most part the formation of cataract takes place slowly, the cases in
which it originates very quickly being but few.
Treatment. There is only one method for the treatment of cataract
a surgical operation for the removal of the lens; but this is not advisa-
ble, for the sight can not be perfectly restored, and objects would be
seen imperfectly without the aid of glasses.
A paralysis of the nerve of sight or the expansion of the retina.
Causes. This is the result of concussion from a blow upon the fore-
head, fracture of bone over the eye, causing downward pressure, rheu-
matic inflammation of the optic nerve, or from extension of deep inflam-
mation of the eye involving the retina. It sometimes occurs as the
result of excessive loss of blood, or of great debility.
Symptoms. In this disease seldom any observation is made until the
animal in its gait and by its action indicates blindness. Generally both
eyes are affected. The eyeball remains clear, and the pupil perma-
nently dilated. Xo response to light is manifested.
Treatment. If due to debility, loss of blood, or associated with rheu-
matism, general blood tonics may be given in the feed, viz, powdered
sulphate of iron, 1 dram ; gentian, 2 drams ; mix vomica, one-half drain ;
to be given twice a day. In cases of rheumatism, one-half ounce of
saltpeter may be added.
FILAUIA OCULI WORM IN THE EYE.
Filaria oculi (proriaiondlly taken <i# the Ittrrn of F. cerrina). This
is a small white worm, and is found in the eye, swimming in the aqueous
fluid in the anterior chamber. It may be apparently harmless for
a long time, but will eventually induce keratitis with inflammatory
Trentmcnt. Tin* cornea may bo punctured at its upper and outer
margin, and the worm squeezed out with the aqueous humor. The
latter will be formed again.
CORNEAL DEBMATOMA HAIRY TUMOR ON THE EYE11AYL.
In a few instances this has been seen as a congenital growth. The
tumor arises from the cornea or the sclerotic, covered by its respective
membrane, with a growth of hair upon its surface. These tumors may
be quite prominent or flattened, and are dark in eolor: the hair may
362 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
protrude out between the eyelids, giving the animal the appearance of
1 laving a double eyelid.
Treatment. A surgical operation becomes necessary for their removal,
one requiring a skilled operator.
This is a very rare affection among cattle. Strabismus may be either
single or double affecting one eye or both. It is due to a paralysis, or
a weakening of one of the straight muscles of the eyeball. Generally
it is a congenital defect, and the squinting is to wards the nose strabis-
mus convergens. It is best not to attempt to remedy the defect, as the
risk in an operation is greater than the chances of success warrant.
This term is applied to a fleshy-colored membrane, triangular in form,
which most frequently grows from the inner angle of the eye and extends
over the cornea, thus interfering with vision. It may grow from the
outer angle, or even from the superior or inferior hemisphere of the
eyeball. The figure is invariably that of a triangle, with its base on
the white of the eye, and its apex more or less advanced over the cor-
nea toward its center.
The distinguishing characteristics are the constancy of the triangular
form, and the facility with which the whole of it may be taken hold of
with a pair of forceps and raised into a fold on the cornea. Every
other kind of excrescence attached to this membrane continues firmly
adherent to it, and can not be folded and raised from the surface of the
cornea in any manner whatever.
Treatment. Raise the fold and dissect it away from all points of
TRICHIASIS INVERSION OF THE EYELASHES.
In the simplest form the eyelashes bend inwardly, touching the eye-
ball, causing irritation and simple conjunctivitis. It may be also asso-
ciated with entropion.
Treatment. The offending eyelashes should be cut off or pulled out.
In cases where the natural growth of the eyelashes is directed inward
an operation similar to that for entropion becomes necessary.
ENTROPION INVERSION OF THE EYELID.
In inversion of the eyelid the eyelashes soon irritate the anterior
face of the cornea, and produce more or less inflammation and opacity.
The inversion may be due to the growth of a tumor within or without
the lid, to abscess, laceration, or injury, causing the lid to lose its nat-
ural conformitj 7 to the eyeball, ulceratious, etc. Surgical interference,
in either case, becomes necessary to restore the lid to its natural direc-
DISEASES OF THE EYE AND ITS APPENDAGES. 363
ECTKOPION EVEKSION OF THE EYELID.
