United States. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Comm.

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exported through the Maritime Customs at Antung in 1908, 1913,
1915, 1917, and 1918:



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ANTUNG CONSULAR DISTRICT.



393



-Uticles.



Bean cake pounds..

Beans. do

Bones, refuse do

Bricks and tiles places..

Cereals:

Kaoliang (sorghnm)

pounds.^

Maize do

MiDet do....

Coal tons..

Copper ore pounds..

Irom and steel mannfactures. . . .

pounds..

Iron pans do

Medicines value

Mushrooms pounds..

Oil, bean do....

Samsho. do

Silk:

Wild, raw, not filature

pounds..

Cocoons, wild do....

Waste do.

Coooons, refuse do

Fonftees do

Silkworms, dried do

Skins (furs), sheep pieces. .

Tea:

Black. pounds.

Green do...

Timber, beams:

Hardwood pieces «....

Softwood do. c....

Timber:

Planks, softwood ...sq. ft..

Poles, softwood pieces . .

Tobacco, leaf and stalk

pounds.

Vermloelli and macaroni. do. . .
Yeast value..



1908



QuanUty.



30,478,800

3,051,600

121,333



1,158,266



66,666



$1,428

69,600

4,000



1,066

12,856,800

432,800

33,066

666

3,466

27



2,486
81,710

11,049
10,740

76,400



1913



Quantity.



72,644,400

15,233,200

238,800

360,080



3,959,733

2,983,466

46,880.200

140,403



100,509,200

45, 132, 400

231,600

161,618



1,677,200

5,781,333

29,356,800



608,000



$33,469

25,600

384.133

1,413,066



16,024,400

612, 166

96,933

11,866

303,466

14,330



12,755
276,759

6,305,744
18,848

39,200



1915



Quantity.



269,733
77,866

$20,502

13,200

1,044.400

561,466

1,194.266

22,487,600

974,533

132,933

22,666

454,533

14,224

666
133

19,478
442,508

2,797,305
22,002

41,200

42,400

$14,416



1917



Quantity.



226.336,133

77,361,066

9,881,200

652,936



454,800

12.068,667

42,809,200

315. 740

627,867

246. 133
184.000
$32,376
6,400
6,230,000
269,867



371,333

6,240,267

252,000

400

5.867

860,933

27,548



l"l



28,809
346,529

9,581,112
70,167

•37,867
46.533
$18,077



1918



Quantity. Value.



194,100,933

71,219,600

10,478,800

255,815



(6)

15,162,933

(ft)

313,296
11,067

542,666
148,800



23,600

4,329,066

240,133



296,533

12,851.866

527,200

28,400

27,066

2,087,467

3,724



53,318
410,509

10,391,533
63,047

27,867
55,200



$2,952,421
1,617,323
(«)



237,424
2,055,693

40,413

39,335

372,238
20,047



438,166

1,729.974

259,441



u



89,548
16,653



oNot avaUable.

b Millet and kaoliang combined, 72,645,333 pounds, valued at $1,964,369.

e'^Lien" of 8 feet unit.

The following t^ble shows the value in American dollars of the
five principal articles exported to foreign countries and Chinese ports
through tne Antung Maritime Customs during the years 1908 to
1918, mclusive:



Years.


Coal.


Cereals.


TMmhpr ^ilk and
Timber, gjik products.


Beans and

bean prod-

nets.


1908


$348

3,405

1,387

12,106

234,290

522,721

97,610

115 729

1,207,279

1,534,498

2,055,693


$2,049

272

665

4,072

29,991

708,380

263,293

414,633


$175,210

376,850

275,725

603,450

65/, 036

747,816

840,305

830,628

1,629,491

1,530,124

2,450,979


$1,633,714
1,997,680
1,130,677
1,445,983
1 937 575
1,765,488
1,071,838
1,785,992
1,726,024
1,781,199
2,461,095


$283,758


1909


320, 510


1910


250,815


1911..


727,105


1912


1,039,785
994,785


1913


1914


558,858


1913


1,338,018


1916


1,837,073


1917.


104,805
150,347


5,176,950


1918


4,941,982







While considerable portions of the bean oil and 'Hussah" (reeled
wild silk) produced in the Antung district aie eventually consumed
in the United States, there are no direct shipments of these or any
other goods.



