United States. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Comm.

Commercial handbook of China .. online

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Sugar candy

Tea..



.pounds.

do...

..gallons.



.pounds.



1917



Quantity.



609



52,360



172.103
11,248
87,948



S^.-ieO

252,528

1,442



9,891
42.966
2,267



141,527



...packs.,
.pounds..



Tobacco, cut and prepared.
Turnip seeds..



Twine, hemp. -
Vegetables, in natural state .

Vermicelli

Wines and spirits

Wooden ware

Sundries



.pounds.

do...

....do...
....do...
....do...



7,991



3,984
18,639

1,932
13,731
41,730



.poimds..



Total.



367,766



Value



126,985



1918



Quantity. Value.



26,9S.5



1,620

1,187

9,811

961

4,134

9,»M

157

203

6,044



4,037

3,355

4,826

94

5,806

22

6,687

935

225

2,449

2,034

1,309

6,541

8,194

942
3,070
34,820



789

1,527

329

6,156

931

621

3,602

1.1S9

15,443

439

9^

17,536



157,799



10,199



34,398
3,367
29,971



8,721
106,649



9,565
14,644

86



42,136



213



2,676
4,476
2,765
1.998
8,167



126,830



9231



231



385

320

2,790

696

1,914

8,605



43
3,237
4,855
1,913
3,607
3,376



41

1,811

1,008

208

900

1,393

59

1,300

2,770

371

1,749

10,874

106

57

793

313

1,407

i,m

274
1,914

803
6,023
1,2<7

828
1.670



70,046



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AMOY CONSULAR DISTRICT.

The declared exports during 1913 were:



369



Articles.



TO nOTED STATES.



Lac©

Ntrdasus Inilbs

Persona] and household

effects

Qutrgies



Vahie,
1913.



$70
7,658

326
10,780



Total I 18,834

TO PBmPriNE ISLANDS. I

Beans 1,404

Books and stationery ... 1, 561



Articles.



TO PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

—continued.

Chinaware

Combs, wooden

Fish nets, hemp

Fruits, n.e.s

Grass cloth

Paper

Paper, joss

Pickled vegetables (salt-
ed) and preserves

Rice, cleaned and pro-
pared



Value,
1913.



$1,434

1,179

6,296

519

14,624

4,599

558

2,191

734



Articles.



TO PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

—continued.

Tea

Twine, hemp

Vegetables, in natural

state

Vermicelli

Charges

All other articles

Total



Vahie,
1913.



$3,567
1,923

709
1,9S2
4,090
8,188



54,558



Because of the relative unimportance of Amoy's present export
trade and the destination of the goods, it is not considered necessary
to give statistics of shipments to coimtries other than the United
States and its possessions.

Most of the exports being to Chinese overseas, it is found at Amoy
that a considerable part of the export trade is in the hands of Chinese
merchants. There are, however, several foreign firms that are pre-
pared to do export business.

IMPORT TRADE.

It will have been noted from the table showing the gross and net
values of imports and exports at Amoy that this port now carries
an import trade in Chinese products amounting to something more
than half as much as its consumption of foreign goods. In 1918 the
net total imports of native goods amounted to $4,748,714, and of for-
eign goods to 18,888,955.

The following table shows the principal native goods imported in
1904, 1913, and 1915:



Articles.



1904



Quantity. Value.



1913



Quantity. Value.



19150



Quantity. Value



Bean cake tons.

Beans and poas do..

Coal .\7r. do..

Gotten, raw do..

Cotton, yam do..

Pish, <med and salted do..

Ploar do..

Medicines

Oil, bean tons.

Prawns, busked and dried do..

Riee .....do..



39,322
29,272



$786,364
625,521



313



67,248



313
684



311
1,572
10,000



8wd,8eeaxn« tons..

Tea- do...

Tobaoeokaf do...

VenniedU do...

▼b«t do...