This serves to injure the eye by permitting dust and other foreign
substances to gain admission to the eye, and interferes with the natural
removal of such substances. A delicate surgical operation the removal
of an elliptic section of the p'alpajbral conjunctiva may remedy the
TUMORS OF THE EYELIDS.
Occasionally tumors form upon or within the substance of the eyelid.
These may be of a fibroid nature, and arise from the follicles of the
hair as sebaceous tumors, or may be in the form of an abscess. In
debilitating diseases the lids sometimes become swollen and puffy, a
condition which might possibly be taken for the growth of a tumor.
This generally disappears with the improvement of the health of the
animal. Warts not uncommonly appear on or about the eyelids of
Treatment. The removal of a tumor in the vicinity of so delicate
an organ as the eye should not be attempted by any one not qualified
for the operation.
LACERATION OF THE EYELID.
This accident is not uncommon where cattle are fenced in by barbed
wire; an animal maybe caught under the eyelid by the horn of another;
it may occur in the stable by means of a projecting nail or splinter of
Treatment. The edges of the wound should be brought together
closely and correctly, by means of pins pushed through very nearly
the whole thickness of the lid, extending through each lip of the torn
part; then a waxed silk or linen thread must be wound over each end
of the pin crossing the torn line in the form of the figure 8 (Plate
xxvin, Fig. 9); the pins should be placed about j| of an inch apart
The projecting ends of the pins should be cut off close to the ligature,
and the parts kept anointed with vaseline, to which has been added 5
per cent of ereolin. In place of a pin suture, silver wire, catgut, or
strong linen thread may be used in the way of an ordinary suture.
FOREIGN BODIES IX T1IK EYE.
Splinters of wood, hod go thorns, pieces of cornstalk or leaves, stems
of hay or straw, twigs of trees, or weeds may penetrate into the eye,
break off and remain, causing inflammation, blindness, abscess, etc.
These substances may penetrate the eyeball, but more frequently they
glide off and enter between the eye and the ocular Hheath.
Treatment. Their removal heroines often a very difllriilt task, from the
fact that the organ is so extremely sensitive, and the retracting power
so strong as to necessitate casting the animal, or even the administra-
364 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
tion of sufficient chloroform to render it completely insensible. The
removal, however, is of paramount importance, and the after treatment
depends upon the extent and location of the injury cold water com-
press over the injured eye, the application of mild astringent and
cooling washes, such as acetate or sulphate of zinc, 5 grains to the
ounce of water. When tbere is extreme suffering from paiu a 5 per
cent solution of atropia or morphia, 5 grains to the ounce of water, may
be dropped into the eye, alternating with the cooling wash several
times a day. When abscesses form within the orbit a free opening must
be maintained for the discharge of pus. In deep penetrating wounds
of the eye there is a great tendency to the formation of a fungus
growth, which often necessitates the enucleation of the whole eyeball.
ORBITAL AND PERIORBITAL ABSCESS.
Orbital abscess may form outside of the globe and within the orbital
sheath, as the result of a previous wound of the parts, or from fract-
ure of the bony orbit, etc. Periorbital abscess commences outside of
-the ocular sheath, beneath the periosteal membrane covering the bone,
and is usually the result of a diseased or fractured bone which enters
into the formation of the orbital cavity.
Symptoms. Orbital abscess is manifested by a pushing forward of
the eyeball (exophthalinos), a swelling of the conjunctiva and eyelids.
The bulging out of the eye is in proportion to the size of the abscess ;
the movement of the eye is fixed, due to the painfulness of any volun-
tary movement of the eyeball. Periorbital abscess generally pushes
the eye to one side; otherwise the symptoms are similar to the forego-
ing. The pain generally is very great; paralysis of the nerve of sight
may occur, and death may be caused by the abscess extending to the
Treatment. The treatment for either orbital or periorbital abscess is
the same as that for abscess occurring in any other part of the body
a free opening for the escape of imprisoned pus. This should be made
as soon as the true nature of the disease is recognized. Afterwards
antiseptic injections may be needed to stimulate healthy granulation
and to prevent septic infection of the ocular membranes. For this pur-
pose a saturated solution of boracic acid may be used, or listerine one
part to ten of water. When the fever runs high, Glauber salts sul-
phate of soda may be given in 4-ounce doses once a day. The animal
should be kept in a darkened stable, on soft or green feed.
