acid solution, 1 ounce to 20 of water. If any uneven edges of horn or
skin or lacerated flesh project, trim them off, and in all cases when it can
be done a tarred bandage should be applied. This will serve to sustain
the cut surfaces in their place, exclude dirt, and protect against flies,
When the wound has extended into a joint, surgical treatment may
become necessary, which will require the services of an educated veter-
Occasionally an animal becomes fastened by the foot in some crevice
and sustains severe bruising, wrenching, or fracture of some part of the
foot. In such cases cold water packs to the injured member will be of
service until the fever and swelling disappear. Afterwards allow the
animal rest until the usefulness of the foot is restored. This will be all
that is required, unless complications arise.
DISEASES OF THE EYE AND ITS APPENDAGES.
By M. R. TRUMBOWER, D. V. S., Sterling, 111.
For the sake of gaining a clear comprehension of the diseases of the
eye it becomes necessary to review the anatomy of this important organ.
The essential organ of vision or globe of the eye will be first described,
then the receptacle of this globe or orbital cavity, the muscles that
move it, the protective membranes or eyelids, the membraua nictitaus
or accessory eyelids, and, lastly, the lachrymal apparatus.
The globe or ball of the eye approaches the spherical inform. On
closer inspection, however, it will appear to be made up of two combined
portions from spheres of different sizes. The posterior portion, forming
about five-sixths of the ball, is a sphere of comparatively large size with
a small segment cut off it in front, and at this point there is applied to
it the anterior portion, which, being a segment of a smaller sphere, pro-
jects at the front of the ball with a greater convexity than the posterior
The eyeball consists of concentrically arranged coats, and of refract-
ing media inclosed within these coats. The coats are three in number,
viz, (1) an external protective tunic made up of the sclerotic and cornea;
(2) a middle vascular and pigmentary tunic, the choroid; (3) an internal
nervous layer, the retina. The sclerotic is the white opaque part of the
outer tunic, of which it forms about the posterior five-sixths, being
coextensive with the larger sphere already mentioned. The cornea,
forms the remaining one sixth of the outer tunic, being coextensive
with the segment of the smaller sphere. It is distinguished from the
sclerotic by being colorless and transparent. The choriod eoat will be
recognized as the black layer lying subjacent to the sclerotic. It does
not line the cornea, but terminates behind the line of junction of that
coat with the sclerotic by a thickened edge the ciliary processes. At
the line of junction of the sclerotic and cornea, the iris passes across
the interior of the eye. This, which may l>e viewed as a dependency
of the choroid, is a muscular curtain perforated by an aperture termed
the pupil. The retina will be recognized as a delicate glassy layer,
lining the greater part of the choroid.
The refracting media of the eye are three in number, viz, (1) the
354 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
aqueous humor, a watery fluid iuclosed in a chamber behind the cornea ;
(2) the crystalline lens and its capsule, a transparent soft solid of a
biconvex form, and placed behind the iris; (3) the vitreous humor, a
transparent material with a consistence like thin jelly, and occupying
as much of the interior of the eye as is subjacent to the choroid.
The sclerotic is a strong, opaque, fibrous membrane, which, in a great
measure, maintains the form of the eyeball, and protects the more deli-
cate structures within it. Its anterior portion, which is covered by the
ocular conjunctiva, is commonly known as the " white of the eye." In
form it is bell-shaped, and the optic nerve pierces it behind like a han-
dle, the perforation being a little to its inner side. In front the rim of
the bell becomes continuous with the cornea. The outer surface of the
membrane receives the insertion of the muscles of the eyebalL The
coat is thickest over the posterior part of the eyeball, and is thinnest a
little behind its junction with the cornea.
The cornea is the anterior transparent portion of the outer coat of
the eyeball. It may be viewed as a part of the sclerotic specially modi-
fied to permit the passage of light into the interior of the eye. Its out-
line is elliptical, approaching the circular, and its greatest diameter is
transverse. At its periphery it joins the sclerotic by continuity of tis-
sue, and as the edge of the cornea is slightly beveled and has the
fibrous sclerotic carried for a little distance forward on its outward
surface, the cornea is generally said to be fitted into the sclerotic like
a watch-glass into its rini. The venous canal of Schlemm runs circu-
larly around the eyeball at the line of junction of the sclerotic and
cornea. The anterior surface of the cornea is exquisitely smooth, and
is kept moist by the lachrymal secretion. Its posterior surface forms
the anterior boundary of the chamber in which the aqueous humor is
contained. The cornea is of uniform thickness, and is of a dense,
almost horny, consistence. Save a few capillary loops of blood-vessels
at its margin, the cornea is without vessels. Its structure is comprised
of five distinct layers.