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394 COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.

IMPORT TRADE.

This district is sparsely settled and, with the exception of Antung
and Fenghwangcheng, possesses no cities. In consequence of the
ranges of mountains and hills that traverse it throughout, there are no
large arable plains lending themselves to agricultural enterprises on a
large scale. Its sparse population, therefore, is relatively a poor one,
whose wants are for the primal necessities of life and not for luxuries
or semiluxuries. Accordingly Antung owes its importance as a port
for the importation of foreign merchandise not to tne goods consumed
in this district but to those used in Mukden and points beyond,
which only pass through Antung as a port of entry.

Four circumstances have combined to raise the city of Antung to
Hs present importance as a port for the iinportation of foreign mer-
chandise into Manchuria: (1) The completion of the Chosen Railway ,
which, through Chosen, connects the Yalu River with Japan; (2) tfco
opening of Antung as a port for foreign trade in 1907 ; (3) the comple-
tion of the standard-gauge railway from Antung to Mukden in 1911 ;
and (4) the erection of the 3,10()-foot steel bridge across the Yalu
River in^ the same year, by means of which the Chosen and South
Manchuria Railways now lurnish a through service from Fusstn to
Changchun. When tliia system of railways was completed Antung
at once became the natural gateway through which all rail-borne
merchandise from Japan enters Manchuria. Wlien the one-third
reduction in duty on goods imported into Manchuria from or through
Chosen went into effect in 1913 the rail route through Antung became
cheaper for the Japanese exporter than the water route through
Dairen or Newchwang. This advantage of the Antung route was
further enhanced when, in 1914, the South Manchuria Railway
granted a special discount, amounting to 30 per cent, on Jl specific
uirough imports from Japan via Chosen when carried over its Antung-
Mukden branch.

The comprador system is in use by the foreign import firms at
Antung.

All tne large import firms operating in Antung have their own
warehouses in which imported goods are stored until forwarded to
interior points.

Goods mtended for this district should be packed so as to be able
to stand exposure to weather and the roughest of handling. Parcels
should not oe too bulky or heavy, as otherwise they can not readily
be transported into the interior. In general, parcels measuring not
more than 3 by 4 feet and weighing 150 pounds or less are well suited
to local conditions.

Up to and including the year 1912 flour constituted the most
valuable item in the list of articles imported through A^ntung. Com-
mencing in 1913, however, cotton goods jumpea into the leading
position and their value now constitutes more than one-half of the
total value of imports. This change has been brought about by the
diversion of the imports of Japanese cotton goods from the other
Manchurian ports to Antung, as a result of the one-third reduction of
import duty on goods imported ^into Manchuria from or through
Chosen (Korea) and the rediiction in railway freight over the Antung-
Mukden branch of the South Manchuria Railway, which have just
been described.



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I



ANTUNG eONSULAB DISTRICT.



395



The following table shows the valne of the five principal imports
for the years 1908 to 1918, inclusive:



Years.



Cottrtn
goods.



1908..
1908..
1910- .
1911..
1912..
1913..
1914..
1915. .

me..

1917..
191S..



$146.^1

155,652

229,760

334,685

381,727

2, 173, 285

6, 045, 038

6,532, 104

8,276.439

16,369,314

(«)



rioi:r.


Kerosene.


Sugar.


Metals,


9331,406


$47,923


$47,608


$20,773


264,969


67,508


36,292


17.531


636,656


34,936


78,194


75,911


468,757


49,036


62,477


259,675


697,573


73,699


136, 621


84,316


715,661


162, 171


102,394


81,479


492. 759


134, 852


65,097


173,501


482,230


124,369


96,831


45,162


413, 933


168,780


147,896


169,251


113,245


^7,794


303,706


228.914


(fl)


90,389


215,737


(a)



a Figures not available.



The figures in the following table represent the principal articles
imported through the Maritime Customs at Antung in 1908, 1913,
1915, and 1918:



Articles



FOREIGN COTTON GOODS.

ShirtlTjgs, grey, plain:

American pieces.

English do....

Japanese do.

fflieetings. grey, plain:

American do —

English. do.

Jnpnnese do —

flirting?, white do..

Drills:

Amprican..^ do..

Engli^ do..