FRACTURE OF THE ORBIT.
This accident occasionally occurs among belligerent animals, or as
the result of blows delivered by brutal attendants. The orbital process
above the eye may be entirely crushed ia, pressing down upon the eye-
ball. In such an event the depressed bone should be elevated into its
proper place, and if it fails to unite it may have to be removed with saw
DISEASES OF THE EYE AND ITS APPENDAGES. 365
or chisel. The margin of the orbit may be crushed at any point and
cause periorbital abscess, or necrosis may result from the presence of a
splinter of bone or the excessive destruction of bone. In all cases of
fracture the animal should be taken out of the herd and kept by itself
until the injured part has had time to heal.
NECROSIS OF THE BONY ORBIT.
As the result of fracture of the margin of the orbit a part of the
injured bone may become necrosed (dead), and periostitis and periorbital
abscess will follow as a consequence. The discovery of this disease will
at first resemble abscess, but on making an examination with a probe after
the abscess is open we will find the bone rough and brittle at the point
of disease. The discharge will have a peculiar fetid odor, and is often
mixed with blood.
Treatment. The aifected bone must be laid bare and all diseased por-
tions removed by scraping, or if necessary with saw or chisel, disre-
garding the extent of the injury or the size of the wound necessary to
be inflicted. A large portion of the bony orbit may be removed with-
out serious danger to the eye, provided the eyeball itself has not been
previously affected by the disease or involved in the original injury.
TUMORS OF THE ORBIT.
A fungus tumor of the eyeball or orbit occasionally appears, which
is designated fungus ha'matode*. This may arise without any appre-
ciable cause, or as the result of a wound. It frequently commences
within the eyeball as a small red mass, eventually bursts through, and
pushes its way outside of the orbit as a large dark red mass, bleeding
at the slightest touch. It has a peculiar fetid odor, and early in its
appearance destroys sight, involving all the contents of the orbit, not
infrequently the bony wall itself.
Unless the tumor is totally removed in its early stage of growth,
together with the eyeball, the disease will eventually cause emaciation
and death of the animal. The enucleation of the eyeball should not be
undertaken by any one unacquainted with the anatomical structures
involved in such an operation. When the operation is performed early
enough the result is generally satisfactory.
Bony tumors of the orbit are occasionally present in cattle, the result
of bruises, fractures, etc. They may em-roach UJMHI the contents of
the orbit, causing paralysis of the optic nerve the condition known
as amatirosiH or by pressure upon the imstcrior surface of the eyeball
force it forward, or produce atrophy (shrinking). They may displace
the eye in any direction, with or without disturbing vision.
Fibrous tumors growing within the orbit will produce symptoms simi-
lar to those of bony tumors.
Treatment. When the outlines of the tumor, whether fungoid, lK>ny,
or fibrous, can be detected, an operation for its removal should be Under-
taken as soon as the sight of the eye is in any manner disturbed.
366 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
DISLOCATION OF THE EYEBALL.
The eyeball may be torn out of its socket by the horus of another ani-
mal in a fight, or it may be crowded out with the blunt end of a club,
cane, or probe in the hands of a human brute.
Treatment. When the optic nerve is not lacerated and the retractor
muscles at the back of the eye are intact, an attempt at reduction is
advisable. This, however, must follow very soon after the injury
before swelling takes place. Divide the outer corner of the eyelid to
enlarge the orifice, then by pressure with the fingers of both hands
placed upon the sides of the eye the ball may be put back into its
place. Apply a firm compress over the injured eye and keep it con-
stantly wet with cold water, containing one drain of sugar of lead to
If the attempt at reduction proves unsuccessful the artery at the
back of the eye should be ligated, and then the whole mass cut off as
deep within the orbit as possible. The orbital cavity should be packed
daily with fresh absorbent cotton after washing it out with a 3 per cent
solution of carbolic acid or 10 per cent dilution of creolin.
INFLAMMATION AND ENLARGEMENT OF THE HAW.
The haw or nienibrana nictitans is subject to inflammation and swell-
ing from the extension of conjunctivitis, or direct injury by foreign sub-
stances. It presents a red, swollen appearance, accompanied by con-
siderable pain and a profuse flow of tears. A slight scarification with
a sharp knife and the application of a cooling lotion, such as recom-
mended for conjunctivitis, will soon reduce the swelling and restore it
to its normal function.
