ing from that which is applicable to ordinary wounds. Barbed- wire
cuts differ from ordinary wounds only in the parts being often lacerated
and torn, and the treatment already indicated for wounds of that
description is applicable to them.
Castration consists of the removal of the essential organs of genera-
tion. It is performed upon both the male and the female. In the male
the organs removed are the testicles and in the female the ovaries.
Castration in the male is performed for several different purposes.
It may be necessary, as is the case in certain diseased conditions of
the testicles and in strangulated hernia, but the usual object of the
operation is to enhance the general value of the animal. For example,
if the animal is intended for burden the operation will better fit him for
his work by so modifying his temperament and physical condition that
he may be easily controlled by his master. Again, if he is merely to be
used for beef purposes the operation will improve the quality of the flesh.
The operation upon the female may be performed on account of
diseased conditions, but I may say that the chief object of the opera-
tion is to make the animal one of more profit to its owner by altering
the lacteal secretion and also the physical condition. Advocates of
this operation claim that a spayed cow will milk under favorable condi-
tions for a number of years continuously, and that the milk is greatly
increased in richness. Careful tests, however, indicate that the value
of this operation with dairy cows has been exaggerated. When the cow
is spayed it does away with all trouble attending 03 strum or heat, gesta-
tion and parturition with its accidents and ailments. The flesh of the
spayed cow is more tender and juicy than that of the entire animal.
The operation upon the male may be either the uncovered or the cov-
ered. In the former the incision is made down to the testicle proper,
and in the latter you cut through the scrotum or the outside covering
and through the dartos or the next coat, being careful to cut no deeper
tissues or coats. The age at which .the operation is performed varies,
but usually it is performed between the second and third month. If done
in early life there is less danger of complications, the organs not being
fully developed and in a latent condition. There are many different meth-
ods of operating, the principal ones of which I will mention. In the uncov-
ered operation a good free incision should be made, exposing the testicle
completely. Now it may be removed by simply cutting it off. The only
danger of doing this is the hemorrhage which is likely to follow. To obvi-
SURGICAL OPERATIONS. 317
ate this before the division of the spermatic cord it should be twisted sev-
eral times in the following manner: Take hold of the spermatic cord with
the left hand, having the cord between the thumb and the index finger.
Now twist the free portion several times with the right hand, all the time
being careful to push with the left hand towards the body of the ani-
mal. In this way the danger of injury to the cord during the animal's
struggles will be overcome. The hemorrhage will be none, or very
little, if it has been done properly. This is the most simple manner of
torsion. There are forceps and other instruments made to perform the
operation in this manner. Instead of practicing torsion in any of its
ways to prevent hemorrhage, we may apply a ligature either directly
to the spermatic artery from which the hemorrhage comes, or to the
entire cord. You may either use a silk or a catgut ligature. The
actual cautery is an old method, but I will not describe it, as I consider
that we have better methods now. The next method with the clamps,
although extensively used upon the horse, is not practiced to any great
extent upon the bovine at the present time. It is a very old method,
and is considered very safe. Clamps are used in the covered and
But more simple and better methods are now known for the castra-
tion of the bull. A more modern method is by the ecraseur. The chain
of the instrument is placed around the spermatic cord and tightened
so as to crush the tissues and thus prevent hemorrhage. The clamp
and ligature are the methods principally employed in the covered opera-
tion, and in order to thoroughly understand this procedure it will be
necessary for the reader to have at least a crude anatomical knowledge
of the parts. The former, or the uncovered, is the usual mode of oper-
ating, except in certain abnormal conditions.
The operation of "mulling" or crushing the spermatic cord is an
unscientific and barbarous procedure, causing unnecessary pain and
The above methods apply only to tho animal in a normal condition.
Before operating always examine and be sure that everything is as it
should be. If otherwise, a special operative procedure will be neces-
sary. Whichever mode of operation be adopted from a practical stand-
point, the principal precautions to be taken in order to attain success
are ns follows: First, thorough cleanliness under strict aseptic and anti-
septic precautions; second, free and boldly made incision; third, the
avoidance of undue pulling or tension upon the spermatic cord ; fourth,
free drainage, which can be maintained, provided the original incision
has been properly made.
