free extract are 12.3 pounds, and the digestible ether extract O.G pound.
The chemist has found that a pound of fat will give about 2.2 times as
much heat as a pound of carbohydrates. Since the fats serve the same
purpose in the Ixwly as the carbohydrates, we cau reduce the fat found
in a fodder to a carbohydrate equivalent by multiplying it by 2.2. To
obtain the nutritive ratio expressed in the last column of the table, the
digestible fat is multiplied by 2.2 and added to the digestible carbo-
hydrates, and the sum divided by the digestible protein. Tin- nutritive
ratio of pasture grass is 1 : 4.9; that is, for every pound of digestible
protein in pasture grass there an? 4.9 pounds of digestible carbohydrates
and carbohydrate equivalents. The following table snminarix.es the
results of analyses in digestion trials unjust explained:
DISEASES OF CATTLE.
* o o t-^ M o6rHcsin^r5a>t^t^e>oinn rHt^Ninoiniouiingoit^ * oo c: 06
~ ~ - * - m * * t~ in * e >* ^ o <o N m o to o eft o to * m t- m )< t-
^b-OOOe* rHOOOin OC5 rHCOOOCOrH MO t-m OO O rH t- t'-M^SD "* in m N O
OOOOrHrH O t- O> * O 00 * CC O ^ t- 00 N in 00 *! OS in CC OC tt CO ^ O O ^NrHO
eoOrHto ooorHocooooo^oeirHrHo cjinoc-it-t~^t-ecrH<N oomin
L- '^ i~ ''^ ' t*t*t*t-t-t*OCC^t-Ot*t*l'- ''t'^rHrH rH rH CSCCCJOC
i : : : : i::::::::::::? ::::::::::: i : : :
Iff i! M || MMJ! ! I jjiMMMMi 1 MM
^| ! : : ig : :^- i : : : i ^ ^^-^ 5
.3CJti2^*S ''^ ^ '^ ' ' ' -2,
ITrslSIIi i^S il i i 58 2* BS?:
THE FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE. 445
c-. c-. 01 x oc oc r) r i ao 1-1 o ea M * O A l
< O*iA ^ v4t c* ee <-e
t-' i- ci ci ci si cc ci t- t- oo goo 06
>n'id<xicc4c4c'i -!-< >R'cinr4cc>i-io
cc >3'*TO'*^i'coc'icint-^it-t~t- :/. .:.-. i -
ct *H rn ^i
o o ~* o pi f' w o >H o o> o 1- c> -<
o>oociooc - !>r>'*ic i iO'*oO'*w<cwr^ocC'i^'infio<
- - -
c ^ oc o c o o c ^- i-< ri ri o o L-' ' o o pi e>i - - ci - -* ~* o> t-^ >' <o t-^ e -^ ?> oc ' oi i-' t-' x e
88SS " S3 = ~''S cc ~ NOC ' nc ' 1 t~i-occ'it-eopriorst~^"5S^-C'i-rcicir:.';in>n>.';r;c
!i=s =11 !
t = s? i a t;C
DISEASES OF CATTLE.
ci w 1-1 e-i i~ c-i ?i ' ci cc
o CT i-< in oe r-i ci
< ^- o ac c-i - ~* t-
ad r4 o ac t-^ rs .4 es oe ci * O
ac t-^ rs
ocici c^roeir-Jcico co * o r-i * ' " i-i
c: cs inss t-<M t> o oo
-x -t cs r; i.~ -r
c=i T rri -t r-! * -
v ro cc i-t cc i
r-i t- i-i oc OB oo e oe os cs en o
rl rH r-l 05 ffl r-l -*OCC
THE FEEDIXG AND MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE. 447
Before passing to the next division of the subject, let us review
briefly how animals grow and live. All animals live directly or indi-
rectly on foods furnished by plants. The plant grows through the
union of chemical compounds taken from the air and soil and brought
tip into its structure, through that mysterious principle called life, by
the energy of the sun. The sun pouring its rays day after day in sum-
mer time, furnishes the energy which welds the simpler compounds into
the more complex ones of the plant organism. In summer time our
animals crop the grasses of the fields, and in the fall man gathers plants
and their seeds into barns and storehouses that in winter time he may
pass them over to his farm animals for sustenance and growth. The
compounds in the plant substance are separated in the laboratory of
the stomach and digestive tract and carried about the body, where
they are built up into the body tissues or stored up as fat, or they may
be burned up at once if needed to give out energy and warmth. Dr.
