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public or otherwise accessible) has been made of the supiK)sedly great mineral wealth
of Szechwan, including iron, coal, copper, gold. Quicksilver, and petroleum, all of
which are reported as being present in quantity. The salt wells bored to a depth of
3,000 feet have disclosed the presence of petroleum and gas in considerable quantity.

Industries. — As Szechwan has but one outlet that can be advantageously used — ^the
great Yan^e River-y-and even in this case navigation is fraught with danger because
of thetemble rapids in the upper sections, the Province has always been self-support-
ing. There is much wealth there. Many of its products find their way out. The
Szechwan salt wells are famous, some of them being 3,000 feet deep, bored by drills
<ipopped down with bamboo ribbons, and requiring generations to reach this depth.
It 13 a curious fact that the oil and gas, which comes with the brine from these wells,
is treated as an evil to be gotten out of the way. The silk industry is probably the
leading industry of Szechwan. Wood oil, vegetable tallow, a distinctive insect wax,
mask^ medicines, wool, hides, tobacco, and paper enter mto the industries of the
Province.

Communtcatums, — Waterways: There is steam travel on the Yangtze as far as
Smfu, and in the summer as feur as Kiatingfu on the Min Riveij. The three main
branches of the Yangtze in "Szechwan carry a heavy junk traffic. Navigation on
the Yangtze beyond ichang is perilous by reason of the rapids, but within recent

» Pronounced "Shunsoe." « Pronounced " Swchwon."



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26 COMMEBCIAL HAI^DBOOK OF CHINA.

years regular steamers have been engaged in this traffic. Railways: None, though
several are projected and a concession has been granted to an American concern.
There are no cart roads. -Many of the roads are paved with flagstones 4 feet wide.
Travel is by foot, on horoeback, or by chair. Goods are carried on backs of animals
or men. Post offices, 127. Telegraph stations. 40.

Ci/ia.— Chungking, 600.000; Chengtu (capital), 400.000. More than 100,000:
Kiating, Fowchow, Wanhsien, Tzeliuching. Between 25,000 and 100,000: Chungpa,
Batang, Mingyuanfu, Fengtuhsien, Kweichowfu, Suifu, and Yachowfu.

Treaty port. — Chungking.

Language and diaractensties of natives. — Western Mandarin and tribal dialects.
Chinese and aboriginal tribes.

Amerioan interests. — Under the jurisdiction of the Chungking consulate.

PROVINCE OF YUNNAN.

Area. — 146,000 square miles.

Population. — ^9,000,000; 60 per square mile; densest on plains and eastern table-land.

Topography. — "The Switzerland of China;" hirii mountain ranges in west, table-
land in south; climate healthful: good grazing lands.

Agriculture. — Wheat, cotton, silk, tea, rice, beans, tobacco, fruits, and vegetables
are produced. The hams of Yunnan are £amous throughout China, and pigs are well
fed.

Iftnmif*.— Yunnan is noted for mineral rather than agricultural wealth. Tin,
antimony, coal, alum, arsenic, copper, gold, iron, mercur>', silver, spelter, and tung-
sten are found in Yunnan, tin ha\ing occupied thus fair the leading r61e. China's
copper-coin requirements in the past have bcH?n met. it is stated, from Yunnan mines.

Industries. — Agriculture and mining have thus far given Yunnan such industries as
it has.

Communications. — Waterways: The Ta and Red Rivers are both na\'igable by small
boats for short distances. ' Railways: Haiphong-Hanoi- Yunnanfu. Roads: Only
paths. Post offices. 42. Telegraph stations, 33.

Cities. — Yunnanfu (capital), Chaotung, and Tungchwan, each with less than
50,000.

Treaty port*.— Mengtsz, Szemao. Tengyueh.

Language and characteristics of natives. — Western Mandarin and tribal dialects.
Fifty to 60 aboriginal tribes.

ATnerican interests. — Under the jurisdiction of the Canton consulate general.

MANCHURIA (THREE PROVINCES: FENGTIEN, KIRIN, HEILUNGKIANC).

Area. — 365,000 souare miles.

PopuZaium. - 15,000,000; 40 per square mile; densest in Liao Plain.

