United States. Bureau of Animal Industry.

Special report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding online

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out of which the milk-sugar and fats are elaborated, thougji of course
these can also be made from the protein substances. The protein and
fat of the foods are the more expensive portions, and for that reason we
should be careful not to feed them in more liberal allowance than is
actually needed.

Among grain foods for the dairy the following are worthy of special

Corn. Indian corn is a most valuable food and one of the cheapest
used in the dairy, and the quality of milk and butter produced from it
usually above question. Corn meal is a very concentrated food and packs
too closely in the stomach, and should be extended with something
coarser, like bran, if possible. As the table shows, corn does not furnish
much protein.

Ontx are probably the best single food on the list, and are just as
valuable in the cow stable as in the horse barn. At this station we
have found oats to have the value of about 10 per cent in excessrot' an
equal weight of bran for producing milk and butter fat. Oats contain
iniieh ash and a larger proportion of protein than corn, and should have
a prominent place in the feed bin of our dairy farms whenever the cost
is not too high.

Harli y is a very common food for cows in the Old World, and is used
t-i considerable extent on the Pacific coast. It should be crushed by
rolling rathfT than grinding.

Wheat is sometimes so low in comparison with other grains that it can
be fed very profitably. Frequently on the Pacific coast it is the cheap-
est dairy food in the market.

/'*. Table I shows peas to contain a very large amount of protein,
ami they are an excellent food for dairy cows. Being very rich in pro-
tein, Itnt a few pounds should be used in a ration.

Cotton need. The progress of Southern live-stock interests depends
largely upon an intelligent use of cotton seed, cotton seed meal, and
cotton-seed hulls. Cotton seed boiled is used at the South with good
iv>ults. if fed in reasonable quantity. Cotton seed meal is very rich
and heavy and should IHJ fed with wire; it should be extended by some


other food like bran and mixed with roughage. Cotton seed and cotton-
seed ineal have a deleterious effect on butter, if fed in large quantities,
but with care they can be fed at any season of the year with profit.
Cotton-seed nieal should be used more generally at the Korth, its high
fertilizing value after passing through the animal often being worth the
first cost..

Oil meal or oil cake. This by-product of the linseed-oil factories is a
a most valuable food in the dairy barn, though it should be used inlim
jted quantities. It is especially useful for calves, and a couple of pounds
a day may be fed to dairy cows with profit. It is very rich in fertiliz-
ing elements. Oil meal to the value of $8,000,000 is annually shipped
to the Old World. For the fertility it contains, if for no other reason
it should all be fed in this country and dairy products instead shipped

Bran is one of the most valuable feeds in the dairy. From its loose,
husky nature and cooling effect on the system, it can be given in almost
any quantity, with little danger of overfeeding. It is the safest food in
the dairy barn, and should always be in store to mix with corn meal or
the ground grains, cotton-seed meal, or oil meal. We know that wheat
rapidly depletes the soil of its fertility, and the chemist has found that
the larger part of the fertility that goes into the wheat grain is stored
near the outside of the grain in what becomes the bran on grinding. A
few farmers still hold that bran is little better than sawdust. Such
notions belong to the past generation. Exporters are studying how to
compress bran in order to ship it abroad. This movement should be
stopped by a lively home demand.

Shorts and middlings are now but a finer form of bran. Sometimes
they contain much starch and form a first-class food, but, again, they
carry the dirt and dust of the mill, and are not so palatable as bran.

Malt sprouts and brewers' grains, either wet or dried, are valuable
foods, rich in protein, and often sell at such low prices as to admit of
very profitable use in the dairy barn. Wet brewers' grains, because of
their cheapness and abundance, are often misused. The sloppy drain-
ings saturate the feed boxes and mangers and become putrid, endanger-
ing the lives of the cows and those who use the milk. If fed when fresh,
and, in reasonable quantity, and the surroundings kept perfectly clean
and wholesome, brewers' grains are an excellent food for dairy cows.

Gluten meal, a by-product in the manufacture of starch or glucose, is
very rich in protein. The heavy forms of this meal should be fed cau-
tiously and extended with some light substance like bran.

Corn stover or corn fodder is an excellent and healthful cattle food,
being quite free from dust, and very palatable to the cow. The amount
of nutriment which can be gathered from a cornfield, and the portion
which remains in the stalks has already been discussed under steer
feeding, and the reader is referred to that portion of this chapter for
information on this important point.