All other artloles



892
113

1,088
604

6,328



20,496
24,868
85,431
22,334
161,347
217,805
28,546
39,737
31,790
65,605
43,622
112,758
857,708



79,293
32,489
7,997
233
1,226
227
4,791



475

691

3,121



370

207

1,417

358



$1,819,798

791,818
87, 3U
41,067

301,596
17,221

166,452
47,408
89,748
62,603

107,528

119,727
17,099
69,527

105,389
11,352
6,958

931,385



87,530

51,845

603

205

1,394

256

19,609



1

29

673

2,241

595

167

1,211

786

1,026



$1,590,541

1,122,415

34,983

40,623

299,398

17,427

574.208

46,421

60

2,912

17,911

103,554

29,462

66,505

61,685

62,604

25,440

881,370



Total.



3,141,180



4,683,987



4,976,619



a EonoK's Note.— There Is no available statement showing the value of the native goods imi>orted
m mofe reoent years.

122081**— 19 24



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870



COMMEBCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.



The principal trade indications to be drawn from this table, with-
out reference to variations that are attributable to transient causes
(such as the war, lack of tonnage, local crop conditions, exchange
affecting remittances home from emigrants abroad, etc.), are (1) the
large and increasing quantity of bean cake required for fertilizer
purposes (and bean cake is tne cheapest fertilizer of the Far East,
against which foreign fertilizers can not compote) ; (2) the appearance
oi Chinese cotton yam in the statistics of 1913 and 1915 ana the ab-
sence of such statistics in 1904, showing the ^adual and important
extension of the Chinese cotton-yarn busmess smce the establishment
of cotton mills in C!hina; (3) the heavy increase in the importations
of Chinese flour, which is gradually replacing the Amencaxi flour
for purposes of Chinese consumption in this part of CTiina, following
the advent of modern flour mills in North and Central China; and
(4) the considerable quantities of foodstuffs that appear, showing that
the Amoy district, despite the fact that agriculture is its principal
iadustry, produces less than it consumes.

Turning now to the imports of foreign goods, one finds in 1904 a
net total import of foreign goods amounting to $0,562,211; in 1913,
$7,856,587; and in 1918, $8,888,955.

A feature of this import trade in foreign goods that deserves to be
noted is the increase shown in the quantity of foreign goods imported
from Chinese ports. This is an mdication of the retrogression of
Amoy from direct foreign trade to some dependence on other Chinese
ports, principally Shanghai, for foreign goods.

The following table gives, for three years, the gross imports of
foreign goods from foreign countries at the port of Amoy, by coun-
tries of origin :



Countries.



I



British India

Dutch Indies

French Indo-China

Hongkong

Japan (including Taiwan)

Philippine Islands.

Singapore, Stralta Settlements, etc.
United States (including Hawaii).
All other countries

Total



1916



$544,730

567,250

27,133

3.584,800

l,599,5(io

61,007

214,029

605. S-W

8,902



7,088,880



1917



$268,794

270,540

47

4,402,996

3,907,544

113.352

182,095

324,504

13,420



8,643,378



1018



149,168

440,174

17,830

4,7?56,577

2,088,305

9,966

454,414

313,738

7,474



8,787,541



Of the imports from foreign countries and Honffkong, the above
statistics for 1918 show that 54 per cent came from the British
colony of Hongkonjg, 30 per cent irom Janan, 2^ per cent from the
United States, ana the remainder from tne Dutch Indies, British
India, Singapore, and the Philippines, tho places overseas where the
thousands of Amoy enugrants are laboring and seeking their fortunes.
In fact, the shipments fiom those places represent largely a return in
goods of part of the earnings of triose emigrants, sent home for the
support of their families.

The 54 per cent, or $4,786,577, credited in 1918 to Hongkong,
largelv represents foreign goods transshipped at that port, ana
incTucies a small amount of American gooas sold at Amoy through
Hongkong importers; the majority of the total, however, probably
represents British goods, from Great Britain and the Britkh colonies.



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AMOY CONSULAR DISTRICT.



