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about 22,000 acres.

Construction of the outlet works for Four Horns Lake Beservoir,
to supply water for the Badger-Fisher uni^ was begun in September,
1914, and was completed for the ifirst development of 4,000 acre-feet
storage in Au^st, 1915.

On the Birdi Creek unit construction was begun in August, 1915,
and is still in. progress. The head works, 6 miles of main canal, and
distribution system for 1,000 acres of land, have been completed.

GONSTBUCnON DUBINa FISCAL YEAB.



Badger-Fiahtr umt. — ^The excavation of the outlet of the Four
Horns Beservoir and the construction of temporary wooden control-
ling works to provide 4,000 acre-feet of storage were completed. The
chute drop at station 1585 of Fisher canal was completed. On the



Four Horns supply canal the wood-stave siphon, 62 mches in diam

' ,"' feet " ■ ■

constructed*



eter and 1,030 feet in leo^gth, with concrete inlet and outlet, was



Biroh Creek umt. — On the Birch Creek unit 6 miles of main canal,
concrete headworks, wasteway, 4^ miles of laterals, and a number of
minor structures under this system were constructed.



SUBVEYS.

Meander surveys of Four Horns Beservoir and Two Medicine Lake
were ccxnpleted.

BGOKOMIES OF GOVEBNMliNT WORK.

All of the construction work on the Blackfeet project has been per-
formed by Government forces, principally with Indian labor and
teams, so that comparison with contract work can not be made.

OPERATION AND MAINTBNAHGE.

The Two Medicine and Piegan canals were operated during the
season of 1915, and a total of 1,618 acres were irrigated. The Two
Medicine canal, the Piegan canal, the Badger-Fisher system, and
the Birch canal are in operation this season. About 3,000 acres are
under cultivation. On account of the excessive rainfall and cool
season, very little irrigation has been necessaiy.



HistoriciU review, Blackfeet profeoU



Item.



1913



1018



1014



1016



1016



A«rwg« for whUh the servlot was prtpared to for-

niBhwAlff

Acnac* irrigated

lUlaB of eanal operated

Water diverted (aore-feet)

Water delivered to land (acre-feet)

PeraeraoflandifTlsatedCaoie-feet)



94,000



96,040



35

8,650

41



700



96,640
676

16,380
4,430



96,640

1,618

66

8,354

1.970

L88



46,640

>8,000

143



1 Estimated.



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552 FIFTEENTH ANKUAL EEPOBT OF KBOLAMAIION SEBVIOB.

SBTTLEMXHT.

Land under the project has not yet been opened for settlement.
About 55,000 acres nave been allotted to Indians, but, except in a
few cases, have not been settled upon by them or farmed*

SeMemmU data, Blackfeet proieot.



Item.



TotalniimlMroflluiiifonptojMt

Population

Momber of Irri^tad fanns

Operated by owners or managers —

Operated by tenants

Popalatkm

Number of towns.

Population

Total population In towns and on fanns .

Number of schools

Number of churches —

Number of banks



1912



8,000
I})



4

80O

800

1

2



1018



8,000



4

800

800

1

2



1014



8,000

K

13



40
4
300
840
1
8



1015



1916



8,000


3.000


^).


rt


18


38


10


83


8




80


153


4


4


376


1,425


425


1,578


1


6


3


8



1 Not opened.
PBIKCIPAL CBOPa

The principal crops are hay, small grain, and vegetables. Tim-
othy, alfalfa, oats, flax, barley^ winter and spring wheat, potatoes,
and roots do very well when ffiven the proper care. Unusual rain-
fall in 1915 and 1916 has made irrigation much less necessary than
usual. On account of the lar^e amount of summer-grazing area
immediately adjacent to the irrigable lands, the raising and feeding
of cattle, sheep, and horses will be the most profitabfo industry in
connection witn the development of the project.

Crop report, Blackfeet (Indian) project^ Montana, 1915.





Area
(acres).


Unit of
yield.


Yields.


Values.


Crop.


Total.


Average
per acre.