Clover hn\jj when well cured and bright, is especially valuable for
dairy cows, siuce it furuishesa large ainoimt of protein.

Timothy hay is at best a pool* food for dairy cows; it should be left
for horse feeding.

Wti'-tit hay, <>at hay, or barley hay, if cut early, are all excellent dairy
foods, and their use should become much more common than it is.

Millet hay is satisfactory if cut very early, before the seeds form.

The reader is referred to Table I for the proportions of nutrients in
the above and many other feeds used in the dairy.


I have already spoken favorably in regard to the use of silage in steer
feeding; in the dairy barn it has a still more important place. Milk is
a watery product, and the cow should be fed upon juicy, succulent
foods. We all know the value of good pastures, but their season is
short in this country, and in the Northern States our cows must sub-
sist on dry feed between six and seven months each year unless we can
give them a substitute in the shape of roots or silage. Many dairymen
have learned the value of roots, but there are thousands who for one
ic. t-nii or another will not grow them, and to such I strongly urge the
use of silage for supplying a moist food most palatable to dairy cows.
Silo construction has now been greatly simplified, and we have learned
at what stage to cut the corn and how to secure it in the silo at very low
cost. An acre of good land will furnish from 15 to 18 tons of green
corn stalks, many of which will carry small ears or nubbins. This ma-
terial can be placed in the silo at small cost while full of juice, and kept
thfire with little waste. From 20 to 40 and even CO pounds of com
silage can be fed to each cow daily during the winter with profit.
There is a prejudice among many dairymen that silage being somewhat
sour will injure the teeth or the digestive apparatus of dairy cows, but
the pra.-: ical experience of thousands who use the silo show such charges
to !>e without foundation. In the Indian corn crop we have the best and
jcst means of producing a large amount of wholesome cattle food;
with tin .xil< \\e now have the means of keeping this crop inasucculent
condition for v. inter feeding so that it proves an admirable and cheap
substitute for roots.

There ;u-e t wo classes of dairy farmers. Those who desire to raise

uj.'iii i heir farms about all that is fed to their stock constitute the first

I, while those in the second are usually located on high-priced land.

near -::u- city or railroad station, and can not grow all of the fowl

required by their COWH, and make heavy purchases of grain feed each

The first class of dairymen here referred to will doubtless find

it more profitable to grow such varieties of corn only, for ullage, as

will fully ma tine in their locality, and plant the corn so thinly that

many ears will form on the stalks. These ears will make the silage

rich, and a fine ration is provided by giving a few pounds of


clover hay and 2 or 3 pounds of bran or oats. Where it is desirable to
raise a large amount of roughage, the farm furnishing only the bulky
feed, let the corn for silage be of some large variety, which will barely
mature in the given locality, planted on very rich land, so thick that
very few ears will form. The amount of coarse feed furnished per
acre is enormous, but it must be backed up by a full grain ration.
Some farmers put silage into the pit without cutting, but a good feed-
cutter elevates it so economically, and cut silage packs so well and is
so much more easily removed at feeding time, that cutting the corn
should generally be practiced.


The dairyman should so study the operations of his farm that he
knows what it costs to produce a hundred pounds of milk or butter.
The calculation is a complex one, but it is possible, and has been done
by a good many farmers, who have found much interest and profit in
the work. In order to give some idea of the amount of food required
to produce a hundred pounds of milk, I have prepared a table giving
the results of observations at experiment stations in four States and





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The value of milk is mainly dependent upon its fat content, and a
gi\-en weight from different herds varies greatly in actual value. For
this reason in the last column of the table the amount of fat actually
found in the milk is reported. It will be seen that this varies from 3.25
pounds in one case to 5.44 in another. The wide variation is an admi-
rable example in showing how important it is for the dairyman to ana-
lyze the milk and learn just what his cows are doing. It shows us how
little we know of the value of the herd when we stop short with merely
weighing the milk. By weighing the feed occasionally and weighing
the milk regularly and analyzing it from time to time the dairyman is
in position to know just how his business is running.


All through this chapter I have endeavored to convey the impress! on
that the calf, the steer, and the cow are living machines for the concen-
tration of hay, grains, and grasses into human food. The successful
operation of these machines depends upon the manager and is con-
trolled by inviolable laws. Often it would seem from appearances as
though the stockman was hostile to his cattle, and regarded every
pound of feed given them as so much material filched from tlie feed bin
to his personal loss. The man who wrote in a letter that he had a wife,
3 children, and 6 cows to support, doubtless took just this view of the
situation; had cruel fate thrust 10 or 20 cows upon him he would have
broken down entirely under the burden. With some the greatest effort
in conducting feeding operations seems to be the study of how to save
a little feed and still keep the animals in existence.