Armsby has happily used the figure of a coiled spring to illustrate this
wonderful phenomenon. The energy of the sun in summer time winds
up the spring in the plant, and when the animal consumes the plant
the spring is unwound and exhibits just as much energy in the unwind-
ing as was used in winding it up.
In studying these plant compounds we have divided those which
need especial attention into three groups, under the heads protein, car-
l>ohydrates, and fat. As already shown, the protein compounds are
that portion of the food material which may go to build up the mus-
cular portion of the animal body. Among the list of food articles used
by man rich in protein are the lean part of meat, the white of egg, the
cheese of inilk, and the gluten of wheat; of stock foods rich in pro-
tein we have cotton-seed meal, oil meal, pease, wheat bran, clover, and
alfalfa hay. The first great use of protein is in building up the muscu-
lar portion of the body, but we should not forget that it also gives off
heat and energy in being broken down to simpler compounds, and may
also be converted into fat and stored up in the tissues of the body for
Since the carbohydrates contain no nitrogen they can not go to build
up the muscular portion of the body, but nevertheless they are of
great importance and form the largest part of foods used by our farm
animals. The first great use of carbohydrates is to furnish fuel for
warming the body and enabling it to perform work. Of human foods
rich in carbohydrates we have sugar and starch, both almost chemi-
cally pure, while the grain of wheat and corn are both very rich in car-
bohydrates. In animal foods corn, oat straw and cornstalks are all
rich iu carbohydrates. As the protein compounds may be called the
muscle-formers, so the carbohydrates may be called the fuel or energy
givers of the body. The fats in foods serve the same purpose as the
carbohydrates, but are more potent, giving ofl' more he.it in burning.
A pound of fat is generally regarded as 2.2 times ;w valuable as a pound
Of sugar or starch in food.
448 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
AMOUNT OP NUTRIENTS REQUIRED BY OUR FARM ANIMALS.
The next step in our study is to ascertain the amount of the several
constituents in feeding materials required by different farm animals
under varying conditions for maintenance, growth, and fattening.
Since the weights of our animals vary according to age and breed it is
well to take some simple standard of weight, and for convenience it has
been placed at a thousand pounds. The needs of growing animals dif-
fer from those that are mature, and the requirements of work animals
are not the same as those at rest or taking on fat. In Table II is sum-
marized the amount of digestible nutrients required by a thousand
pounds, live weight, of farm animals.
To study this table let us take the first case that of an ox at rest
in his stall. This ox is supposed to weigh 1,000 pounds, and to be kept
perfectly comfortable as to temperatiire and environment, and to do no
work, neither gaining nor losing in weight. The amount of food
required under these conditions will be the minimum for such an animal?
of course. It will be found when we have furnished this ox with the
digestible nutrients required that the total organic substance, which is
the weight of the fodder, less the water and ash it contains, will amount
to 17.5 pounds. Every beat of the heart, every respiration, the tension
of the muscles while standing, all mean wear and destruction of mus-
cular tissue. Indeed, every manifestation of life means the consump-
tion of food to repair the waste of some portion of the body. The
Germans have held that 0.7 of a pound of crude protein is necessary to
make good this loss. For warming the body and running its machin-
ery, if we may so speak, there are required 8 pounds of digestible car-
bohydrates and 0.15 pounds of ether extract. Adding the digestible
protein, carbohydrates, and ether extract together, we get a total of
8.85 pounds of total nutritive substance. If we multiply the digestible
ether extract by 2.2 and add it to the digestible carbohydrates the sum
is 8.33, which, divided by 0.7, gives a quotient of 12 in round numbers.
That is, for every 1 pound of crude protein required by the ox, he needs
12 pounds of digestible carbohydrates or their equivalents in fat.