Per unit
of yield.


Total.


Per acre.


Alfalfa


52
11


tons

Bushels...


96
821


1.9
29.0


87.00
.60


8686

161
1,820
7^,829

1,006

'406

2,986

2,690


813.30


Barley


14.50


Garden


33




40.00


Oats


576

18

32

187

413


Bushels...

...do

Tons

Bushels...
Tons


19,573

1,676

68

8,916

538


84.0
93.0

1.8
21.0

1.8


.40
.60

7.00
.75

6.00


13.60


Potatoes


55.80


Timothy


12:60


Wheat


15.76


Wild hay


6.50








Totaloropped acreage.


1,822
290


Total and average




17,084


12.90








Areas.


Acr«.


Farms.


Percent

of
project.


Xrrlcated.nocrop:

rail plowing


Irrigable area farms rep
Irrigated area farms reP
Under water-right appll
Cropped ar^ f Amu niTx


orted


8,247
1,618
1,618
1 822


88
88
83
88


12


orted


7




cations

)rted


. . 7
5


Total Irrigated acreage


1,618















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INDIAN IBRIGATION PBOJEOTS.
FINAKCIAL STATEMENT.



553



[Flnandal strntement in detail, showing assetB, Uabilitief, reserves, and capital, given In

appendix, p. 760.1

Feature comU of Blackfeet project^ to June SO, 1916.



Features.



SubfM-
tore.



Prindpal
feature.



Examination and snrrsys.

Storage s]r8tem:

PreUminary survey and designs. Spring Lake I Um is i v oir

Preliminary survey and designs, Badger Creek Reservoir

Preliminary survey and designs, Four Horns Reservoir

Preliminary survey and designs. Lower Lake, Two Medislne Biierv olr . .

Preliminary survey and designs, Middle Lake, Two Medloins Reservoir.

Preliminary and general work

Two Medicme Dam

Four Horns Reservoir

Buildings, Two Medicine Lake

Administrative general expense



Canal system:

Preliminary and general work

Blaoktail diversion.

Badcer feeder canal headworks

Blron Creek canal headworks

Two Medicine unit headworks structure

Two Medicine main canal, divisionl

Two Medidne mala canal, division 2

Fisher mftl" canal

Badeer-Flsher feeder canal

Bircn Creek main canal

Steel flume^ station 193, Fisher main canal

Steel flume, station 230, Fisher main canal

Steel flume, station 1938, Two Medicine main canal

Sprhig Creek Canyon flume, station 377

Spring Creek Canyon flume, station 97

Spring Creek Canyon flume, station 164

whitetail Creek crossing siphon

Sluiceway and drop, station 316. division 1, Two Medicine main canal. .

Turnouts and checks. Two Medicine unit

Badger-Fisher drops

Tlmoer wasteway, station 7134, division l/Two Medicine main canal.. ,
Timber wasteway, station 316, division 1, Two Medicine main canal.. . .

Wasteway, s tat ion 322, Fisher main canal ,

Wasteway, station 801. Fisher main canal

Wasteway. Fisher mam canal

Timber culverts, division 1, Two Medicine main canal

Timber culverts, division 2, Two Medicine main canal

Timber culverts, Badger-Fisher feeder canal

Concrete culverts under Greet Northern Railway tracks

Concrete culverts, Fisher main canal

Undistributed cost of plant to June 30, 1916

Headquarters camp oonstruetian

Administrative general expense



Lateral system:

Preliminary and general work, Birch Creek distribution system —
Preliminary survey and design, Two Medicine distribution system.
Preliminary survey and design, Fisher canal distribution system. . .
Preliminary survey and design, Plegan canal distribution system . .