Topography.— Three pro\Tnces, Fengtien, Kirin, and Heilungkiang; northern
region larger and better wooded, sloping toward Amur River; southern, more fertile,
more thickly inhabited, sloping toward Gulf of Liaotimg; Sungari plain in north
and Liao plain in south have wonderful soil and splendid crops: large areas still
uncultivated; on rich plateau lands, grass sometimes grows 6 feet hign; climate is
healthful, though winters are very severe.

Agriculture.— U&nchxuitk contains some of the finest agricultural land in the world.
It seema stranee that this virgin country, so sparsely immbit^ and so rich in possi-
bilities, shoidd have remained all these centuries in proximity to densely poptuated
countries and not have been more effectively colonized ere Uiis. The principal
crop of Manchuria now is beans, an article whose value has only recently come to
be appreciated by the outside world. ^Tieat ranks second in importance. Other
cereals, such as millet, sorghum, and maize, are raised in large quantities. Silk,
fed on oak leaves, is one of the products of Manchuria. Tobacco, beet sugar, indigo,
vegetable oils, fruits, and live stock add to Manchuria's agricultural wealth.

Minerals — Practically the whole of South Manchuria is one vast coal field. Iron
and gold are also founa. Japanese capital is developing the coal and iron properties
in a large way

Industries.— Betoi oil, bean cake, and bean products generally constitute a great
industry in Manchuria. Raw sillc tobacco, fiour, fure and skins, lumber, and iron
and coal are developing into profitable industries^ employing in some cases enor-
mous capitaL The oouth Manchuria Railway, with its ramifications of industry,
is the biggest institution in Manchuria.

Communicalions. — ^Waterways: The Amur River is navigable for 450 miles for
steamers and 1,500 miles for smaller craft; the Sungari is navigable to Kirin, the



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GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS. 27

Kcrani to TBitsihar, the Liao to Tungldangtze, and the Yalu for its entire course.
lUdlways: Mukden is connected on the south with Tientsin and Peking, on the north
with ^irbin and TBitsihar, on the southeast with Port Arthiur and Dairen, and on the
ea^ with Antung; through rail service from Peking to Yokohama, via Manchuria and
Korea, is establiuied, and also in peace times from Peking to Petrograd via Manchuria.
Country roads are r^atively good, and travel is by carts or on mules. Post offices,
203. Telegraph stadons. 132.

CWo. — ^Mukden and Kirin, 100,000 each. Kwangchengtze (Changchun\ Harbin,
Aigun, Newchwan^, and Dairen are other important cities.

Treatp ports. — AigUBL Antung, Dairen (Japanese leased territory), Manchouli,
XewchwBDg, Sansing, oidfenho, Mukden, Fakumen, Fenghwangcheng, Hsinmintun,
llehling, Tungldangtze, Y'^ingkow, Idaoyang, Changchun, Kirin, Ninguta, Chientao,
T^Btsihar, Hailar.

Language of natives. — ^Northern Mandarin is most common.

American interests. — ^In north, under jurisdiction of Harbin consulate; in northeast,
of Antung consulate; in Dairen and leased territory, of Dairen consulate; in South
Manchuria, of Mukden consulate general,

CHINESE DEPENDENCIES.

MONGOUA.

Area. — ^1,370,000 square miles.

Pojmlalion, — 2,500,000; 2 per square mile; densest in east and in river valleys.
Tbpograph^. — A irast baain-like plateau of 3,000 to 4,000 feet elevation, surrounded
by mountain ranges and undulating steppes; near center is Gobi Desert, of more than
2^,000 square niiles; frequent sandstonns; atmosphere dry, winters extremely cold.
For purpoees of administration, country is divided into two sections — ^northem or
outer Mongolia, and southern or inner Mongolia.

Agriculture. — ^The country is pastoral andtiie people nomadic. Cattle and sheep
raking is carried on, with agricidture in certain mvcsed regions. Awaiting develop-
ment are wonderful stretches of virgin futile lands, capable of producing enormous
crops, and vast stretches of land wonderfully adapted to grazing.

Minerals. — Gold has been mined for years. The mineral wealth is subject to
investigation, but is reputed to be enormous.

Industries. — Cattle and sheep raising, hides, wool (sheep's and camel's), licorice,
and drugs seem to form the basis of the industries.