The successful feeder works on exactly the opposite principle. He
fully appreciates the fact that an animal in order to be profitable must
be liberally fed. He understands that first of all it must have suffi-
cient food to carry on the bodily functions and maintain life, and that
no returns can come to the owner if only this amount of food is sup-
plied, and that all increase in weight, fat, and all yield of niilk come
through the excess of food over the wants of the body. This leads
him to breed and select animals with large consumptive power, a strong
digestion, and to feed them up to their limit so long as they are useful.

If our farmers only fully understood this first great law of stock-
feeding and acted intelligently thereon, our stock interests would be


I wish the above legend could be written over the door of every feed-
ing stable in the land, for it expresses a most important truth in concise
form. If a man has no natural liking for the stock business, it is really
useless for him to attempt that vocation, for the art can only be acquired
by students having a certain natural adaptation. If one has this love for


the business, then by patienco and study the details can be successfully
worked out. First conies a love of order and regularity, which are of
prime importance at all times. Stock must be fed with great regularity
;ind in the same order, day by day. and all possible violent changes in
feeding and handling avoided. The feeder should move among his
animals quietly and in a way to win their confidence, which is easily
acqiiin-d and as easily lost- As he passes among them daily in his
round of duties he should have a quick eye to scrutinize every member
of the herd and detect any little irregularity or trouble. He avoids
disasters or serious accidents by constantly studying the little comforts
and individual wants of the animals under his care. He feeds with a
liberal hand, and none of his animals lie down hungry or discontented.
The successful management of live stock is dependent upon good
judgment in handling the cattle. If one lack this, all his other quali-
fications count for but little. He may understand the theory of cattle-
breeding and how to compound rations from a scientific standpoint;
he may know the chemistry of the foods he handles and of the bodies
of the animals to which they are fed; he may have the literature of the
stock business at easy command, but, if he lacks sympathy for his
animals and judgment in handling them, all his knowledge is of no



Abdomen, distention of 29

dropsy of 69

wounds of 52

Abortion 185

causes of 186

contagious, cause of 190

noncoutagious, treatment of 192

prevention of contagious 191

symptoms of 190

treatment of 193

Al> - 88 in or on the ear 367

of the eye or its orbit 364

lung 109

11 a vel 269

treatment of 310

Acariasis 337

Acid poisons 68

Aconite poisoning 72

Actiuomycosirt 409

cause of 41S

of jaw bones 20

tbe tongue 23

Afterbirth, retention of 241

Air in veins 98

Al liilini 11:1 1 i;i 145

Alkaline poisons 69

A m:i urn-is 361

Aii;i|>lin.ili-i.i 171

Ana.sarca 835

Anastomose** 83

Anenmm , 96

Animal heat 86

Anthrax 417

in man 422

symptomatic 423

A pnplcxy, cerebral 120

parturient 247

Aphtha, epizootic 891

Appetite, drpraved 33

Ar-niio poisoning 65

Artery, dilatation of coat of 98

taking up 312

24097 31

482 INDEX.


Arteries, anastomoses of 83

and veins, wounds of 94

character and functions of 80

degeneration of coats of 96

Ascites ,. 59

Asphyxia electrica ......' 134

Aspirator, use of in relieving the bladder 153

Atrophy of the heart 94

kidney '. 151

Auscultation 102

Back, sprain of , 284

Bacteria, definition and character 372

Balls or pills, administration of , 10

Bandage, plaster of Paris, for fracture 286

Big jaw _ 20,409

Blackleg 423

Black-quarter 423

Bladder, eversiou of . .- _ 239

palsy of neck of 153

paralysis of 151

rupture of 239

spasni of neck of 151

stone in 164

Bleeding from the calf's navel 268

lungs 109

nose 104

womb 235

how to check 95

Bloat 29

of unborn calf 202

Blood clots in walls of vagina 241

its composition 83

letting, operation 317

vessels, functions of 77

Bloody flux 40

milk 261

urine 143

Blue disease 273

Boils, nature and treatment of 334

Bones, auatomy of 281

broken .~ *. 28

compound fracture of 289

diseases and accidents 281

dislocation of 295

of an ox, number of . . . : 281

the face, fractures of 290

Bowels, diseases of 39

hemorrhage of 42

inflammation of 41

v iuvaginatiou of 43

twisting of 44

worms in 44

Brain, compression of . 121

concussion of 120

congestion of 120

INDEX. 483


Brain, description of . 114

inflammation of 117

tumors in 135

Bran, \rhi-a:. :i> a cattle food 1Z~>

Breathing, suspended, in new-bom calves 267

Broken bones. (See Fractures.)