371



and rice, sugar, and a few other Eastern food products for which
Hongkong serves as a storehouse and distributing center.

Before the war Germany and Austria-Hungary claimed a fair
percentage of the trade credited to Hongkong, Dut no statistics are
available to show the extent of tliis participation in the Amoy trade.

The following table will serve to show the principal items that made
up the net foreign imports for 1904, 1913, and 1918:



Artlctes.



1004



Qoantlty. Value.



191S



Qtiantlty. Valne.



1918



Quantity. Value.



' COTTON GOODS.

Shirtings:

Gray, plain piooes..

White,p]ain. do

Drills do....

T cloths do

Lavns, white. do

Dyed shirtings, figured and plain

pieces..

Turkey-red shirtings do

Cotton yam tons..

WOOLEN GOODS.

Ounlets, English pieces..

Cloth, broad and medium yards..

lAstlngs pieces..

Long ells do

feanish stripes yards..

Woolen yam and braid tons..

METALS.

Iron bars and nail rods tons..

Iron^old do....

Lead. in pigs do....

Quicksilver do

Tin, in slabs do

StJNDIUES.

B^hede mer, black and white, .tons. .

Co-eals: Rice do

CIgtfettQS mille..

Coal tons..

Dyes, colors, and paints:

Bark, mangrove do

Bark, sapaa wood do

Fish and fishery products (not includ-
ing btehe de mer, isinglass, seaweed ,
and agar-agar) tons..

Flour do....

OtBseng. pounds..

Manures (including chemical man-
ures) tons..

Matches, wood, Japan gross..

Mats, teft and straw pieces..

Medicines

Oil. kerosene American gallons. .

Rattans tons..

Sandalwood do....

Sugan

White do....

Refined do

Tea, Formosan do

AH otiier articles



TotaL.



7,715

53,579

678

51,515

168

6,168

8,373
3,901



4,408

13, 171

758

871

20,623

20



3

293

94

15

319



460
22,131



10,988

1,102
79



2,341

9.191

»,171



$8,657

137,913

1,600

62,936

100

15,807

13,:i39

980,747



33,166
13,040
4,653
3,076
8,1G7
20,310



679

5.395

5,322

15,211

137,261



92,513

1,040,708

9,838

62,416

16,360
1,952



172.484
332.716
106,873



615.970
772,927



802,960
69
51



470
8



85,817

51.287

59.763

102,595

4.093

4,124

26,030

25,237

8.642

2.896,645



63.823
35,316
1,610
45,805
10,475

4.142

14,693
2,418



2,654
655
272
720

4,5n
8



284

409

85

11

319



296
26,665
27,156
12,562



431
69



6,175
17,034
22,599

1,802
59,957
26 927



4,997,5M

47
58

9.785
1,118



$111,628

108.151

5,771

75,442

9,138

13,135

34.319

658,948



28,141
719
2,440
3,289
2.271

10,544



8,420

7,569

6.975

12,844

160,282



72.855

942,2.'>l

62,079

62,617

7,662
1,478



614,376

670,434

92,361

115,741
182,442
4,762
84,599
625, 478
2.9S5
6,065

637. 742
75,SS4



18,662
19,003
1,768
84,219
("5



n



300



^l



181
15,427
9H,a**l
14,140



3,637

89

12,325

87
668. m
(«)



2,345,860



1,85^093

4,612

4,197

44



$100,443

122, 147

10,959

112.531

(«)

261,969



(«)
(«)

13,287
90,639
183,791



96,046
970,587
626,838
251,325

627,743



8n,8e6
8,550
69,122

4,752
356,146

(«)
142,980

681,932

7,373

650,954

608,949

19,361

r2, 968, 665



6,562,211



7,856,587



8,888,955



« Figures for 1918 not available.
6 Dyes and dyestuffs.

« For 1918 this figure for " All other articles " Includes all imi>ort8 from Chinese ports; the specific items
in this '^^'!*"»»t r ep re sent imports from foreign countries and Hongkong.