Birch CreeK laterals and sublaterals

Flat bottom laterals. Fisher canal distribution system

V ditch laterals, Fisner canal distribution system

Lateral construction, type A, Fisher canal distribution system

Lateral construction, type B, Fisher canal distribution system

Turnouts and checks, Fisher canal

Turnouts, lateral K, Fisher canal

Turnouts, double-barrel 24-lnch. Fisher canal

Turnouts, single-barrel 18-inch, Fisher canal

Drop, lateral K, station 0, Fisher canal

Drop, lateral K, station 07, Fisher canal

Drop, lateral ^ station 186, Fisher canal

Drop, lateral g stations 97 and 187, Fisher canaL

Drop, lateral S^ station M76, Fisher canaL

Drop, station NO, Fisher main canal

Culverts, Plegan distribution system •.

Administrative general expense „



$1,M2.68

310.93

1,344.64

8,067.18

670.07

128.36

184,840.96

11,406.37

3,516.08

64.06



37,053.07

0,136.64

6,067.16

3,308.70

16,767.66

313,354.00

45,433.60

130,303.70

00,148.16

7,706.76

1,066.73

5,381.60

1,345.10

3,808.86

616.67

600.31

18,88L77

610.73

14,741.08

37.37

1,198.56

1,382.00

1,050.67

1,62L74

834.43

4,605.54

2,100.60

2,816.38

3,400.93

6,207.91

6,535.73

2,565.82

255.80



48.56

12,103.91

8,088.83

16,432.00

606.73

28,718.35

10,971.20

12,648.30

6,280.01

2,873.63

1,500.68

167.13

86a 86

8,002.78

2,666.88

8,136.60

836.83

8,667.57

8,786.08

881.11

178.01



85.33^34



157,108.10



643,606.16



110,430.07



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554 FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF RECLAMATION SERVICE.
Feature casts of Blackfeet project, to June 30, idi 5— Continued.



Fofttora.




featora.



Trnmanmi improvvDunti and land:

Bufldlius, all units

Roads, Fish«r canal distribution system.

Roads, Two Madioine division

Roads, Piagan distribation systom

Walls, Two Medicine division



Telapbone system

Operation and maintenance daring constroctlon (water-rental basis) .
Puntaooomit



Oroas cost of ooDstruction of proieot to Imie 30, 1Q16.
Lass revenues earned during ooDstnictlon period:

Rental of buildings

Rental of telaphooes and tolls

Contractors' Irelght reltmds

Other revenues, unclassifled

Profit on mess^iouse operations

Profit on mercantile ston operations

Profit on hospital operations



Net oost of ooostructioo of project to June 80, 1016. ,



880.66

714.60

86.04

7.60

7,0fiai6

18,055.09

638.33



138,600.00
8,388.30

38,6eaoo

1,348.61



081,806^ 00



39,183.87



063,364.10



Estimated oost of contemplated work, Blackfeet project, durinff fiscal year 1917.



Features.



Subfeature.



Principal
foatura.



Extminfttlon and surveys:

Stream ganging

Lateral location



Canal system:

Two Medinina Canal, main canal— .

Bzcavtttion

Revetment

r Canal, drops, chutes, and checks—

Concrete

Backfill



Lateral system:

Laterals and sublatarals, excavation .
Minor structures



Pinnaneat improvements and land:

Purchase of right of way and improvements, Two Medidna Lake Reservoir.
Purdiase of land for canal riders' headquarters



Telephone system: Maintenance and repair of telephone lines

Operation and maintenance during construction (water-rental basis):

Development

Operation

Maintenance



Hospitals...
Total.



8800.00
700.00



0,796.75
3,000.00

730.00
60.00



3,113.00
4,344.80



23,40a00

3oaoo



300.00
3,160.00
4, 46a 00



81,600.00

11,678.78
6,466.80



33,600.00
600.00



6,800.00

1,600.00

46a 00






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HONTANA, FLATHEAD (TSmUS) PB07ECT.

B. F. Tabob,^ project manager, St Ignatius, Mont
LOCATION.

Counties: Flathead, Missoula, Sanders.

Townships : 15 to 25 N., Rs. 17 to 25 W., Montana meridian.

Railroad: Northern Pacific.

Towns and estimated population, June 30, 1016: Evaro, 75; Arlee, 200;
Ravalli, 125; Dixon, 250; Perma, 35; Camas, 50; Dayton, 100; Big Arm, 75;
Poison, 1,700; St Ignatius, 225; Ronan, 475; and Hot Springs, 150.