There is, however, a tendency for an inflammation of this membrane
to take on a chronic character, which may eventually result in a per-
manent enlargement, resembling a tumor. When it attains sufficient
size to protrude itself permanently over the eye, or project between the
lids so as to obstruct the sight, its removal may become necessary. A
threaded needle is passed through the body of the enlarged mass by
which the membrane is drawn out as far as possible, then with a blunt
pair of scissors it may be dissected away from its attachments. The eye
is afterwards treated with simple cooling lotions.
DISEASES OF THE EAR.
By M. R. TRUMBOWER, D. V. S., Sterling, 111.
Diseases of the ears of cattle are not very common, for the reason,
probably, that they are not subjected to the brutality of drivers so much
as horses, and that the horns to a great extent protect them against
OTITIS INFLAMMATION OF THE INTERNAL EAR.
Inflammation of the deep part of the ear is often difficult to recog-
nize in cattle. It may be caused by disease of bone in that region,
from blows inflicted by drivers or from injury by other cattle. Occa-
sionally the car becomes involved in actinomycosis, or the inflamma-
tion may be the result of a tuberculous affection.
Symptoms. The animal will hold its head to one side, or shake it,
while the ear itself is held immovable. The movement of the jaws in
eating ii.-uul !y gives rise to a manifestation of pain ; the base of the ear
may be feverish and swollen, and very sensitive to the touch. If the
inflammation has advanced to a suppurative stage matter will flow from
the ear, which generally emits a very offensive odor.
Treatment. At first hot fomentations to reduce pain and fever, fol-
lowed by a sharp blister below the ear. Laudanum, one part to ten
parts of sweet oil, may l>e injected into the ear to relieve pain and to
soften the secretions. If there is a discharge from the ear it should be
thoroughly washed out by injecting warm soapsuds until all the matter
has leen washed away, then inject the following mixture twice a day:
Sulphate of morphia, 4 JO grains; water, 1 pint: glycerine, 4 ounces.
Abscesses sometimes form about the base of the ear, either inside or
outside, caused by contusions. A serous eynt is found occasionally
between the cartilage and the skin on the base of the ear, whieh may
le due to a similar cause.
Trcatmnti. Make a, free incision with the knife into the most promi-
nent part of the abscess or cyst, then wash out the sac with carboli/ed
water, using a syringe for the purpose. If the absrcss ivrurs, OJKMI it
again, wash it out, and inject tincture of iodine, or fill it with iodofnrui.
368 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
As a result of laceration, or wound of any kind, fungous growths may
develop on the ear, characterized by a raw, bleeding, granulating sur-
face, with a tendency to become pendulous.
Treatment. The whole tumor or diseased structure should be cut
away, and the wound treated daily with a dressing of carbolized cos-
moline, or turpentine and sweet oil, one part of the former to four of
FOREIGN BODIES IN THE EAR.
Bugs have been known to gain entrance into the ear of an animal.
I once removed an acorn from the ear of a cow that had been roaming
in the woods. Accidentally, pieces of wood from a stanchion may
become lodged in the ear.
Symptoms. A continuous uneasiness or frequent shaking of the head,
occasionally the manifestations of exceeding great pain. The animal
may rub the head and ear against trees or other objects in an endeavor
to dislodge the offending body.
Treatment. A careful examination will reveal the offending cause,
which may be removed with a pair of forceps, or scraped out with a
hair-pin or piece of wire bent at one end. If much inflammation exists
the ear may be swollen so that the foreign substance will be hidden
from sight, then a probe may be inserted to feel for the object, which,
when located, should be removed, even if it becomes necessary to split
the ear at the base to do so. Afterward treat the ear with frequent
warm water fomentations and the injection of soapy water, or oil and
Cattle are subject to scurfy ears, which may be due to a general
morbid condition of the skin, or may be confined to the ears alone.
The affected animal shows an inclination to rub the ear; thick scales
of scurf collect on it, which sometimes have the appearance of hard,
dry, horny scales. I believe this condition is chiefly due to a faulty
secretion of the sebaceous glands of the ear, and would recommend a
thorough cleansing with a stiff brush, then anoint the ear as far as
affected with vaseline four parts to one part of white precipitate oint-
ment. If the scurfy ears are only a part of a general scurfiness of the
skin, the condition of the animal needs attention. (See " Pityriasis.")