CASTRATION OF THE FEMALE.
Orariotonty or spayiny. Tho operation should be performed when the
cow is in her prime and giving her greatest flow of milk, care being
taken that she is in good health and moderate condition, not too ple-
thoric; or, on the other hand, she must not be at all ana-mic, and also
318 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
that she be not in heat or pregnant. This operation may be performed
in one of two ways, namely, by the ilank or by the vagina, each opera-
tion having its special advantages. In the flank operation the animal
may be operated upon either while standing or while in the recumbent
position. If standing she should be placed against a wall or a parti-
tion, and her head held by a strong assistant. The legs also must be
secured to prevent the animal from kicking. A vertical incision should
be made in the left Hank about the middle of the upper portion, care
being taken not to make the opening too far down, in order to avoid
the division of the circumflex artery which traverses that region. The
operator should now make an opening through the peritoneum, which
is best done with the fingers. Next introduce the hand and aim into
the abdominal cavity and direct the hand backward toward the pel-
vis, searching for the horns of the uterus. Follow them up and the
ovaries will easily be found. They should then be drawn outward and
may be removed either by the ecraseur or by torsion. The closing and
suturing the wound will complete the operation. An adhesive plaster
bandage can be beneficially applied.
The operation by the vagina is more complicated and requires special
and expensive instruments. The mode of procedure in brief is as fol-
lows: A speculum is introduced into the vagina and an incision is made
into the superior wall of that passage about 2 inches from the neck of
the uterus, cutting from below upward and from before backward.
Make an incision which should not exceed 3 inches in length. The
next step is to get possession of the ovaries. They are situated in a
fold of the broad ligament and should be drawn carefully into the vagina
through the incision. Now take the long-handled scissors specially
made for this purpose, with which the thick border of the broad liga-
ment is divided. The torsion forceps are introduced and applied to the
broad ligament above the ovary. The left hand is then introduced and
the thumb and the index finger grasp hold of the broad ligament above
the forceps. Now commence with your right hand to apply torsion and
thus remove the ovary. The other ovary may be removed in the same
The operation of castration is by no means a serious one, and when
properly performed there is little danger from complications. Although
the danger is trifling the complications which may arise are sometimes
of a serious nature. Hemorrhage, either primary or secondary, tetanus
or lockjaw, abcesses, hernia or rupture, gangrene, and peritonitis are
the most serious complications that follow castration. Whichever com-
plication arises will require its own special treatment, which I will not
go into here, as it will be fully dealt with under another heading. I
might add. however, that, generally speaking, the animal, after being
castrated, should either be regularly exercised or be allowed freedom,
so that it can exercise itself. Drafts of cold air or sudden changes of
the temperature are dangerous. The animal should be fed moderately,
but of a diet easily digestible.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.
PLATE XXVI :
Fig. 1. ReufFs method of throwing or casting the ox. From Fleming's Operative
Fig. 2. Miles' method of throwing or casting the ox. From Fleming's Operative
Fig. la front and Fig. 1 I side view of a simple tracheotomy tuhe. After Arm-
atage, from Hill's Bovine Medicine and Surgery. This tuhe is inserted in
the trachea or windpipe in cases of threatened suffocation from obstructions
in the upper portion of the air passage.
Fig. 2. Shows the tracheotomy tuhe applied raid held in position hy straps
around the neck. After Arrnatage, from Hill's Bovine Medicine and Surgery.
Fig. 3. Represents an ordinary fleam with hlades of different sizes.
Fig. 4. Cow prepared for hleediug. A cord is tied firmly ahout the lower portion
of the neck, causing the jugular vein to hecome distended with hlood and
Fig. 1 and 2. Setoii needles. These may he either long or short, straight or
curved, according to the locality in which a scton is to he inserted.
Fig. 3. Various forms of surgical needles.
Fig. 4. Suture forceps or needle-holder, for passing needles through thick and
Fig. 5. Knot properly tied.
Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Various forms of sutures. Fig. 6, interrupted suture ; 7, quilled
suture; 8, uninterrupted suture; 9, twisted suture, made hy passing suture
pins through the parts to he held together and winding the thread ahout
them so as to represent the figure 8; 10, single-pin suture.