The aqueous humor occupies a chamber which is bounded in front by
the posterior surface of the cornea, and behind by the capsule and sus-
pensory ligament of the lens, and by the ends of the ciliary processes.
It is across this chamber that the iris extends. The aqueous humor is
composed of water, with a small proportion of common salt in solution.
The iris is a muscular pigmented curtain extending across the inte-
rior of the eye and having about its center an aperture termed the pupil.
By variations in the size of this aperture the amount of light trans-
mitted to the retina is regulated. It varies somewhat in color, but is
most frequently of a yellowish-brown tint. Its anterior face is bathed
by the aqueous humor. The greater part of the posterior surface is iu
contact with the capsule of the lens and glides on it during the move-
ments of the curtain. The circumferential border is attached within
the j unction of the sclerotic and cornea. The inner border circumscribes
DISEASES OF THE EYE AND ITS APPENDAGES. 355
the pupil, which varies m outline according to its size. "When much
contracted the pupil is a very elongated ellipse, the long axis of which
is in the line joining the nasal and temporal angles of the eyelids. It
contains muscular tissue, which by contracting or relaxing lessens or
dilates the pupillary opening.
The choroid coat is a bell-shaped, dark membrane which lines the
sclerotic. Its outer surface has a shaggy appearance, due to the tunica
fusca, which unites the two coats. Between the two the ciliary vessels
and nerves pass forward. Behind it is pierced by the optic nerve ; in
front it is continued as the ciliary processes, which form, as it were, the
rim of the bell. The ciliary processes form a fringe around the slightly
inverted rim of the choroid.
The retina is the most delicate of the coats of the eyeball. It is
formed by the expansion of the optic nerve on the inner surface of the
choroid, and like that coat, it is bell-shaped. Its inner surface is molded
on the vitreous humor. The nervous structures of the retina terminate
at a wavy line, the ora serrata, behind the ciliary processes. Ten dis-
tinct layers are described as composing the thickness of the retina.
The lens is situated behind the pupil, and is contained within a cap-
sule of its own.
The capsule is a close fitting, iirin, transparent membrane. The
anterior surface forms the posterior boundary of the cavity in which
the aqueous humor is contained, and the iris in its movement glides
.on it. The posterior surface is in contact with the vitreous humor.
The vitreows humor occupies four-fifths of the interior of the eyeball.
It is globular in form, with a depression in front for the lodgment of
the lens. It is colorless, transparent, and of a consistency like thin
jelly. It is enveloped by a delicate capsule the hyaloid membrane,
which is connected in front with the suspensory ligament of the lens,
and ends by joining the capsule behind the lens.
The orbital carity, situated at the side of the head, is circumscribed
by a bony margin ; posteriorly, however, there are no bony walls, and
the cavity is confounded with the depression above and beliind the
orbit the temporal fossa. A fibrous membrane completes thin cavity
and keeps it distinct from the temporal fossa. This membrane the
ocular sheath or periorbita IK attached jMisteriorly around the owning
in the back part of the orbital cavity (the orbital hiatus) and anteriorly
to its inner face; then it becomes prolonged leyond the margin to
form the fibrous membrane of the eyelids. The orbital cavity has the
form when complete of u regular hollow coue, open at its base and
closed at the apex. The opening of this cone is directed forward,
downward and outward. Independently of the gloln* of the eye, this
cavity lodges the imiHcles that move it, the incnihrami nictitaiis. and
the lachrymal gland.
The MI uncles of the eye are seven in number one retractor, four
straight, and two oblique. The retruetor oculi envelops the optic nerve
356 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
between the brain and the ball of the eye, and becomes attached upon
the external face of the sclerotic tunic. When this muscle contracts,
it draws the globe back into the orbit, away from the light. The
superior, inferior, external, and internal recti or straight muscles are
attached to the back part of the orbital sheath, and spread forward in
four bundles over the globe of the eye, where they become inserted by
a fibrous expansion into the sclerotic at the margin of the cornea.