Bronchitis 105

Buffalo gnat, description of 341

history of 342

TM-atment of injury by 343

Bull, lio-.v to ring 303

Burns and scalds 347

Calculi, forms of 101

in the sheath 166

renal 161

itreteral 162

nrethral 164

urinary '. 153

vesical : 164

Calf, feeding 542

Calves, constipation in 273

diseases of young 267

gangrene of mouth in 22

iudigest ion in 37

inflammation of joints in 271

suspended breathing of : 267

Calving, delivery through the flank 227

- dissection of unborn calf 222

i \i <i\ (! fat an obstacle to 199

natural presentation 195

neglected and aggravated cases 221

obstacles to 195,199

palsy after 253

premonitions of 194

retarded by nervousness 199

s\ iKptoms of 194

taliln of wrong presentations 205

Cancer 323

Carbolic-acid poisoning 70

nicle 422

noiiiaor cancer 323

Cartilage of the ear, excessive growth of 369

necrosis of 3t59

Casting the withers 236

Contrition, method}* 316

Catarrh ' 103

malignant 426

trlial conjunctivitis 357

IIHO of 152

Cattle, infections diseases of 371

1 ice on 338

1 : -i 227

('harlmn 417

Cheat, dropsy of 109

Choking ..26.309

484 INDEX.


Circulatory apparatus, structure 77

Coal-oil poisoning 70

Cold in the head 103

Colic 35

Compound fracture of bone 289

Concussion of the brain 120

Congestion of the liver 52

lungs 109

testicles 174

udder 253

Conjunctivitis, catarrhal 357

Constipation 44

in calves 273

Contagious abortion, cause of 190

treatment of 193

manmiitis 256

pleuro-pneumonia 377

Copper poisons 67

Cornea! dermatoma 361

Corneitis 358

Cornstalk disease 16

Corrosive sublimate poisoning 69

Costiveuess 273

in young calves 44

Cow, dairy 466

maternity of 468

ration for 467

Cowpox 259

Cows, food for dairy 473

in calf, treatment of 182

precautions in purchasing 259

shelter for , 469

Cramp colic 53

Cramps of the hind limbs 183

unborn calf 202

Cud, loss of 32

Cyanosis 273

Cysts (dermapilous and sebaceous) 335

Dairy management 469

recording and analyzing milk in 470

regularity and kindness in 469

silage in 475

Dandruff 334

Dehorning 290, 304

Diabetes insipidus 142

mellitus 146

Diarrhea 39

in calves 37,274

Difficult parturition 195

Digestive organs, diseases of 15

Diseases, infectious, of cattle 371

of bones 282

the bowels 39

foot 349

heart and blood-vessels . . 77

INDEX. 485


Diseases of the liver and spleen 52

nervous system , ' Ill

peritoneum 57

pharynx and gullet 24

skin 325

urinary organs 137

Disinfectants, how to use 375

Disinfection, agents of 375

Dislocations 295

of stifle joint 295

Diuresis 142

Draughts or drenches, how administered 9

Drinking cold water, indigestion from 35

to excess 17

Dropsy of the abdomen 59

of calf. 201

chest 109

hind limbs , 183

memhranes of the fetus 183

navel 272

womb 183

Dry murrain 34

Dysentery \. f ... 40

K;ir cartilage, disease of 369

diseases of 367

enchondroma of. 369

foreign bodies in 368

frost bitten 368

fungoid growths on 368

inflammation of internal 367

laceration of 369

scurfy 368

Early maturity, advantages of 465

Ecthyma 333

Kctropion ... .1 863

ma 330

Electuaries, how composed 10

Elephantiasis 335

Eiuhryotomy 222

Emphysema, hcavei 108

wind under the skin 348

f'.mcphalitis 117

Endocarditis 92

Encmuta or injections 11

Enlargement of tho heart 93

Enteritis, from misplacement of bowel* 43

hemorrhagic 42

mercurial 42

Mlllple 41

Entropion 362

Epilepsy 121

Epiataxis 104

Ergotiaui 73

Eruptions :if the Hkiu 329

Erythema 328

486 INDEX.


Eversion of the bladder 239

womb 236

Excess of food and drink 16

Extra-uterine gestation 184