WATER SUPPLY.

Source of water supply: Flathead, Jocko, and Little Bitter Root Rivers;
Mud, Crow, Post, Mission, Dry, Finley, Agency, Big Knife, Valley, and Falls
Creeks; and about 00 smaller streams.

Area of drainage basin : 8,000 square miles.

Annual run-off in acre-feet of Flathead River at Poison, 1908 to 1915 : Mazi*
mum, 9,740,000; minimum, 5,883,000; mean, 8,070,555.

AGBICULTURAL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIOK&

Area for which the service is prepared to supply water, season of 1916:
63,000 acres.

Area under water-rental applications, season 1916 (to June 30) : 16,994 acres.

Length of irrigating season : May 1 to September 30, 153 days.

Average elevation of irrigable area : 3,000 feet above sea level.

Rainfall on irrigable area: At St Ignatius (Mont) station, 1909 to 1915,
average, 17.37 inches ; probably less on average Irrigable area.

Range of temperature on irrigable area : — 30** to 96** F.

Character of soil of irrigable area : Varies from light sandy loam to heavy
clay.

Principal products : Grain, hay, vegetables, fruit and cattle.

Principal markets : Missoula, Butte, and Anaconda, Mont, and other mining
and lumber towns and camp's.

LANDS OPENED FOB IBBIGATION.

Dates of public notices and orders : Proclamation of the President May 22,
1909, opened lands to filing under certain rules as to registration, etc., first filing
to be May 2, 1910.

Location of lands opened : Tps. 17 to 24 N., Rs. 19 to 24 W., Montana meridian.

Present status of irrigable area opened: About 49,600 acres have been
entered; 400 acres open to entry; 97,000 acres in private ownership, mostly
Indian allotments held under trust patents ; 5,000 acres of State lands.

Limit of area of farm units : 160 acres ; average irrigable, about 40 acres.

Duty of water: Works will provide about 1.5 acre-feet per acre per annum
at the farm.

Building charges: Not fixed.

Annual operation and maintenance charges: $1 per acre-foQt; minimum
charge, $1 per acre, 1916.

CHBONOLOGIGAL SUMMARY.

Reconnoissance and preliminary surveys begun In 1907.
Construction authorized and first appropriation made by act of Congress
approved April 30, 1908.



*Died AQgnBt 20, 1916. F. T. Crowe appointed project manager.

566



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556 FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF RECLAMATION SERVICE,

Irrigation in Jocko and Mission divisions begun in 1910.
Irrigation in Post division begun in 1911.
Kicklnghorse feeder canal completed in 1912.
Irrigation in Poison and Pablo divisions begun in 1913.
Entire project 26.1 per cent completed ^une 30, 1916.

IBBIGATION PLAN.

Tbe Irrigation plan of the Flathead project provides for the irrigation of
about 152,000 acres of land in various parts of what was the Flathead Indian
Reservation, water being diverted from creeks and rivers rising in the Mission
Mountains and conducted by canals directly to the land and to reservoirs for
the storage of flood waters. About 12 reservoirs will be constructed. Some of
these are lakes, the capacity of which will increase, and others natural basins,
which will require only the building of embankments at low points. The water
supply will be supplemented when necessary by pumping from Flathead Lake.
Irrigable tracts on the Jocko, Mission, Post, Pablo, and Poison divisions, which
contain the largest percentage of irrigable land allotted to the Indians, have
been selected for the flrst development. The United States claims all waste,
seepage, spring, and percolating water arising within the project and proposes
to use such water in connection therewith.