Japanese .do —

Jeans:

English do....

Japanese do...

T-cIoths:

EngUsh. do...

Japanese do. . .

Cambrics, lawns, and muslins,
white, dyed, and printed,

pieces

ChintEcs and plain cotton

prints pieces.

Pnntcd T-cloths do. ..

Turlcev-rcd cottons and dyed

T-cl6ths pieces .

- Cotton Italians, Venetians,
crape, and tastings, plain,

fast black pieces.

Cotton Italians, Venetians,
crape, and tastings, plain,

colored pieces..

Cotton Italians, Venetians,
crape, and testings, figured,

nieces

Cotton flannel pieces. .

Dyed drills and silesias.. do

Fancy woven cottons. . .yards. .

Jap^«Sse cotton doth do

Vdvetsand velveteens. , .do —

Cotton blankets pieces..

Handlcerchielis dozens. . .

Handkerchieis, Japanese .do

TJweb do

Cotton yarn:

Bnnish poands. .

Indian do —

Japanese do



1908



Quantity.



8,898
13,111



66,211



7.980
25, OU

15,734
4,410
2,765

20,546



1913



Quantity.



6.420
12,632
5,454

32,822

738

1,275,316

39,432

3,900

90

67,781

29,ft'>l
16,481



2,531
28

3,859



1,452



14,538



3,216
2,612



98,195
87,076



71,714



2,515

1,307
20

5,330



4,523



4,832



7,050
10,235



285,164
316,869
33,426
62,337



33,293






1915



Quantity. Value.



l,7ir»
9, SOS
17,965

18,056

1.420

718.071

25,026

3,545

175

274,371

15,963
181,378

650
6,172



2,818



6,203



9,653



1,178



1,846

35,871

23,426

1,397,222

4^., 970, 778

16,105

60,383

2,572

8,208

168,891



S2,9^4
23,281
40,250

43,150

3,546

1,281.788

64,288

9,845

614, 161

39.256
336,643

7,5.58



1,914



10,031
33,436

(«)

5,537
75,201

1,982.985

3,008

20,648

3,137

56,735



1918



Quantity. Value,



8.234

n,93i

322

590

480,934

86,165



139,816

4,870

21>2,994

301
13,290



S,248
54,728



22,056

1,110

16,690

2,888
20, 459
32,040
3,158,388
4.% 852, 607
44,879
56,005

18,382

119,481



13,200 400 4,800 f^)

26,400 36,800 103,33:3 («)

257,600 789.200 6,903,066 {<*)

a Editob'8 Nots.— The figures for these values are not available; they ftre not given either fai
fished returns of the Chinese Maritime Customs or in the reports firom the Antung consulate.



I 6,971,066



$56, «7-»
55:^. 181

1,997

4,470

2,6flO,9rt7

610,056



776,274

27,378
l,oOS,5«7

(«)
(a)

19.500



73,958



8,992

4

106,525



19,109
114,497

(«)

<"> ^
4,084, I2ff

21.417

52,617

2,43*

122,600

3,047,472
the pub-



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896



COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.



Articles.



FOREIGN COTTON GOODS— COD.

Cotton thrrad:

In balls pounds .

On spools

Poplins, figured

CHINESE COTTON GOODS.

Sheetings pieces..

Prills... do....

Nankeens pounds . .

Cotton yarn do. . . .

POREIQN WOOLEN GOODS.

Blankets and nigs — pounds. .
Cloth, broad, medinm, habit,

ana Russian yards . .

I.on?ells pieces..

Woolen and worsted yam ,

pounds



FOREIGN MISCELLANEOUS
PIECE GOODS.

Silk piece goods potmds . .

Silk piece goods, mixtures,
pounds



FOREIGN METALS.

Copper ingots and slabs,

pounds

Iron and mild steel, new:

Bars pounds.

Nails and rivets do . . .

Bheots and plates . . . .do . . .

Wire do...

Iron and mild stool, old. .. do. .. .
Iran, galvanized:

Sheets and plates . . . .do

Steel, bamboo, bars, etc.,
pounds



FOREIGN SX7NDBIE8.

BaRS, all kinds number.

Beans and peas.* poimds.

Bteh»de mer do...

Braid, cotton value .

Candles pounds. .