Communications. — Waterways: Canals and rivers are little used, as they are off the
trade routes. Railways: None; one projected to connect Urga, the capital, with the
Peking-Kalgan line. An American automobile service has been established between
Kaigan and Uiya, making the trip in four days. Roads are poor and not well marked.
Main highway leads from Kaigan to Kiakhta via Urga, Caravan routes lead to Siberia
with camel and bullock wagon trains.
Cities.— Urgg (capital), 38,000, the only important city.
Treaty port. — ^Taonan.

Language and characteristics of natives. — Mongolian is sjwken. The people are
Turkish in the west, Chinese in the south, and Mongols in Mongolia proper.
American interests. — Under jurisdiction of Tientsin consulate general.

SINKIANG (INCLUDING NEW PROVINCE AND CHINESE TURKESTAN).

Area. — 550,000 square miles.

Population. — 2,500,000; 4 per square mile; densest in eastern section.

Topography. — For the most part Chinese Turkestan is an immense desert, surrounded
by mountains ofgreat height and with fertile spots occurring only here and there.

Agriculture. — Where irrigation is possible, splendid crops are produced. The
famous Oasis of Kami is exceptionally fertile, producing barley, oats, millet, and
wheat. Its melons are famous throughout China, for in former years many were
sent to the Peking Court.

Minerals. — Chinese Turkestan produces a fine quality of jade. Its mineral re*
sources are as yet unknown.

Industries. — Horses, camels, donkeys, sheep, and goats are raised. Carpets, jade;
feus, skins, and ailk fabrics are among the articles pnxluced.

CommunieatUms. — Several ancient roads, of great historical interest but in bad
condition, are used as trade routes.

Ci^«.— Kashgar, 60,000; Yarkand, 50,000; Khotan, 30,000; Turfan, 20,000; Urumtsi,
30,000.

American interests. — Under the jurisdiction of Hankow consulate general.



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28 COMMEKCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.

TIBET.

Area. — 465,000 square miles.

Population, — 6,000,000; 12 per square mile.

Topography. — The greater part of Tibet is desert, but valleys in the south and
west are fertile and vegetation is luxuriant. The valley of the Chumbi River is
reported to be the most fertile portion. The country as a whole has the greatest
average elevation of any similar area in the world. On account of its marg^LmJ moun-
tain ranges it is almost inaccessible.

Agriculture.— In the fertile valleys fruits and vegetables are grown, as well as com
and barley. Tibet furnishes excellent pasture lands. The domestic animals, the
tame yaks, asses, goats, sheep, and horses, are sources of wealth to the natives.

Minerals. — Little is known of the mineral wealth, though all writers speak of gold
abounding in free form. There is a superstition against mining, so that it is dis-
couraged. Tibet is, however, looked upon as rich m minerals.

Industries. — Yak hides, lamb skins, musk, gold dust, wool, saddle rugs, carpets,
and medicines are some of the products that are exchanged for Chinese wares and
products. The Tibetans generally lack enterprise, though they are spoken of highly
m various other respects.

Communications. — Roads are few and bad. Rope bridges are used in crossing rivers
and torrents. Sometimes the yak skin is used in making a species of light ferry
boat. Government couriers have been known, traveling day and night, with relays
of horses, to reach Peking torn Lassa within a month.

Cities. — Towns are all small, generally with a maximum of a few hundred inhabi-
tants. Laasa, the capital, has 40,000, more than half of whom are priests. This
number is augmentea considerably from time to time by pilgrims.

Treaty port, — Yatung, a small town with only a few score inhabitants.

Language and characteristics of natives. — The language of the natives is polysyllabic
and highl y developed . They are credited with being among the more highly endowed
peoples of the world. They are fond of music and dancing and are complimented
by travelers for their kindly bearing, cheerfulness, and fran&ess.

ATTierican interests, ^Vndet the jurifldictioii of the Chungking consulate.



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COMMERCIAL STATISTICS FOR CHINA AS A WHOLE.