The following principal features have been completed : A distribution system
covering approximately 8,500 acres in Jocko Valley, taking water from Jocko
River and tributaries; a distribution system covering about 6,600 acres and
taking water from Mission Creek; a distribution system lying below Kicklng-
horse Dam site, covering about 2,000 acres; a distribution system lying under
the Nineplpe Reservoir, covering about 21,500 acres, which, together with the
previous-mentioned tract, takes water from Post Creek and tributaries; a dis-
tribution system taking water from Crow Creek for about 2,000 acres in Moiese
Valley; a distribution system under Pablo Reservoir, taking water from Post,
Crow, and Mud Creeks for about 21^200 acres ; and a distribution system taking
water fronj the last-named creeks for about 1,200 acres near Tolson. Two
storage reservoirs have been constructed — Pablo Reservoir for 5,000 acre-feet
and Nineplpe for 5,000 acre-feet. Canals have been dug, but structures are
incomplete for an additional area of about 15,000 acres. Contract has been let
for the major part of this structure work. The Pablo Feeder Canal has been
built from 2 miles south of Post Creek to Pablo Reservoirs, a distance of about
29 miles, picking up the waters of all streams flowing from the mountains.

SUMMABY OF QENEBAI. DATA FOB FLATHEAD PROJECT TO JXTTSTE

30, 1916.

Areas:

Irrigable acreage when project is complete 152, 000

Public land entered June 30, 1916 (acres) 47,000

Public land open to entry June 30. 1916 (acres) 500

Public land withdrawn June 30, 1916 (acres) 7, 500

State land June 30, 1916 (acres) 11,000

Indian land June 30, 1916 (acres) 85,010

Private land June 30, 1916 (acres) 990

Acreage service could have supplied season of 1915 52,400

Addition In fiscal year 1916 13, 600

Estimated addition In fiscal year 1917 28, 700

Estimated acreage service can supply July 1, 1917 94, 700

Acreage actually Irrigated, season of 1915 l__ 3,242

Acreage cropped under irrigation, season of 1915 3, 179

Crops:

Value of Irrigated crops, season of 1915 $48, 627. 87

Value of Irrigated crops, per acre cropped 15. 19

Finances :

Estimated cost of completed project $6,790,009.68

Total construction cost to June 30, 1916 $1,676,292.46

Per cent complete, June 30. 1916 26.1

Apropriatlon for fiscal year 1917. total $760,000.00

Allotment for construction, fiscal year 1917 $700,000.00

Estimated per cent complete, June 30, 1917 33.5



Digitized by V^jOOQlC



MONTANA, FLATHEAD (INDIAN) PROJECT. 557



Apropriatlon, fiscal year 1916 $200, 000. 00

Unexpended balance of 1915 appropriation 192, 442. 88



Total appropriation $392, 442. 88

Expenditures during fiscal year, chargeable to 1916 appropriation :

Disbursements $244. 180. 85

Transfers 956. 89

$245. 187. 74

Registered liabilities chargeable to 1916

appropriation 31,146.92

Contract obligations wholly covered by 1916

appropriation 70, 640. 19

$346,924.85

Unencumbered balance July 1, 1916 $45,518.03

Repayments :

Water rental charges accrued to June 30, 1916 30, 784. 22

Collected to June 30. 1916 $17,999.40

Uncollected June 30. 1916 12, 784. 82

Drainage :

Estimated acreage damaged by seepage to June 30, 1916 860

Miles of drains built to June 30. 1916—

Open 0. 18

Closed 1. 47



Total 1. 65

Estimated acreage protected by drains built to June 30, 1916. 540

Estimated acreage to be protected by authorized system 700

Expended, to June 30, 1916, on drainage worlds completed

and uncompleted $23, 599. 06

HI8T0BY OF CONSTRUCTION AND ENaiNEERING FEATURES.
INVESTIGATIONS AND PLANS.

In letter dated April 26, 1907, the Office of Indian Affairs requested
that the Reclamation Service undertake investigations of water
supply and lands to be irrigated on the Flathead Indian Reservation.
In July, 1907, field surveys and investigations of possible reservoir
sites were begun. The gauging of some of the streams from which
the project might secure water was also undertaken. A report of
the investigations of the season and recommendations for the begin-
ning of work on certain parts of the project were made in November,
1907. Congress, by act approved April 30, 1908, appropriated
$50,000 for surveys and the beginning of construction work. Under
this appropriation a general survey of the reservation was be^un and
plans made for the beginning of construction work on certam parts
of the project. The general plans for canal systems and reservoirs
were considered and approved by W. H. Code, chief engineer, Indian
irrigation, and W. H. Sanders, consulting engineer for the Reclama-
tion Service.