Fig. 11. Appliance for ringing the hull, one-fourth natural size.
Fig. 12. Nose clamp, with spring and keeper.
PL ATI: xxvi
DKVU'K's R)H ( .\STI\U r VI I'll
PI. ATI: xxvii
TIfAl IIKOTO.MY A.\l> VKXKSfXTIO.V
PI. ATI: xxvni
'.K Al. INS'I IM'Mli.M s AM) SI ITHI
By DR. WILLIAM HERBERT LOWE,
Superintendent of the United States Xeat Cattle quarantine Station for the port of New
York, Garfield, X. J.
Tumors are noninflammatory new growths due to increased nutrition.
They may be superficial or deep seated, external or internal. From a
pathological point of view there is a great variety of tumors, both benign
and malignant, but in this chapter it is my purpose to describe only the
more common ones that affect animals of the bovine species. One of
the most frequent and troublesome tumors of the nonmaliguant class
in cattle is the epidermic, commonly known as the wart. Warts consist
of a thickening of the epidermis, or outer skin, produced by accumula-
tion of its scales, with hypertrophy of the papilke of the true skin.
These growths generally occur in young animals and are frequently
seen upon the under surface of the abdomen, the mammary glands, the
genitals, lips, and eyelids. Their removal is not attended with danger;
their seat should be cauterized immediately after removal, to prevent
their return. They may be removed with caustic, by excision, by tor-
sion, or by the ligature, the method being determined by their size, con-
formation, and location upon the animal.
T\\ejibroma or fibrous tumor is nonmaliguant, and is principally com-
posed of developed connective tissue. It is usual to see tumors of this
class in parts where there is much fibrous tissue. They vary greatly in
size; sometimes they are as small as an ordinary wart, and on the other
hand fibrous tumors have been removed that were many pounds in
weight. A fibrous tumor develops slowly and no pain or tenderness is
likely to be detected unless the tumor should bo accidentally bruised or
otherwise injured. The tumor is generally hard and has a rounded form
and may be contained in a wall of areolar tissue, but occasionally it is
soft. This variation is principally due to the age of the tumor and tho
time in which it has been developing. The fibroma is not by any means
a dangerous tumor; it acts mainly as an inconvenience, the degree of
which depends upon its size and location. However, they often become
very large, but they have few vessels and little hemorrhage is likely
to follow their removal with a knife. Fibrous tumors are often due to
imprisonment of pus in the deep seated muscular structures, which may
arise from undue pressure of some kind, or from bruises. Intelligent
and prompt treatment will in the majority of eases be followed by grat-
ify ing results. In the early stages iodine may be applied externally or
1>4097 21 321
322 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
injected into the substance of the tumor. Good results are often
obtained by the application of stimulating embrocations and by suitable
blisters. Setous are sometimes inserted with excellent results; caus-
tics and the actual cautery are also occasionally used. It is my exper-
ience that in most cases where the growth is hard and of long standing
by far the best treatment is by extirpation with the knife. Although
this tumor in itself, as I have already said, contains only a few blood- ves-
sels, yet it maybe located upon or in close proximity to a large artery or
important nerve. Injury to the latter might cause loss of either sensa-
tion or motion to a part, and therefore I would impress upon the opera-
tor the importance of familiarity with the anatomy of the part. If
the operator knows the course of the large blood-vessels and the nerves
in the vicinity of the tumor there is little or no risk, provided, of course,
that the knife is handled with dexterity. The sensibility of the tissues
may be lessened by injecting a solution of cocaine with the hypodermic
needle into the substance of the tumor and surrounding tissues a few
minutes before commencing the operation. The form and extent of the
incision through the skin must depend upon the size, base, and relation
of the tumor. A straight incision prolonged beyond the base of the
tumor, in order to allow greater freedom in dissection and more com-
plete extirpation, will suffice in some cases, but an elliptical incision
should be resorted to when the enveloping skin is in excess and a por-
tion has to be removed. If all the skin is to be saved and the tumor is
large, a cnicial T or Y incision should be made. The enucleation of large
tumors, especially those with a wide base, requires time and care. The
flaps of the wound may be kept apart by an assistant or teiiaculi. The
tumor itself may be seized by the hand, forceps, or teuaeulum, or if voln-
minous, apiece of tape or strong ligature thread may be passed through
it, by which it can be better held and moved about while the dissection
is made. Hemorrhage from small vessels can be readily suppressed by
compression or by torsion with the artery forceps. Hemorrhage from
larger vessels should be controlled by the ligature, which is the safest
method with vessels of any size. After the tumor is removed the wound
is closed and treated as any ordinary wound, unless the extirpation has
not been completely made, in which case caustics of varying strength
are sometimes introduced before the wound is allowed to heal.