Preparea in tlie Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Conuneroe*

Manufacturers and merchants who are already doing business with
China or who contemplate entering the field are necessarily gmded
in their efforts by a consideration of the purchasing and productive
capacity of the country. The customary requirements, tastes, and
proclivities of the Chinese people and their ability to buy articles of
any given kind form the basic factors in the American expn^rter's
problem. The extent to which any particular class of goods may
be sold in the great Oriental Republic is directly indicated by past
purchases. The most practicable method, therefore, of determining
the possibilities of the market is by a careful investigation of com-
mercial movements as shown by customs data. Consequently, the
presentation of adequate trade statistics is regarded as of primary
importance in a commercial handbook of this cnaracter.

in the 17 chapters covering the consular districts in China there
are manjr tables showing the imports, exports, and total trade of
the principal treaty ports. In the present chapter complete figures
will be furnished for the trade of Cnina as a whole. Statistics will
be given for three years — 1918, the most recent year; 1913, the last
normal year in world trade before the beginning of the Great War;
and 1904, affording a basis of comparison with Chinese commerce a
decade before the outbreak of hostilities. Since, in classification
and arrangement, the 1904 statistics are not readily comparable with
th(»e for 1913 and 1918, they are shown in separate tables, following
the more recent figures.

In view of the fact that American exporters and importers are
interested chiefly in the trade between Chma and the Umted States,
the official American figures relating to that trade are given in detail

VALUE OP CHINA'S DIRECT TRADE WITH EACH COUNTRY.

The following table shows the value of China's imports from,
exports to, and total trade with each country during the years 1913
and J 9 18 J unless otherwise indicated, all values in this hook are
expressed %n United States currency.



•Thetmportefrora Hoofdraiiff eomo orlgbially from, and the eiports to that colon v are further carried
OD to, Great BtUiUn, the Contment ol Europci, America, Japan, Australia, India, the Straits, etc., and
esast ports of Cfaina.

29



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30



COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.



Countries.



Itoly

Japan (including Formosa). . .

Macao

Mexico and Central America.

Netherlands

Norway

Phlllppiue Islands

Portugal

Russia:

European ports

, Lana frontier

Amur ports

Pacific ports

Siam.

Singapore, Straits Settle-
ments, etc

South Africa (including Mau-
ritius)

South America.

Spain

S vv eden

Switzerland

Turkey, Persia, Eg3rpi, Aden,

United Kingdom... ! ....'./...
United States



Total

Less reexports to foreign
countries.



Imports.



1913



$483,802

87,0(0,716

4,808,592

6

1,037,997

253.393

1,015,219

855

214,080
8,933,224

375, 457

6,623,754

38,088

6,513,918

7

126

2,468

1,128,381

42,307

102,196

70,648,078
25,826,427



$42S,512

284,958,284

6,111,997

55

1,324

10

3,809,874



NettotaL.



427,406,724
11,757,220



415,648^504



1918



15,192
1,710,888

316,155
5,579,458

471,664

12,325,532

8,905
18

3,114
11.773
16,300

493,413

59,519,120
70,012.450



689,129,057
27,141,610



661,987,447



Exports.



1913



96,003,860

47,781,710

8,610,284

43,082

6,336,807

1,973

655,967

13,446

3,636,052
2,256,857
6,809,447
21,045,372
1,478,337

5,606,926

45,734
48,195
277,691
166.688
34,773

2,695,006
11,916,535
27,447,069



$11,494,293

194.929,152

6,401,565

56

41

111

2,568.800



294,009,743



294,000,748



1918



99

2,353,022

1,900,720

13,107.931

2,352,632

7.635,823

140,605

241,689

22.012



Total.



1913



44

3,686,089

30,140,655
92,021,107



$6,647,662

134,785,417

8,418,876

43,087

7,374,804

255,366

1,571,186

14,301

3,850,063
11,193,081

6,184,904
27,660,126

1,516,426

12,019,844

45,741

48,321

280,159

1,290,066

77,060

2,797,202

82,564,613
53,273,496



579,658,456



579,658,456



721,415,467
11,757,220



709,668,247



1918



$11,919,805

479,887.436

10,513,562

111

1,365

121

6,378,674



15,291
4,063,910
2,216,87.'>
18,747,389
2,8a4,^«96

19,961,355

149,510
241,707
25,126
11,773
16,344

4,089,502

89,659,775
162, 033,. "iS?



1,268,787,613
27,141,610



1,241,645,903



The following table shows the value of the trade with each country
during 1904:



Countries.