Investigations by several American experimenters have shown that the
amount of nutrients stated by the Germans as only sufficient to maintain
a thousand-pound ox is more than sufficient for that purpose under our
conditions, and that the ox will make a small gain therefrom. Our
Avork, however, has not progressed far enough to reconstruct even this
portion of the table, so that we shall have to let it stand as stated by
In the same table we learn that the ox heavily worked requires 2.4
pounds of digestible protein per day, or three times as much as when
at rest. We are not surprised at this, for when performing labor the
muscles must be worn down much more rapidly than when an animal
is idle. A milch cow of the same weight requires more protein and
THE FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE.
almost AS much carbohydrates as the heavily worked ox. Though there
is little tax on the muscles, yet a large amount of protein is needed for
the cheese portion of the milk. To elaborate this, as well as the sugar
and fat, makes a heavy demand for food by the dairy cow.
Table II is compiled by the German scientist, Dr. Emil Wolff, and
gives the amount of digestible substances he considers necessary by
our farm animals:
TABLE II. Fwding standards. (According to Wolff.}
[Per day and per l.fnwi pounds, live weight.]
24. 1. 6
26. 2. 4
23. 2. 5
27. 2. 5
25. 2. 7
>5 s s
Horse* lieavilv worked v
ti Fat ti-nin" oxen. Islperiod
7. Fattening sheep, 1st ]tcriod
Fattening sheep, 2d period
K Kallcnin}; swine l*t period
Fattening swine 2d period
Fatten in;; swine. 3d period
. Growint: iattl<- :
Ayr. month*. perhrad.
j :i 165 llm
3 :OO IbH
ft 12 A50 UIH
12 IK 77011m
1824 940 Ibs
A ing *hep :
50 02 lb ..
811 K4 11.- .
n i:. 9U Iba
1520 95 11*
11. (iruuiiiK fat pig*:
H-.". 110 HIM
56 137 llw...
6-8 l7 llw
- 1 : -J7.-, Mm
From TaMrs I and II wo are now in position to calculate a ration for
a fattening steer or a dairy cow. Let UM form a ration for a dairy cow
\\ i-ighing 1 ,(Mio pounds and yielding a full How of milk. Suppose we have
at hand the following common feeding stuffs: Corn fodder, clover hay,
bran, corn meal, and cotton-seed meal. By the last table we fiml the
requirements for a cow weighing 1,000 pounds to ho 2.5 pounds diges-
tilili- protein; 1J..~ jKmnds digestibl<> earbohytlrates, and 0.4 pound
digestible ether extract.
450 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
We place these amounts at the head of our table at A :
TAHM-: III. Showing lion- <o construct a ration for a dairy
Natuie and weight of feed.
A . Required by standard
First trial ration
c 2 pounds cotton-seed meal
C Second trial ration
In order to properly distend the rumen the feed should have a cer-
tain bulk, and will amount on the average to about 24 pounds of organic
matter, which sum is placed in the first column. This portion of
the table can vary more than any other without serious detriment.
Having the requirements before us in the table, let us approxi-
mate it by combining seA'cral food materials from our list. For
trial we will take 14 pounds of corn fodder. By adding the water
given in Table I to the ash and subtracting from 100, we have the
total organic matter in 100 pounds of fodder corn. For 14 pounds of
fodder corn the amount of organic matter is 7.71, wliich we place under
the column headed " Organic matter." By Table 1, again, we learn
that the digestible crude protein of field cured fodder corn is 2.8 per
100 pounds; for 14 pounds it is 0.39. The digestible' carbohydrates in
the fodder corn is 29.5 for 100 pounds, and for 14 pounds 4.13. The
ether extract in 100 pounds of fodder corn is 1 pound, and in 14 pounds
is 0.14. We place these sums in their respective columns, which gives
the total organic matter and digestible material for 14 pounds of fodder
corn. In the same manner we find the organic matter and digestible
nutrients in 6 pounds of clover hay, then in 5 pounds of bran, and,
finally, 5 pounds of ground corn, all of which is summarized under B of
the table. We next add the several columns to ascertain the total con-
stituents. The sums are found under the first trial ration. We now
compare this trial ration, which is the sum of the items under B, with
the required ration at A. We notice the organic matter is a little more
than 3 pounds short of the requirements, and there is still about three-
fourths of a pound of protein and a pound of carbohydrates lacking,