Eye, abscess on 1 364

anatomy of 353

foreign bodies in 383

fracture of the orbit 364

tumors of the orbit 365

ulcers of 359

worm in 361

Eyeball, dislocation of 366

inflammation of 357

tumor on i)30

hairy 361

Eyelashes, inversion of 3(52

Eyelid, eversiou of 363

inversion of 362

laceration of 363

tumors of 363

Fatty degeneration of the heart 94

Feed and care of young stock 454

cutting for animals 472

Feeding and management 439

methods of, for dairy 471

standards, table of 449

stuffs, average composition of 444

the calf 542

Feet, deformities of 252

pricks and wounds of 352

tumora on 351

Fetlock, sprain of 283

Fever, milk (parturient) 247

splenetic or Texas 428

Fibroma, fibrous tumor 321

interdigital 351

Filaria oculi 361

Fistula in teat 264

Fleas 345

Flies and mosquitos 345

Flooding in the cow 235

Fluke disease 55

Food materials for dairy cows 473

composition of 441

improper 15

required to produce 100 pounds of milk 477

Foot-and-mouth disease 391

Foot, diseases of 349

rot 350

soreness 349

Fou-linfoot 350

Founder 349

Fractures, nature and causes of 284

INDEX. 487


Fractures of the bones of the face 290

limbs 294

jawbone 291

knee and hock 294

pelvis 292

point of the hip 293

ribs - 293

shank bones 294

skull 291

spinal column !_';!

symptoms of 285

treatment of 285

Frost Lite 348

I'n^tbitteu ears 368

Fro/i'ii food, effects of 16

Fnrunculus 334

<;;iui;ivn<- of mouth of young calvs .' 22

Garget 253

Gastric catarrh .- 37

Castro-enteritis 57

(;.!i. -rative organs, diseases of 169

Genital organs, vesicular eruption of.. . 395

(i.-niian f-ediug tables 440

Gestation, extra-uterine 184

period of, for cows 181

:ihu'H 177

ng with food, effects of . . 31

staggers :U

,1. (Seo Calculi.)

(inib in the skin 339

(in i!<- 1, opening the - 309

wounds and injuries of .- 28

(; ii t -tic 50

Ha-inaglobinuria 143

Ha-maturia . 143

H;i'iii(]>t yis , , - 109

Hair balls in the stomach ... 34

Haw, inflammation of . 366

Haul water, for drinking purposes 17

Heart, anatoiuy and physiology of 77

atrophy of ' 94

tltHjisc . .. .. 87

enlargement of 98

tatty degeneration of 94

inflammation of mcuibrauc Hurronnding 92

injury to by foreigu bodies 89

::.. I'!..* -..:' "1 . ''I

palpitation of 88

Bound* 87

t nun. i- in 93

valvt>of 93

H<Mt. |>io->t rat iuu from 122

II. :i\. > 108

H-cl, ul. oration of .. 351

488 INDEX.


Hemiplcgia 126

Hemorrhage 95

Hemorrbagic enteritis 42

Hepatitis -..! 53

Hernia of the botvel 46

rennet or fourth stomach 46

rumen 45

uterus 183

peritoneal t 50

umbilical 48

ventral 45

Hip, sprain of 284

Hoof, loss of 350

split 351

Horn fly (HcematoMa serrata) 343

Horns, removal of 290

Hot vrater, injections of 11

Hoven -. 29

Humane treatment of animals 301

Hydrocephalus of calf 200

Hydrophobia 396

Hydrothorax 109

Hygiene of the pregnant cow 181

Hypertrophy of the heart 93

kidney 151

Impetigo larvalis and labialis 332

Incontinence of urine 153

Indian corn for feeding steers - 456

Indigestion from drinking cold water 35

in calves 36,273

, third stomach 34

Infectious disease, definition of 371

diseases of cattle 371

Inflammation of arteries 96

the bowels 41

brain 117

cornea 358

haw 366

heart 92

heart-case 90

internal ear 367

joints 296

in calves ,... 271

kidneys 146

lining membrane of heart 92

liver 53

lungs 107

mouth 21

navel veins' 269

parotid gland 25

penis from bruising 176

sheath 174,176

Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Animal IndustrySpecial report on diseases of cattle and on cattle feeding → online text (page 55 of 56)