When they act singly they turn the globe either upward, downward,
inward, or outward. The great oblique, by its action, pivots the eye
inward and upward in the orbit. The small oblique turns the eye out-
ward and downward.
The eyelids are two inoveable curtains, superior and inferior, which
cover and protect the eye in front. They are attached to the circum-
ference of the orbit, and have a convex external face formed by the
skin, and a concave internal face molded on the anterior surface of the
eye, and are lined by the conjunctiva, which is reflected above and
below on the eyeball. The border of each lid is slightly beveled on the
inner side, and shows the openings of the Meiboinian glands. These
glands secrete an unctuous fluid, which is thrown out on the border of
the lids, the function of which is to facilitate their movements and
enable them to retain the tears in the ocular cavity. The eyelid is
composed of a fibrous inner membrane ending in a stiff arch near the
border, a muscle to close the lid, another to open it, the skin externally,
and the conjunctiva! mucous membrane internally. The border of each
lid is covered and protected by long hairs, to prevent floating particles
of matter in the atmosphere gaining entrance to the eye.
The membrana nictitans, which is also named the third eyelid, wink-
ing eyelid, haw, etc., is placed at the inner angle of the eye, whence it
extends over the eyeball to relieve it from foreign bodies which may
fall upon it. It has for its framework a fibro-cartilage, irregular in
shape, thick, and nearly prismatic at its base, and thin anteriorly
where it is covered by the conjunctiva; behind, it is loosely attached
to a fatty cushion.
The lachrymal gland is situated between the orbital process and the
upper part of the eyeball. It secretes the tears destined to lubricate
the anterior surface of the eye. This fluid escapes upon the organ at
at the outer angle of the lids, and is carried between them and the eye-
ball towards the inner angle.
The caruncula lachrymalis is a small round body, frequently entirely
or partially black, situated in the inner angle of the eye, and is designed
to direct the tears towards the puncta lachrymalia.
Thepuncta lachrymalia are two little openings, situated one in each
eyelid, a short distance from the inner corner, which admit the tears
into the lachrymal ducts leading to the lacrymal canal, from whence
they are emptied into the nasal passages.
DISEASES OF THE EYE AND ITS APPENDAGES. 357
CONJUNCTIVITIS SIMPLE OPHTHALMIA.
This is an inflammation of the conjunctival mucous membrane of the
eyeball and lids; in severe cases the deeper coats of the eye become
involved, seriously complicating the attack.
Causes. It may result from a bruise of the eyelid; from the intro-
duction of foreign matters into the eye, such as chaff, hayseed, dust,
gnats, etc.; from exposure to cold; poisonous or irritating vapors aris-
ing from filthiuess of stable. Dust, cinders, or sand blown into the
eyes during transportation frequently induce conjunctivitis.
Symptoms. A profuse flow of tears, closure of the eyelids from intol-
erance to light, retraction of the eyeball and corresponding protrusion
of the haw, disinclination to move, diminution of milk secretion, etc.
On parting the lids the lining membrane is found injected with an excess
of blood, giving to it a red and swollen appearance; the sclerotic or
white of the eye is bloodshot and the cornea may be cloudy. If the
disease advances keratitis results, with its train of unfavorable symp-
Treatment. Careful examination should be made to discover par-
ticles of chaff, etc., which may have lodged in the eye, and upon the
discovery of such a cause prompt removal is indicated. This may be
accomplished by flushing the eye with warm water by means of a
syringe, or if the foreign substance is adherent to the eyeball or lid it
may be scooped out with the handle of a teaspoon or some other blunt
instrument. To relieve the congestion and local irritation, a wash com-
posed of acetate of zinc, 5 grains to the ounce of pure soft water, may
be used, to which may be added twenty drops of laudanum. A few
drops of this should be placed in the eye with a camel's-hair pencil or
soft feather three or four times daily. The animal should be placed in
a cool, darkened stable, and then a cloth folded into several thicknesses
should be fastened to the horns in such a manner as to reach below the
eyes. This should be kept wet with cold water during the day and
removed at night. If there is much fever and constitutional disturbance
it becomes advisable to administer 1 pound of Epsom salts dissolved
in 1 quart of water.
CATARRHAL CONJUNCTIVITIS SPECIFIC OPHTHALMIA.