Cement do..

Cereals:

Maizo do..

Rice do..

Charcoal do..

China ware value

Cigarettes thousands. .

Dyes, colors, and paints:

Aniline value

Indigo, artificial. .pounds
Fish:

Dried and salt do..

Fresh do

Flour do

Fruits, fresh do...

Glass, window boxts.

Hair: Animal, pig and cow,

pounds

Matches gross..

Modidnes value .

Milk, condensed, in tins,

dozens

Needles. thousands.

Oik:

Engine. . .\mcrican gallons.

Kerosene-
American do

Sumatra do



1908



Quantity.



2,3(K)



263,r,oo
15S,400



35,875



245.200
91,800



437,333
303,466
12S,S00



55,733
439,466



258,. TO
1,072,800



7,756
'i74,'466



16,078,933



233,223



1913



Quantity.



16,533
6,490



4,242

360

212,933

62,400



2,708
9,069-



121,600



279,466
206.266



1,631,456
285,733
152,400

486, S34
""so* 800



165,333
3,344,000

841,200

7,896,266

108,933



42,918

$11,549
171,333

1,016,000

1,562,000

22,753,333

1,801,600



650,133
257,283



673,680
471,315



1915



Quantity. Value.



37,600
8,959
4,651



20,142

8,460

329,066

68,666



1,518

1,493
444

6,666



223,466
1,049,466



65,200

215,066

91,733

32,400

1,856,533

78,266

88.533



3,241,737
388,266
101,466



111^333
1,166,933

747,200

23,867,733

231,733



52,653

* 224,* 933

1,081,733
1,256,400



1,033,733
922

210,333
258,724



3,296
16,834

23,118



5.58,310
661,580



$14,338
13,329
31,216



56,504
23,724
66,631
10,667



(«)
1,864

3,558



4,749
12,374



1918



Quantity. Value.



1.200
6.376
1,933

16,238

2,886



143,306
(«)

14,959
18,776
6,904
(«)

(«)

460.058
(«^
6,910



26,666
30,455
10,172



42,610

10,551

541,466

74,933



2,597

700
300



67,489



14,431
(«)

(«)

31,624

86,954

2,252



70,584
73,852



2,130,400
1,157,066

207,067

241,06$

260,000
82,266
42,333

424,933

131,466
79,333



1,801,571
619,067
165,600



186,533
1,550,000

81,467

16,177,066

388,800



337,324

" 'i8,'866

2,571,200
2,881,600



5,292,000
8,142

810,800
74,750



4,676
97,817

36,535



164,600
72,570



$24,103
107.544
124,507



318,733
79,358

295,734
37,929



2,993
2,5.'S2



161,005
32,706

(«)

17,234
171,463
9,723
(a)

21,276

17,291



510,517

(«)

44,461

481

23,664

(«)

698,414

97,740
391,535

6,956



«



146.764

25,139
164,344






577.120
277,815

o Editor's Note.— The figures for these values are not available: they are not given either In
Ushed returns oi the Chinese Maritime Customs or in the reports from the Antung consulate.



18,576

58,989
30,164

the pub-



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ANTUNG CONSULAR DISTRICT.



397



Articles.



roBEiQN SUNDBIES— contd.

Paper and cardboard, .ponnds .

Pepper do...

Seawoed do —

^ins (furs), all kinds. . .pieces.
Soap:

war poonds.

Toilet and fancy.. .doxens.

Soda pounds.

Poy do...

Sugar:

Brown do

White and refined . . .do. . .

Candy do...

Timber:

Dardwood culrfc feet . ,

Beams, poles, and piles,
softwood — square feet .

Planks, softwood — do. . .

Tobacco pounds.

Umbrellas nimiber .

Wines, beer, spirits, etc.:

Sake pounds..

Beer and porter value . .

Spirits of wine gallons.

CHINESE SUNDRIES.

Cereflls:

Millet pmrads.

Rice do..

ClgATcttes do —

Coal tons..

Cotton, raw poiuds . .

Flour do

Fruits, fresh do...

Crass cloth do...

Croundnuu<5 do...

Macaroni and vermicelli .do . . .

Medicines value.

Paper pounds.

Paper, joss do...

Shoes and boots, silk and cot

ton pairs.