while the ether extract is already 0.2 of a pound in excess. Our ration
is short of the requirements, and to bring B still nearer A we add to
the trial ration as given 2 pounds of cotton-seed meal, choosing this
feed because we must add some substance rich in protein. Determin-
ing the nutrients in 2 pounds of cotton-seed meal we place them at 6 r ,
and adding the items to the first trial ration, or B, we get the second
THE FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE. 451
trial ration. In the second trial ration we observe that the organic
matter is 1.31 pounds short of the requirements, the protein .01 of a
pound in excess, the carbohydrates 0.58 of a pound short, while ether
extract is 0.45 pound in excess of requirements. We have learned that
the ether extract is worth 2.2 times as much as the same weight of
carbohydrates. We multiply the excess, 0.45 by 2.2 and find that the
excess is equal to 0.99 of a pound of carbohydrates. This sum brings
the carbohydrates above the required standard. Our second trial ra-
tion is, therefore, slightly lacking in organic matter, but contains the
full amount of protein required and a slight excess of carbohydrates or
their equivalents. We find the nutritive ratio of this ration by multi-
plying the ether extract 0.85 by 2.2, adding it to the carbohydrates and
dividing by 2.51, and obtain the nutritive ratio of 1:5.5, or about
the requirements given in Table II. This is as close as we can expect
to work in practice.
1 laving studied this problem over carefully, the student is in position
to use Tables I and II in a study of the requirements of his stock and
the feeds he has at hand. With a little patience feed combinations can
bo. made which will conform to the requirements. I have gone over
this problem carefully in order to show just how the tables are used.
The student can select from tlie first table such feed stuffs as he has at
hand or can secure, and from these construct rations to meet the wants
of his particular case. The exercise will prove not only interesting,
but profitable, for it will throw much light on the proper combinations
of food to best meet the wants of our farm animals.
CONCLUSIONS LN REGARD TO THE GERMAN SYSTEM.
In presenting the German system I have followed it closely, so that
tin reader may be able to make practical use of it. About 1880 Prof. J.
W. Sanborn objected to the feeding standards as laid down by the
On mans, ami (specially to Table II, claiming that an ox weighingl,000
pounds, when fed with the nutrients stated by Wolff, as required for
mere maintenance, might actually show considerable gain in weight.
Insults at Cornell University and other experiment stations in this
country go to sustain Prof. Sanborn's objections. Inquiries ,sent out
from this station to successful, intelligent dairymen, bring information
which shows that some arc feed ing rations which correspond very closely
to the requirements laid down by Wolff, while others are giving less
protein than in the standard. Practical exi>erieiice seems to show that
1 results may be obtained with less protein than 2i pounds per day
per thousand pounds of cow. In many rations I think if the amount
is _ pounds it will be ample for the dairy cow. The total amount of
digestible substance should not vary materially from the standard.
These tables may be compared to a crude and often incorrect map of an
unknown country, which is better than nothing, though far from satis-
factory. It is well for the reader to familial i/e himself with them, for
their teat-lungs are very helpful in the practical work of feeding.
452 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
PRACTICAL FEEDING THE CALF.
In successful stock management we must start with a strong, vigor-
ous calf. This means good blood in both sire and dam, and that there
has been liberal feeding and good care for generations back. Where
cattle are reared under practically natural conditions, the rule that
young stock come in the spring must continue, but I am not so sure that
spring is the best time for the dropping of calves in the older settled
portions of the country. Spring calves are incapable of receiving much
benefit from grass during the first season, because for some time after
birth the ruminating stomach is undeveloped, and between summer heat
and pestering flies the thin-skinned creature has a sorry time of it.