This generally appears in an enxootie form, and affects quite a num-
ber in the herd. It in usually attributed to some irritant material
carried in the atmosphere or emanating from the soil. It is most prev-
alent on low grounds, and in seldom HCCU in the winter months. It
affects old and young animals alike, but I have never witnessed a sec-
ond attack in the same animal, although it appeared among freshly-
introduced animals for several successive years.
Symptoms. Catarrhal conjunctivitis is characterized chiefly by a
mucopurulent discharge of the eyes, an intense degree of intlnnmia-
358 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
tion of the mucous membrane, accompanied by swelling of the eyelids
and an early opacity of the cornea. The flow of tears is mixed with
pus, sometimes streaked with blood, which gathers in large masses 011
the cheek. The eyes are kept continually closed. The implication of
the cornea in the disease frequently blinds the animal for a time, and
occasionally suppurative keratitis, ulcers of the cornea, or staphyloma
supervene. The attack is marked from the onset by a high fever, loss
of appetite, partial loss of milk, suspended rumination, and separation
from the herd.
Treatment. The animal should be housed in a cool, dark stable, sup-
plied with plenty of fresh water to drink and soft succulent food.
Administer 1 pound of Epsom salts if a very large animal 1 pounds
dissolved in 2 or 3 pints of water. Give tincture of veratrum viride
every two hours in 30-drop doses and half an ounce of saltpeter three
times a day. For an eyewash take boracic acid, 1 dram, and pour 4
ounces of boiling water over it. Use this wash as often as convenient,
applying it directly to the eye. In the majority of cases improvement
becomes manifest in a few days, and the eye will become clear and free
from inflammation in ten days or two weeks. Where the disease devel-
ops ulceratioii of the cornea, or well-marked deep-seated keratitis. the
treatment recommended for those conditions should be adopted.
Prevention. Whenever this affection appears in a herd all the unaf-
fected animals should be moved to another locality; that is, to fields
which possess a different character of soil and feed. The water should
also be changed, especially if they have been obtaining their drinking
water from a running stream or stagnant pond.
This is an inflammation of the cornea proper, although the sclerotica
at the corneal border becomes involved to some extent. It may be
divided into diffuse and suppurative.
Causes. The cornea constitutes the most prominent portion of the
eyeball, hence it is subject to a variety of injuries scratches, pricks,
contusions, lacerations, etc. Inflammation of the cornea may also be
due to the extension of catarrhal conjunctivitis or intraocular disease,
and it may occasionally occur without any perceptible cause.
Symptoms. Diffuse I'eratitis is characterized by an exudation into
and an opacity of the cornea. The swelling of the anterior part of the
eyeball may be of an irregular form, in points resembling small blad-
ders, or it may commence at the periphery of the cornea by an abrupt
thickening, which gradually diminishes as it approaches the center.
If the whole cornea is affected it has a uniform gray or grayish white
appearance. The flow of tears is not so marked as in conjunctivitis,
nor is the suffering so acute. Both eyes usually become affected, unless
it is due to an external injury.
In favorable cases the exudate within the cornea begins to disappear
DISEASES OF THE EYE AND ITS APPENDAGES. 359
within a week or ten days, the eye becomes clearer, regains its trans-
parency, until it eventually is fully restored. In unfavorable cases
blood vessels form and are seen to traverse the affected part from periph-
ery to center, vision becomes entirely lost, and permanent opacity
(albugo or leucoma) remains. When it arises from constitutional causes
recurrence is frequent, leaving the corneal membrane more cloudy after
each attack, until the sight is permanently lost.
Suppurativc keratitis maybe a sequel of diffuse keratitisj more com-
monly, however, it abruptly becomes manifest by a raised swelling on
or near the center of the cornea that very soon assumes a yellow tur-
bid color, while the periphery of the swelling fades into an opaque ring.
Suppurative keratitis is seldom noticed for the first day or two not
until distinct pus formation has occurred. When it is the result of dif-
fuse keratitis, ulceration and the escape of the contained pus is inevita-
ble; otherwise the pus may be absorbed. When the deeper membranes
covering the anterior chamber of the eye become involved the contents
of this chamber may be evacuated and the sight permanently lost.