It is not uncommon among young cattle which are poorly nourished
and exposed outdoors to storms and extreme cold to suffer frostbite of
the ear, which may constitute actual freezing of the part.
, Symptoms. Gelatio presents naturally every degree of severity from
the mere chilling of the tip of the ear to positive freezing and death of
a portion. In a day or two after the freezing has occurred the ear will
DISEASES OF THE EAR. 369
become swollen and very painful; the dead part will remain cold and
begin to shrivel; a line of separation then forms between the inflamed
and the dead or dying portion, and finally the piece destroyed drops
off, leaving a raw healing surface. When the ear is only slightly
affected by the cold an excoriation or peeling off of superficial skin
takes place, accompanied by some pain and itching.
Treatment. A good liniment for frozen ears will be found in a mix-
ture of turpentine, ammonia, and chloroform, of each one part, added
to six parts of sweet oil. Kub this on the ear several times a day. It
will relieve pain and stimulate the circulation, thus favoring a recovery
of the injured structures.
LACERATIONS OF THE EAR.
Aggressive dogs are the most frequent cause of lacerated ear, gen-
erally leaving a torn, ragged edge and bruised cartilage.
Treatment. If the wound is extensive a trimming of the ragged
edges becomes necessary; then fasten the edges together with silver
wire, catgut, or strong thick linen thread, taking a deep hold. Apply
DISEASE OF THE CARTILAGE AND NECROSIS.
Occasionally the cartilages of the ear become affected, usually the
result of a deep bruise; pus forms, which burrows under the skin, and
may find a discharge at .any part of the ear more or less distant from
the seat of the disease. When the cartilage has been extensively
injured, pieces of it may become dead necrosed and dissolve, to be
carried away with the pus, or it may lead to extensive sloughing and
the formation of numerous running sores. In the disease of the car-
tilage there is seldom much swelling or great pain. The discharge is
usually very offensive, and occasionally streaked with blood. When-
ever there is a long-continued persistent discharge from one or more
openings in the ear, disease of the cartilage may be suspected.
Treatment. The sinus formed by the passage of matter should be
probed and searched to the bottom for the presence of a foreign sub-
stance or the evidence of decaying cartilage. When the probe touches
necrosed cartilage it will feel like the presence of a piece of dry leather
or partially softened wood. A counter opening must then be made at
this place, and all diseased cartilage cut away with the knife. The
subsequent treatment consists in keeping the artificial wound open for
the discharge of pus, and the injection of chloride of zinc, 5 grains to
the ounce of water, once or twice a day, until the wound is healed.
ENCIIONDROMA OF THE KAR.
This is an excessive growth of cartilage, found at the base of the ear
in the form of a hard, painless tumor, firmly attached to the movable
ear. The only recourse for its removal is the knife in the hands of one
acquainted with the anatomy of the part involved in the operation.
INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE.
By Drs. D. E. SALMON and THEOBALD SMITH.
The importance to the fanner and stock raiser of a general knowl
edge of the nature of infectious diseases need not be insisted on, as it
must be evident to all who have charge of farm animals. The growing
facilities for intercourse between one section of a country and another
and between different countries cause a wide distribution of the infec-
tious diseases once restricted to a definite locality. Not only the ani-
mals themselves, but the cars, vessels, or other conveyances in which
they are carried may become agents for the dissemination of disease.
The growing tendency of specialization in agriculture which leads to
the maintenance of large herds of cattle, sheep, and swine makes infec-
tious diseases both more common and more dangerous. Fresh animals
are l>eing continually introduced which may be the carriers of disease
from other herds, and when this is once introduce*! into a large herd the
losses become very high, because it is difficult, if not impossible, to
check a disease after it has once obtained a foothold.
These considerations make it plain that only by the most careful super-
vision by intelligent men who understand the nature of infectious dis-
eases and their causes in a general way can these be kept away. v We
must likewise consider how incomplete our knowledge concerning many
diseases is, and probably will be for some time to come. The sugges-
tions and recommendations offered by investigators may, therefore, not
always bo correct, and may require frequent modification as our in form a
tion grows more comprehensive and exact.
An infections disease may be defined as any malady caused by the
introduction into the Inxly of minute organisms of a vegetable or animal