1904



Imports.



Exports.



Total.



Australia, New Zealand, etc

British America

British India

Oochin-China, Tongking, and Annam..
Continent of Europe, except Russia . . .

Hongkoqg

Japan (including Formosa)

Java and Sumatra

Korea.



Ma ca o

Philippine Islands

Russia via Odessa and Batum

Russia and Siberia via Kiakhta and Dalny .

Russian Manchuria

Siam.



Singapore and Straits Settlements

South Africa, including Mauritius

South America

Turkey In Asia, Persia. Egypt, Algiers, Aden, etc .

United Khigdwn.. .7!:....

United States



6345,409

1,509,197

22,489,359

1,224,816

16,412,027

98,477,337

35,014,511

3,607,067

613,765

2,020,426

541,193

3,081,120



37,178

180,265

2,835,219

1,566



797,892
39,940,227
20,368,300



S2,366
71,030
36,973
il,695
99,756
36,896
L4,827
n,972
70,705
M,001
13,175
S2,958
37,784
28,598
)6,013
>9,671
98,599
18,171
M,673
»,434
37,407



6497, 775

1,880,227

24,155,332

3,286,511

47,481,783

159,104,233

61,529,338

3,879,039

1,584,470

6,561,427

754,368

5,044,078

1,537,784

65,776

1,086,278

5,394,890

70,165

18, 171

3,862,065

50,598,661

39,275,707



Total imports

Less reexports to foreign countries .



Total



foreign countries {^|j^



407,316,008



Leaving out of consid^ation the merchandise passing through
Hongkong (for which the country of origin can not be ascertaiuea),
a con^arison of the two preceding tables shows that, between 1904



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CX>MMJSBCIAL STATISTICS FOR CHINA AS A WHOLE.



81



(a decade before the war) and 19 IS, direct* British sales to China
increased 49 i>er cent, American sales increased 244 per cent, and
Japanese sales increased 714 per cent.

STATISTICS OF IMPORTS.

The folk)wiiig table shows, bv quantity and value, the net imports
from foreign countries into China duriag the years 1913 and 1918;
the figures are from the official reports of tne Chinese Maritime
Customs:



ImpcK^s.



COTTON OOOIW.



BUf^^pTrayv plain;



JaovDMe

oSerldwls

KTay, plain:



Jvpamm.



kinds.,
wtaite:



EnitKslk.



...do...
...do...



.do....
.do....
.do....
.do....



1913



Quantity.



Value.



do....V
other kinds do..../



do..

liiah«6 do....

Igofvd, brocaded, striped, and spotted

Wte "'""••

Aacriomn do,...

Esfdish do

JwHiese do i

OtWkizidB do....

Jtam: i

.do....'

.do....

.do....

.do....;



B^Uih.

iMjMW fl O

OOmt kinds.
TdoUw:



Jai



Japanese.
OUierkli



.do....
.do....
.do....



"iil



do...

er kinds do

Bliached, Sainohes. 40 yards do. . . .

OuDMea. brwnsp and musnnt, white, (lyed» or
pfflntMl:

tlfards pieces

30 yards do

, Myards do....

Ummwad bateailnes, white, dyed, or printed

^. ...pieces. .

racywasUns yards..

An BQstins and cretonnes, mienamerated

• yards..

nifaicottonprtnts pieces..

GataiaesandplalBOotton dritle do.

PitetoddrillSpfnniitiaw. and twills do..'.!

rrfntedcrape do....

nintadsatteens, reps, etc do

Piktt>d**T'^ cloths do...

rMtey-redeottoos and dyed T cloths. . .do

Dytdoottoos. plain:
Fan black-
Italians do....

Venetians do,



Oriared—



Liftfaifs.



.do.,

.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.,



4, 109, 01 1
184,218
46,268

1,668,716

133,883

3,397,362

9,080



4,537,900



70,006

525,291

86,708

1,677.111

3,317

41,301

1,554,688

86,454

88,525



1, 167,640
370, 192
39,990

116,596
1,686



331,856
124,688



1,131,920
82,590



148, 103
50,^8



19,616,967
540,392
122,734

4,451,851

406,805

6,909,359

24,204



13,966,335



249,068

1,589,621

286,125

4,600.251

11,851

132,359

3,776,825

219.694

84,859



2,340,625
445,222
55,699

247.677
4,295



288,948
191,817



2,084,809
120,017



390,812

78.415

1.848,237



191S



Quantity.