Treatment. Place the animal in a darkened stable, give green or
sloppy food, and administer 4 ounces of Glauber's salt sulphate of
soda dissolved in a quart of water once a day. If the animal is de-
bilitated a tablespoonful of tonic powder should be mixed with the feed
three times a day. This may be composed of equal parts by weight of
powdered copperas (sulphate of iron), gentian, and ginger. As an
application for the eye nitrate of silver, 3 grains to the ounce of
soft water, with the addition of 1 grain sulphate of morphia, may be
used several times a day. If ulceratiou occurs a solution of blue vit-
riol (sulphate of copper) or nitrate of silver, 5 grains to the ounce of
water, should be used. (See Ulcer of Cornea.)
To remove opacity, after the inflammation has subsided, apply a few
drops of the following solution twice a day: Iodide of potassium, 1">
grains; tincture sauguinaria, 20 drops; distilled water, li ounces; mix.
ULCERS OF THE CORNEA.
All ulcer is the common consequence of the bursting of a small ab-
scess, which not unfrcquently forms beneath the delicate layer of the
conjunctiva, continued over the cornea; or, in the very substance of
the cornea itself, after violent keratitis, or catarrhal conjunctivitis. At
other times the ulcer is produced by bruises, scratches, and other direct
injury of the cornea.
NywptmR. The ulcer is generally nt first of n pale gray color, with
its edges high and irregular, and discharges instead of pus an acrid
watery substance, with u tendency to spread widely and deeply. If it
spreads superficially upon the cornea, the transparency of this mem.
brane is lost; if it proceed)* deeply and penetrates the anterior cham-
ber of the aqueous humor, this fluid escapes, the iris may prolapse, and
360 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
the lens and the vitreous humor become expelled, thus producing a
destruction of the whole organ.
Treatment. It is of the greatest importance, as soon as an ulcer
appears upon the cornea, to prevent its growing larger. The corroding
process must be converted into a healthy one. For this purpose noth-
ing is more reliable than the use of solid nitrate of silver. A stick of
nitrate of silver should be scraped to a point; the animal's head should
be firmly secured; an assistant should part the lids; if necessary the
haw must be secured within the corner of the eye and then all parts of
the ulcer should be lightly touched with the silver. After waiting a
few minutes the eye should be thoroughly washed out with warm milk.
This operation generally has to be repeated once more at the end of
three or four days. If healthy action succeeds, the ulcer assumes a
delicate fleshy tint, and the former redness around the ulcer disappears
in proportion as the ulcer heals.
In superficial abrasions of the cornea, where there is no distinct exca-
vation, this caustic treatment is not needed. The eye should be bathed
with sulphate of zinc, 30 grains to half a pint of soft water, several
times a day, and protected against exposure to cold air and sunlight.
Excessive ulceration sometimes assumes the form of fungous excres-
cence upon the cornea, appearing to derive its nourishment from loops
of blood-vessels of the conjunctiva. Under these circumstances the
fungoid mass must be cut away, and the wound cauterized with the
nitrate of silver, or else the eye will soon be destroyed. When ulcers
of the cornea appear indolent, with a tendency to slough, in addition
to the treatment already prescribed, tonic powders should be given
twice a day mixed with, the feed ; powdered copperas, gentian, and gin-
ger, equal parts by weight. Dose, one tablespoonful.
This is a disease of the eyeball, in which the cornea loses its trans-
parency, rises above the level of the eye, and even projects beyond the
eyelids, in the form of an elongated, whitish, or pearl-colored tumor,
which is sometimes smooth, at other times uneven.
Causes. Inflammation is the only known cause, although it may not
occur immediately; it frequently follows catarrhal conjunctivitis and
keratitis as a sequela.
Treatment. In a few cases restoration of sight may be effected by
puncturing the projecting tumor, and treating it afterwards with nitrate
of silver in the same manner as prescribed for ulceration of the cornea.
I have known a few cases where spontaneous rupture occurred, and
healing without any treatment at all.
In cataract the crystalline lens becomes opaque and loses its trans-
parency, the power of refraction is lost the animal can not see.
Causes. Cataract generally arise* from a diminution atrophy or
DISEASES OF THE EYE AND ITS APPENDAGES. 361
other change in the nutrition of the lens; it may occur as a result of
inflammation of the deep structures of the eye. Cataract may be sim-
ple, or complicated with ainaurosis, adhesions, etc.
Symptoms. It is known by the whiteness or loss of transparency of
the lens, although the pupil dilates and contracts. Sight may be
totally lost; however, evidence is usually manifested that the animal
distinguishes light when brought out of a darkened stable. For the