Silk:

Piece goods pounds..

Ponj^es, Shantung . .do

Sugar, brown do.

Tea:

Black do.

Oreen do.

Tobacco, prepared do .



1908
Quantity.



80,000



440,666

3.358,000

166, SOO



40,846

374,400
$10,211



116,400



538,266
2,9e2,i;{3



15,200
4,133



140,933

73,733

206,133



1913



Quantity.



1,69S,666

80.0(10

1,200,133



180,400

44.666

1,744,400

366,666

807,466

2,872,U«

211,333

4,357

920.753
109,095



55,155

911,333
$13, 140



81,800

0:i6

829,200

8,372.000

§46,400



$4,879

1,698,666

109,600



14.933
266



187,066

5,600

275,066



1915



Quantity. Value,



834,266
70, 133

574,. 'iSS
86,655

153,466

76,011

1,01.5.866

354,800

613.600

3, 4^U), 800

16,266

168

1,548.475

21.215

287.4ft6

23,063

1,181,600



2,697



159,866

538,266

100,666

1,506

902,266

29,289,066

695,066

31,200

89,200

171,066



1,68.5.466
120,533

4,958

13,866

1,066

46,133

139,200

2,133

295,733



$84,566
(°)
(«)
30,229



8,901

129,199
(«)



5,584



20,383
24,424

80,063
491,873
(«)

10,832
(°)
(«)
3,265
71,676
15,4C2

(•)



18,594

289

30,985



1918



Quantity. Value.



3,011,466
120,933

1,035,733
150,698

338,133
177,319
90,667

789, tee

3,888,266
353.333

13,571

12,297,560

235,997

1,142,133

38,199

3,477,200



4,508,666

44,400

1,997

1,160,400

25,74.5,333

6,292,000

18,000



1,237,066
106,533



746,533

108.266
129,333
108.366



$416,714






(a) .

(«)
33,774

215,737

(«)

(o)

(«)
(«)

101,514
(°)

64,280



i:il,793
30,111

(«)

.348.108
1,060,163

(«)
15,551



164,344
133,196
31,427



31,216
32.809
28,947



aEorroR's Note.— The figures for these values are not available; they arc not given either in the
published returns of the Chinese Maritime Customs or in the reports from the Antimg consulate.

Because of the absence of statistics showing the countiy of origin
of goods, it is only ])ossible to give the following approximate esti-
mate of the proportion of the total value of imports into Antimg
coming from the various countries: Japan (including Chosen), 97

fer cent; Great Britain, 1 J per cent; United States, 1 per cent; Dutch
ndies,' J per cent; all other countries, J per cent.

An examination of the table of imports reveals the fact that while
in 1908 American shirtings, sheetings, and drills practically held
the leading position, by 1918 they had suffered not only a relative
but even an absolute decrease. This has been occasioned by the
advantages of direct representation, geographical proximity, reduced
duty, and low transportation charges enjoyed by the Japanese cot-
ton manufacturers. As is stated elsewhere in this chapter, at least



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3^8 COM]VIEBCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHINA.

two of these advantages may also \>e enjoyed by iVmericau manu-
facturers.

Prior to the outbreak of the European war the larger part of the
imported foreign floiu' was of American origin, but its place has
been taken by flour milled in Shanghai. Whether, after normal
conditions have been restored, American flour can recapture its
former position, is very doubtful, because of the increased capaci-
ties and proximity of the Shanghai, Tiehling, and Harbin milis.

Practically all of the kerosene oil is imported by two companies,
the Standard Oil Co. of New York and the Asiatic Petroleum C<».
(British), though a small quantity of low-grade Japanese kerosene
oil was imported during a recent year. The former company has
an American manager stationed in Antung who has charge of his
company's sales throughout this district.

The bulk of the sugar import.ed into this district is manufactured
in Hongkong by a British firm and is brought to Antung in the com-
pany's own steamers. A considerable proportion of the cigarettes
maported are of American manufacture but are marketed by a British
corporation, w^hich keeps a* European manager stationed in Antung
citv.

tn addition to the lines just mentioned, in the supplying of which
American merchants have a share, there should be a good but limited
market for the following goods: Inexpensive but highly ornamented
clocks and watches; axes; cheap perfumes; cheap but colored
and highly scented soap; cheap caps and felt tats; scales; cabinet
hardware; and saA^•s.