Polypi belong to the fibrous tumors, and may be defined as tumors
attached by means of a narrow pedicle. A polypus not infrequently
occurs in the nasal passages, often bleeding readily and sometimes
interfering with respiration. A polypus also sometimes develops in
the vagina and the uterus of cows. The treatment of polypus is
removal when possible. The ecraseur will be found a useful instrument
for this purpose. After removal the parts should be frequently syr-
inged with an antiseptic wash.
The lipomata or fatty tumor, consisting of fat cells, is another of the
noninalignant tumors which sometimes develops upon the bovine ani-
mal. They should be removed when possible, whether found exter-
TUMORS AND THEIR TREATMENT. 323
nally, within the passage of the vagina, or any other part of the animal.
In most cases it is necessary to cauterize the seat of the tumor imme-
diately after removal.
Cystic tumors. In horned cattle immense cystic tumors form in front
of the knees, caused by the animal being compelled to lie on a hard floor.
The cause should be removed before any treatment is attempted. The
simplest operation in the vicinity of a joint must be performed with
extreme care, in order to prevent injury and traumatic inflammation
and its results. In the cystic tumors of the knee a seton can with safety
be inserted through their substance, after which a bandage should be
applied to prevent the animal from bruising the parts whilst lying down.
These cystic tumors are often removed in this way. Serous cysts form
in different parts of the animal's body, including the thyroid body and
the facial sinuses. In the cow small ovarian cysts are sometimes a
cause of nymphomauia. There are various other kinds of cysts, includ-
ing cutaneous and hair-bearing cysts, the complete treatment of which
the limits of this chapter will not allow.
Osseous tumors develop in the neighborhood of joints in rheumatic
affections. They result from the ossification of exudate which has
been formed in consequence of some inflammation. Little can be
done in the way of treatment beyond the actual cautery or counter-
Osteo-sarcoma is a tumor composed partly of flesh and partly of
bone. The upper and lower jaws of cattle appear to be peculiarly sus-
ceptible to this form of disease, the growth having an irregularly pro-
tuberant surface. (See Actinomycosis, p. 409.)
Carcinoma, or cancer. The most malignant tumors in the bovine, as
in the human being, are beyond doubt the carcinomata, or cancer and
its varieties, which are the encephaloid, scirrhous, colloid, cystic, and
epithelial. The various forms of encephaloid cancer are known as vil-
lous, melanotic, and fungus luvmatodes. The favorite seat of cancer in
the ox seems to be the maxilla, although the tongue is not infrequently
its seat. When the heart is affected it is almost always secondarily.
In the early stages of cancer the general health is not perceptibly
affected, but as the disease advances the lymphatics and glands become
involved. If discovered in the early stages excision of the tumor may
be performed, but if the disease has progressed to any extent this is
not likely to be followed by beneficial results, owing to its malignity
and tendency to recur. Numerous caustics have been employed. Such
measures in the ox, however, have not been at all satisfactory. an<l
from the tendency of the disease to recur, and owing to its nature, the
affected animals should not only be destroyed, but the flesh condemned
as human food.
DISEASES OF THE SKIN.
By M. R. TRUMBOWER, D. V. S., Sterling, 111.
The skin consists of two parts, the epidermis or cuticle, and the der-
mis, cutis vera or corium. .