690.566
949,676



89,900

8.8TO

2,227,102



1,544.075

685,655

113,063

18,540



18.327
929,522



10.254

116,512

1.964,0S2

192



113,475

934,738

2,078

23,643
56,332
103,064

170,673
14,P81
110,290

52.113
95,936

298,961
839,469



4,043
9,623
58,618



542,156



682,737
238,484
73,390

323,244
i04.5M2
P3,317
597,362



Vahie.



$4,196,671
5,126.119



522,999

65,574

12,n8.«r76



11,086.261

4,450,74H

7t6.69K

157.278



139,098
5.184,031



55,144

756,367

0,664,909

820



460,720

3,067,420

7,536

98,364
236,783
539,850



242.445
82,136
750,315

202,371
20,489

71,663

4,076,276



25,243

45,610
413,682



2,151,401



5,802,808

3,008,735

585,135

2,200,529
1,690,774
1,000.481
4,541,176



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32



COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.



1913



1918



Imports.



Quantity. { Value. Quantity.



COTTON GOODS— continued.

Dyed cottons, figured:

Italians pieces .

Venetians do. . .

Poplins do. . .

Lastings do . . .

Cotton Italians, Venetians, cr^pe, and lastings,

plain, fast black pieces .

Cotton Italians, Venetians, and crdpe, plain,

colored, and lastings, plam pieces.

Cotton Italians, Venetians, cr6pe, and lastings,

figured pieces.

Shirtings:

Dyed, plain do...

Hongkong-dyed, plain do. . .

Dyed, figured, brocaded, spotted do. . -

Spanish stripes, 64 inches do. . .

Flannelettes:

Plain, dyed, or printed do...

Yam-dyed do...

Yam-dyed, Japanese do. . .

Cotton flannels:

Plain, dyed, and printed do. . .

Plain, dyed, and printed, Japanese... do...

Striped do...

Striped, Japanese do . . .

Fancy woven cottons yards.

Cottons, 3ram-dyed do. . .

Crimps and crepons do. . .

Japanese cotton cr^ do. . .

Japanese cotton cloth do. . .

Cmnese cotton cloth (nankeens) pounds.

Velvets and velveteens yards.

Blankets .pieces .

Handkerchief dozens.

EEandkerchieis, Japanese .- do. . .

Towels do. . .

Towels , Japanese do . . .

Cotton goods, onenumerated yards .

Cotton yam:

English pounds.

Hongk ong do . . .

Indian do...

Japanese do . . .

Otner kinds do . . .

Gassed, mercerized, or dyed do...

WookA or berlinette do . . .

Cotton thread:

In balls do. . . ,

O n spools gross .



1,745,901

1,021,779

905,446

107,988
120,723
33,477
47, 161



Less excess of reexports over imports.
Total cotton goods



WOOL AND COTTON UNIONS.

Alpacas, lusters, and Orleans yards.

Blankets and rugs pounds.

Coatings and suitings yards.

Union and poncho cloth do. . .

Union Italian cloth {yilfds'

Union shirtings do..!

Woolen and cotton flannel do. . .

Wool and cotton anions , unenumerated . .do . . .



Total wool and cotton unions

WOOLEN GOODS.

Blankets and mgs pounds. .

Broadcloth, and medium, habit, and Russian

cloth. yards. .

Camlets and bunting pieces. .

Coatings and suitings yards. .

Flannel do....

Lasting ^.pieces. ,

..do....



568,541
112,271
146, 141
82.077
5,705,911



309,358
13,312,560



6,574,036
1,104,924
1,203,028

81,656

1,634,06.8

546,528

77,436,971

683,733

1,290.933

177,408,933

173,456,133

5,208,667



3,733

551,600
639,139



746,556



2,398,974
1,479



131,158
3,549,236



1,619,657

852,181
18,091



79,430
82,168
48,732



$6,865,147

3,393,171

3,210,360

345,477
265,146
117,940
140,930



1,436,812
268,150
295,736
194,455
595,899



Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic CommCommercial handbook of China .. → online text (page 4 of 143)