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372 COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.

COTTON GOODS.

Of the total imports, cotton goods form about one-fifth. The
American participation in this trade, however, is very small, and con-
fined largely to drills and leans.

A considerable item oi the cotton-jgoods trade is fomid in gray
shirtings, the importations of which increased from 7,715 pieces in
1904 to 63,823 in 1913. but decreased to 18,562 in 1918. This trade is
principally in the hands of the British and Japanese.

White shirtings are principally supplied by fenglish manufacturers;
the net imports in 1918 amoimted to 19,003 pieces, valued at $122,147.

In T cloths, the Japanese control the bulk of the trade. Chintzes
and plain cotton prints come mostly from England, which also sells
the greater part of the cotton Italians, Venetians, crfipe, and lastings,
plain black and figured, that are imported at Amoy.

For a discussion of the South China cotton-goods trade, and the
possible opportunity for American participation, the reader may be
referred to Special Agents Series No. 107, Cotton Goods in China, by
Trade Commissioner Kalph M. Odell (1916).

METALS AND MINERALS.

Under the above heading, tin in slabs is the most important item,
reaching in 1913 a total of 319 tons, valued at $160,282, and in 1917
209 tons, valued at $204,091. In 1918 the amount was 91 tons,
valued at $183,791. The China imports of tin in slabs are credited
principally to Singapore. ^

Tin plates are used principally by the two canning companies at
Amoy, and come largely from the United States.

The United States abo participates to some extent in the import
trade in steel bars, nails and rivets, nail rod, etc. The total trade in
these items, however, is comparatively small.

RICE.

The largest single item of foreign imports is found in rice and rice
paddy. Ei 1904 this amounted to 22,131 tons ($1,040,708), in 1913
to 26,665 tons ($942,251), and in 1918 to 15,427 tons ($970,587).
The statistics credit the bulk of China's rice imports to Hongkong,
which, however, is only a distributing point for rice from Siam, Indo-
China, and British India. Amoy also draws a small quantity of rice
from other China ports; but most of the imports come from abroad.
The dependence of this district on outside food supplies is clearly
indicated in this item of import.

BfiCHE DE MER.

Bfiche de mer is another item of considerable importance, the value
in 1904 reachmg $92,513, in 1913 $72,855, and in 1918 $96,046.
Here again Honfliong stands as a distributing point for this product
from the Dutch Indies and Singapore.

FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS.

The United States participates to only a small extent in tho China
import trade in fish and fiisnery products, and practically not at all
in the Amoy trade. Hongkong is a principal center through which
Amoy imports but Japan also suppbes a considerable portion. In



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AMOY CONSULAR DISTRICT, 373

1904 the imports at Amoy amounted to only $172,484, but in 1913
they reached $614,376 and in 1918 $871,866. Here again is demon-
strated the dependence of the Amoy district on the outside world
for its food supplies.

SUGAR.

Sugar is another rather important article of food supply that Amoy
draws from abroad. Notwithstanding that Amoy exports more than
$100,000 worth of sugar to North China, it imports from abroad a
supply of the same product, which in 1918 amoimted to $608,949 in
renned siigar and $550,954 in white sugar. The Amoy exports to
North China consist principally of brown sugar.

KEROSENE.

Kerosene oil forms the one principal item of import in which the
United States largely participates. ,In 1904 the Kerosene imports
amounted to 802,960 gallons, m 1913 to 4,997,584 gallons, and in 1918
to 1,858,093 gallons (valued at $581,932). Of the total American
imports of all kinds into the Amoy district in 1918, given as $313,733,
almost the entire amount was represented by American kerosene.

MATCHES.

A considerable business is done in the district in Japanese matches.
In 1904 the imports reached $85,817; in 1913, $182,442; and in 1918,
$356,146,

FLOUR.