SHIPPING FACILITIES FOR TRADE ^ITH UNITED STATES.

Since the port of Tatungkow no longer possesses any conmier-
cial importance, and since Fenghwangcheng is an inland town,
Antung is the only treaty port in this district that can be said to
possess any shippmg facilities. The natural water route for trade
with the United States is by way of Japan, with the port of Kobe
as a point of transshipment.

The Osaka Shosen Kaisha (Osaka Steamship Co.) has two steamers
on the Osaka-Kobe and Antunff run, which furnish sailings approxi-
mately every 10 days during uie season of navigation.

The war nas directly ana adversely affected sliipping facilities
with the United States by; decreasing the available tonnage on the
Pacific and greatly advancing freight charges.

The silting up of the fairway of the Yalu River at a point several
miles below Antung, which is thought by some engineers to have
been occasioned by the piers of the railwaj; bridge, has resulted in
preventing ocean-going steamers from coming up, as was done in
former years, as far as the Antung water front. The present anchor-
age for such vessels is at SantaiHangtow, a subanchorage 6i miles
below the city. As the use of this subanchorage necessitates the
additional expense of lightering all cargo. effortsTiave been made in
recent years to dredge out the channel, out with no success. Con-
servancy works that would cause the river to scour out its own
channel have been projected, but owing to lack of funds nothing
had been done up to June, 1918. However, as such a plan would
appear to the lay observer as likely to be successful, it is to be hoped



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AXXrXG CONSULAR DISTRICT. S99

that the delay owing to lack of fumls will prove only a temporary
one.

In spite of the diflSculties caused by the necessity of lightering,
and the great reduction in bottoms caused by diversion of shipping
as a result of the war, the number of steamers entering the port
during the year 1918 was 275, with a total tonnage of 106,696. Of
these 123 were Japanese, 134 Chinese, 17 British, and 1 Dutch.
The majority of these were small coasting vessels of 150 to 300 tons,
which ran to Chefoo, Dairen, Tsingtau, and Korean ports. How-
ever, there were also several larger vessels of 1,500 to 2,000 tons
running to Shanghai, Tsingtau, and South China and Japan porU.

FACILITIES FOR TRAVEL.

There is no modem hotel in Antung. However, the Yapuken
Hotel, a Japanese inn, is often tised by American and European
travelers. The rates, including meals and service, are 3 yen and up
(equivalent to $1.50 United States currencv). The hotel main-
tained by the Chosen Railway Co. at Hsin Wiju (Japanese pronun-
ciation "Shingishu''), Chosen, just across the river from Antimg, is
modem and well equipped, and can be reached by a jinrikisha ride
of only 25 minutes ffom the business center of Antung. The rates
are from 6 yen a day up ($3 United States currency). In the interior
towns of this district there are no modern accommodations, and
travelers must carry their own food and bedding with them.

The best seasons for visiting this district are the montlis of June,
September, October, and November. In the early spring months
there is likely to be too much wind for comfort, the rainy season
occurs during July and August, and the winter montlis are cold and
excessively windy.

By means of the CTiosen and South Manchuria Railways, over which
a thoroughly modem express-train service is maintained, Antung can
be reached with ease ancl comfort at all seasons of the year from Japan
or from Mukden. In terms of time, Antung is 10 hours and 20
minute from Seoul, and 6 hours and a half from Mukden.

Passage may also be secured on steamers running from Shanghai,
Tsingtau, Dairen, and Tientsin, but as the steamers that can come up
the 1 alu River are quite small it is usually more comfortable to travel
by train.

TRADE ORGANIZATIONS IN DISTRICT.

There are only two trade organizations in this district, the Chinese
and the Japanese Cliambers of Conamerce at Antung. The Chinese
C^iamber has a membership of 52 firms and plays a very important
rdle in the commercial life oi the Chinese city. The Japanese Cnamber
has 20 members and is a very wide-awake body, which loses no oppor-
tunities to advance Japanese trade interests.

In the Japanese Settlement therd is a Japanese commercial museum
where exhibits of Japanese manufactured goods can be seen by pos-
sible Chinese purchasers and where exhibits illustrative of the agri-



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