Winter comes on with its dry food just when good progress has com-
menced, and this is apt to check growth, so that the animal is a full
year old before it starts on its career untrammeled. Our experience at
this station corresponds with that of thousands of farmers who are
strong advocates of having calves dropped in the fall. There is then
much time to give them the little attentions needed, and since they live
largely on milk they are easily managed in barn or shed, and occupy
but little room. W r hen spring comes the youngsters are large enough
to make good use of the pasture, and the result is good progress from
the start, and when fall conies they return to the barn large enough to
make good use of the feed there provided. Cows fresh in the fall yield
a good flow of milk during the winter, if well fed and comfortably housed ;
just when the milk flow begins to decrease materially cornes the favor-
able change to grass, under the stimulus of which the yield is increased
and held for some time. From our experience I put the annual yield of
milk at from 10 to 15 per cent greater from cows fresh in fall than those
which calve with the springing of the grass. Breeders of pedigreed
cattle will find an equal advantage with dairymen, I think, with fall
calves, for "the six months gained make stock a year from the next
spring of sufficient age to show up in fine style and practically command
the prices of two-year-olds.
FEEDING THE CALF.
Where the calf is allowed to run with the dam few precautions are
needed, the most important being to see that it does not get too much
milk, which may cause indigestion. If the calf remains with the dam
the cow's udder should be stripped out clean night and morning. Any
neglect in this particular may result in soreness to the teats and udder.
If the calf scours, the cow should be stripped three times a day; in
other words, reduce the quantity of milk the calf gets. A young calf
had better be a little hungry than gorged. After two or three months
separate the calf from the dam and allow it to suckle three times a day,
afterwards twice. The greatest danger under this system comes at
weaning time, when, if the calf has not been properly taught to eat solid
THE FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE. 453
food, it is apt to piue and shrink in weight, or at least make little gain.
Teach the calf early to eat grain, using ground corn, bran, oil meal, and
fine cut hay. The system of allowing calves to take the milk direct
from the cow can only be practiced with the very best representatives
of beef breeds, where the most rapid and perfect development is desired,
either for making early matured beef or for developing fine pedigreed
I believe no breed of cattle can be continued as a first-class dairy
breed where the calves run with the cows. There is something about
hand milking which causes a cow to give more milk and for a longer
period than when it is drawn by the calf. Fine calves, even for beef
purposes, can be made where the calves drink full milk from the pail,
but the stockman will usually choose to have the calf do its own milk-
ing, or, if not, to subsist on skimmed or partly skimmed milk.
In dairy districts few calves are raised except on skim-milk, and very
satisfactory dairy stock can be made by this process if a few simple rules
are intelligently followed. The young calf should be taken away from
the mother not later than the third day, and for two weeks given from
10 to 15 pounds of full milk, not less frequently than three times a day.
At the end of two weeks some skim-milk may be substituted for a por-
tion of the full milk, making the change gradually until in three or four
weeks skim-milk only is fed. Full milk of the Jersey or Guernsey cow
is often too rich for the calf, and part skimmed milk should be used
from the very start. At the end of a month or six weeks the calf will
do nicely on two feeds per day. Feeding Table T shows that the cow's
milk has a nutritive ratio of 1 to 3.7. In skim-milk the ratio is 1 to 2.1.
Skim milk contains all the elements of full milk excepting the fat, and
we can in a measure make up for this with cheaper substitutes. Proba-
bly the best simple substitute is flaxseed, which should be boiled until
reduced to a jelly, and a small quantity given at each feed stirred in the
milk. Oil meal is cheaper than flaxseed, more easily obtained, and
serves practically the same purpose. Keep each calf tied by itself with
a halter in comfortable quarters, with a rack in front for hay and a box
for meal. For feed use either whole or ground oats, bran, oil meal, or
a mixture of these. By the third week have a mixture containing the
grain feed at hand, and as soon as the calf is through with the milk slip
a little meal into its mouth. It soon learns the taste, and, following
that instinct so strongly marked, takes kindly to the meal in the box,
ami in a few days eats with the regularity of an old animal. Have the
me;il 1 Mixes movable, and place the meal in them sparingly, emptying
out all that remains before each feeding time. Change the kind or
combination of grain if the calves seem to tire with what is given.
A prime requisite to success in calf feeding is regularity; let the
c.ilves be fed ut the same time and in the same order each day. Next
to regularity, regard the amount of milk fed. While 15 to 18 pounds
of full milk it* a ration, with skim-milk from IS to -\ inmnds may be
454 DISEASES OF CATTLE.
fed, depending on the ability of the calf to assimilate its food. More
skim-milk calves are killed by overfeeding than underfeeding. Milk