Flour is an item which for some years was of considerable impor-
tance to the United States, but since domestic flour has appeared on
the market in lai^e quantities American flour is gradually being
superseded. Of course the price of American flour, the war exchange
freight rates, and shipping facilities account to a very considerable
extent for the marked falling oflf, but it is interesting to review the
imports of native flour: 1904, 684 tons, $24,868; 1913, 4,791 tons,
$166,452; 1917, 8,888 tons, $467,581.

GINSENG.

Along with kerosene and flour, ginseng has always formed a part
of the American trade with the port of Amoy; this trade, however,
is not done directly but through the port of Hongkong. Ginseng
imports in 1904 reached 20,171 pounds ($106,873); in 1913, 22,599
pounds ($92,361); and in 1918, 12,325 pounds ($69,122). But this,
of course, does not represent American ginseng entirely, CTiosen and
Japan supplying a large part of the demand.

OTHER ARTICLES OF INTEREST TO AMERICAN EXPORTERS.

Without further detailed examination of the items of import, it is
worth while to note some of the foreign imports that might be of interest
to American exporters to this market, including cigarettes ($526,838
in 1918) distributed through the British-American Tobacco Co. (Ltd.) ;
paints and oils, which come largely from Great Britain but in which
American manufacturers could successfully compete in South China
as they are doing in the northern ports; lamps and lampware, of
American and Japanese origin ; propelling machinery, largely from
Great Britain; sewing machines; other machinery, in which the



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374 COMMEBCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.

United States should have its share; electrical materials and fittings,
from Great Britain. Japan, and the United States; condensed mlBt,
in which, through lack of proper representation, European brands
prevail over the American.

GENERAL CONDFTIONS IN IMPORT TRADE.

The import trade of Amoy is handled by the several foreign firms,
by numerous Japanese importers who are active in the market, and,
as in the case of other South Chma ports, by Cliineso import houses
that deal with firms at Hongkong or have business relations with
Chinese abroad.

The comprador system is still used at this port by the European
houses.

There are xio American importers, with the exception of the
Standard Oil Co. of New York, which handles petroleum products and
lamps and lampware.

Two foreign banks, the Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corpora-
tion (British) and the Bank of Taiwan (Japanese) finance the trade.

It deserves to be pointed out that outside of direct Japanese imports
Amoy draws its foreign suppHes largely from Hongkong, and to some
extent from Shanghai, and also that the South China ports are usually
included in territory alloted by foreign manufacturers to their agents
in Hongkong or Shanghai.

Direct trade with the United States is largely out of the question.
Trade with Manila is possible, but so far there has been httle effort
on the part of Manila merchants to participate in the trade of this
port.

It is beUeved, however, that for the most part representatives of
American manufacturers in Hongkong and Shanghai have failed to
develop the South China coast-port trade; and while it may be true
that richer fields are available elsewhere, it is entirely possible that,
by occasional visits of foreign and Chinese representatives of such
houses, the American trade with Amoy could be considerably increased.

Shanghai and Hongkong representatives of American firms should
keep the South China coast-port consulates informed of the classes
of American goods they handle and the American manufacturers they
represent.

SHIPPING FACILITIES.

Amoy possesses one of the best deep-water harbors on the China
coast. It is well lighted, and has accommodation for about 12
vessels of medium length in the inner harbor and abundant anchorage
areas in the outer harbor for vessels of almost any length or draft.

Most of the loading and unloading is done by open cargo boats;
care must therefore be taken in the packing of goods to be handled at
this port so as to prevent damage from water or rough handling.

There is one dock at the port formerly operated by the New Amoy
Dock Co. (Ltd.), but sold toward the close of the year 1917 to the
Chinese Government for $410,000 local currency. The dock is 340
feet on blocks and 370 feet over all; wddth of entrance, 50 feet; depth
on sill at high water, 18 feet.

Pilot service is maintained and is recommended upon entering the
inner harbor. The charges are 1 i cents local currency per net register
ton for merchant steamers, 2^ cents local currency per register ton for



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AMOY COXSULAB DISTRICT. 875

sailing vessels, and i cent local currency per ton for war vessels (dis-
placement); the minimum charge is $10 local currency.