The epidermis, cuticle, or scarf skin, is an epithelial structure, form-
ing a protective covering to the corium. It varies in thickness, is quite
insensible and nonvascular, and consists of agglutinated cells 5 these
cells vary in form, the deep layers being columnar, those above rounded,
flat on the free surface, finally dry, desquamating membranous or horny
The epidermis is divided into a firm and transparent superficial and
a deep soft layer. The latter is the rete mucosuni, in whose cells the
pigment exists -which gives color to the skin. The deep surface of the
epidermis is accurately molded on the papillary layer of the true skin,
and, when removed by maceration, presents depressions which corre-
spond to the elevations on the dermis. From the cuticle tubular pro-
longations pass into the sebaceous and sudorific glands; thus the en-
tire surface of the body is inclosed by the cuticle.
The dermitt, or true skin, is vascular and highly sensitive, being the
seat of touch. It is covered by epidermis, and attached to the under-
lying parts by a layer of areolar tissue, which usually contains fat,
hence called pannictihtg adipoftutt. The cutis consists of fibro-areolar
tissue and vessels of supply. It is divided into two layers, the deep or
tme corium and the upper or papillary. The corium consists of strong
interlacing fibrous bands, chiefly white; its meshes are larger and more
open towards the attached surface, giving lodgment to the sweat glands
ami fat. The papillary or superficial layer is formed of a scries of small
conical eminences or papilla*, which are highly sensitive, and consist
of a homogenous transparent tissue. The blood vessels form dense
capillary ple.xuscs in the corium, terminating by loops in the papilla*.
The papillary nerves run in a waving manner, usually terminating in
Hair is an appendage of the skin and forms its external covering.
It is a special modification of epidermis, having the same essential
structure. It consists of a root, shaft, and point. The root has a bulb-
326 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
ous extremity, is lighter aud softer than the stern, and lodged in a
recess or hair follicle, which may either be in the corium or subcuta-
neous areola?. The follicle is dilated at the bottom to correspond with
the root-bulb, and the ducts of one-or more sebaceous glands open into
it. At the bottom of each follicle is a conical vascular papilla, similar
in every respect to those on the surface of the skin ; this papilla fits
into a corresponding depression in the root of the hair. The shaft con-
sists of a center or medulla, a surrounding fibrous portion, and an
external coating or cortex. The medulla consists of cells containing
pigment or fat, is opaque, and deeply colored. All hair has not this
medulla. The fibrous portion occupies the bulk of the stem, and the
cortex is merely a single layer of thin, flat, imbricated scales.
The sebaceous glands, lodged in the corium, are most abundant in
parts exposed to friction. They generally open into the hair follicles,
occasionally on the surface of the body. Each gland consists of a
small duct, which terminates in a lobulated recess. These lobules
vary, and are, as is the duct, lined with epithelium. They are filled
with sebaceous matter, which, as it is secreted, is detached into the
sacs. They are very plentiful between the claws of cattle.
The sudorific glands, or sweat glands, are situated in the subcuta-
neous areolar tissue, surrounded by a quantity of fat. They are small,
round, reddish bodies, each of which consists of one or more fine tubes
coiled into a ball, the free end of the tube being continued up through
the true skin and cuticle, and opening on the surface. Each sweat-
gland is supplied with a cluster of capillary blood-vessels which vary
in size, being very large when perspiration is excessive. The contents
of the smaller ones are fluid, and the larger semifluid.
The skin may be regarded as an organ supplementary in its action
to the lungs and kidneys, since the skin by its secretion is capable
of removing a considerable quantity of water from the blood, small
amounts of carbon dioxide, and small amounts of salts, aud in cer-
tain instances during suppression of the renal secretions a small
amount of urea. The skin is also the chief organ for the regulation
of animal heat, by or through conduction, radiation, and evapora-
tion of water, permitting of loss of heat, while it also, through other
mechanisms, is able to regulate the amount of heat lost. The hair
furnishes protection against extreme and sudden variations of tem-
perature by the fact that liairs are poor conductors of heat, and
inclose between them a still layer of air, itself a nonconductor of
heat. The hairs are also furnished with an apparatus by which
the loss of heat may be regulated; thus, in cold weather, through
the contraction of unstriped muscular fibers of the skin, the hairs
become erect and the external coat becomes thicker. Cold, too,