded) buckets, so that it is fermented and spoiled;
feeding the milk of cows kept on unwholesome food; keeping the calves
in cold, damp, dark, filthy or bad smelling pens; feeding the calves on
artificial mixtures containing too much starchy matters; or overfeed ing
the calves on artificial food that may be appropriate enough in smaller
amount. The licking of hair from themselves or others, and their for-
mation into balls in the stomach will cause obstinate indigestion in the
The symptom* an* dullness, Indisposition to move, uneasiness, eructa-
tions of gas from the stomach, sour breath, entire loss of appetite, lying
down and rising as if in pain, fullness of the abdomen, which gives out
a drumlike sound when tapped with the lingers. The costiveness may
be marked at first, but HOOII it gives place to diarrhea, by which the
offensive matters may be carried off ami health restored. In other
274 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
cases it becomes aggravated, merges into inflammation of the bowcls y
fever sets in and the calf gradually sinks.
Prevention consists in avoiding the causes above enumerated, or any
others that may be detected.
Treatment consists in first clearing away the irritant present in the