Regular steamer connection is had by coasting vessels between
Amoy and Foochow, Swatow, Hongkong, and Canton, and with For-
mosa. The Douglas Steam Navigation Co. and the Osaka Shosen
Eaisha maintain ships on these runs imder the British and Japanese
fla^j respectively.

With Shanghai a service is maintained, usually weekly, hj the
China Navigation Co. (British), with occasional calls from ships of
the China Merchants Steam Navigation Co. (Chinese). These vessels
call at Amoy en route to and from Hongkong or Swatow.

Normally, ships in the coohe trade ply on more or less regular
schedules between Amoy and Manila, and Amoy, Singapore, and
Java.

The Dutch Java-China-Japan line calls at Amoy en route to and
from Kobe, with sailings monthly.

The China Merchants Steam Navigation Co. (Chinese) and the
Indo-China Steam Navigation Co. (British) maintain irregular sailings
between Amoy and other China coast ports.

There is no direct steamship connection with any port of the United
States except by such vessels as ply between Amoy and Manila,
occasional vessels to other Philippine ports, and the calls at Manila
of the Japanese line to Java.

Irregular service has at times been maintained with Annam, Siam,
and Rangoon.

The European war has resulted in high freight rates, even in the
case of the coasting steamers, and has also withdrawn considerable
toimage, restricting the shipping facilities of the port.

In 1917, 689 steam vessel entered the port, with a tonnage of
822,957, as compared with 717 steamers, with a tonnage of 921,147
tons, in 1916. The principal nationahties represented were British,
with 282 vessels of 365,551 tons, compared with 365 vessels of 479,318
tons in 1916; Japanese, 281 vessels of 281,081 tons in 1917 and 223
of 246,217 tons in 1916; Chinese, 74 vessels of 65,831 tons m 1917 and
89 of 91,636 tons in 1916; Dutch, 37 vessels of 95,147 tons in 1917
and 32 of 86,620 tons in 1916; and American, 7 of 10,1 10 tons in 1917
and 3 of 6,219 tons in 1916. In 1918 the shortage in shipping
reached its height; the statistics show a falling off of 112 entries,
totaling 193,000 tons, compared t9 1917.

FACIUTIES FOR TRAVEL.

The best season of the year for visiting Amoy and the Amoy district
is from October to January. This is the dry season, when it is cool.
It is followed by the rainy season and then by the extremely hot and
humid summer.

There is one foreign hotel at the port, the King George, with accom-
modations for 8 to 15 guests. The rates are from $5 to $10 Mex. per
day,

Amoy can be reached only by coasting steamer from Shanghai,
Hongkong, or Formosa. No large mail boats call at the port, except
that the Dutch liners on the Japan-Java-China run call at Amo^ on
their way north and usually on their way south from some l^orth
China or Japan port.



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376 COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.

Travel in the interior is principally by small boat or sedan chair.
The only railway in the district is that extending 17 miles toward
Changchow from a point on the mainland opposite Amoy.

Steam-launch service is maintained with Chuanchow, Tungan,
Anhai, Quemoy, and Chiohbe.

Amoy holds some interest for Americans on account of the visit of
the American battleship fleet to this port in 1908, when the officers and
sailors were elaborately entertained by the Chinese Government.
Amoy is, moreover, one of the most picturesque and interesting of the
South China ports and is worth a short visit by traveling Americans
seeking more than a superficial view of China gained by visits to the
large trade centers. Visits of tourists to thejport are not recommen-
ded, however, except during the period from October to January, and
care should be taken to ascertain that the port is free from quarantine
at the time of intended visits,

TRADE ORGANIZATIONS.

A foreign chamber of commerce exists at the port, and in Amoy,
Changchow, and Chuanchow there are Chinese chambers of commerce
of some size and influence, in addition to the number of guilds of
varying importance. The guilds or trade associations of Amoy
include one engaged in trade with Hongkong and the East Indies,



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