1009.

Actual construction work was begun in Jocko division in the spring
of 1909, and about 6,000 acres of land brought under irrigation.
During the same year, Mission lateral B was completed, serving a
similar area. About 5 miles of lateral B were constructed in Poison
division. Topographic curveys were extended during the year to
cover most of the irrigable area east of Flathead River.

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558 FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OP RECLAMATION SERVIOB.

On April 27, 1909, a board of engineers, consisting of Messrs. H. N.
Savage, H. A. Storrs, R. O. Hay^ and B. F. Tabor, met at Poison
to consider the general plans for Newell Tunnel. Test pits were
sunk to disclose the character of the foundation for the power house,
so that final location was not made until June 5^ 1909. A 5 by 12
foot shaft, 76 feet deep, was sunk near the inlet m the fall of 1909,
and actual driring of the tunnel was started December 8. The
tunnel was completed to the shaft, a distance of 1,708 feet, December
27, 1911.

1910.

- In the year 1910, Jocko lateral K was completed and lateral D
out of Big Knife Creek was constructed, bringing a total of about
8,000 acres of land under laterals in this division. Laterals B and C,
Post division, commanding about 7,000 acres of land, were con-
structed during the summer months and work was begun on Nine-
pipe Dam. The headworks and diversion dam for Kickinghorse
feeder canal on Post Creek were completed ready for the instaUation
of gates. Twenty -two miles of the Pablo lateral A system were also
completed.

1911.

The Finley Creek system of laterals in Jocko division was ex-
cavacated by Government forces during the season of 1911. No
structures were built except the headgates. In Mission division a
permanent camp was constructed at St. Mary Lake, a telephone line
and road were built to the camp, and a number of test pits were sunk
to determine the best location for the tunnel and dam. General
plans for the tunnel and dam were considered by boards of engineers
as follows: H. N. Savage, Charles P. Williams, Joseph Wright, and
E. F. Tabor, August 17 and 18; A. P. Davis and H. N. Savage,
September 2; F. H. Newell, H. N. Savage, C. J. Moody, and E. F.
Tabor, October 11; D. C. Henny, C. J. Moody, and E. F. Tabor,
December 17, 1911. Actual construction work has not been started.
Li Post division, the Kickinghorse feeder canal was constructed by
steam shovel, and the concrete drops into Kickinghorse Reservoir
were built. The supply canal between the Kickinghorse and Ninepipe
Beservoirs was excavated, but the three drops required for this line
were not constructed. The lateral system was extended to serve a
total of about 16,000 acres, with the exception of turnouts and
measuring devices. The embankments of Ninepipe Dam were raised
to elevation 3007, which will store about 5,350 acre- feet. The Pablo
feeder canal was completed to Post Creek, including necessary head-
works, wasteways, bridges, and drops, except Post Creek headworks.
Government forces also constructed the drops into North, Middle,
and South Pablo Beservoirs, the North and South Pablo controlling
works, and about 8 miles of lateral extensions. The first contract
construction work on the project was awarded to Nelson Bich for
the initial development of North, Middle, and South Pablo Dams
and the excavation of supply canals and 6 miles of lateral A. The
contractor started work October 1, 1911. Consulting Engineer D. C.
Henny and Supervising Engineer H. N. Savage met with Project
Manager E. F. Tabor on May 18 and again on July 1, 1911, to revise
plans for South Pablo controlling works.

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MONTANA, FLATHEAD (INDIAN) PROJECT. 569

1012.

In the year 1912 the Northern Pacific Railway constructed a cul-
vert under their track for lateral E in Jocko division. In Post
division, Government forces practically completed the excavation of
lateral A and excavated about 15,000 cubic yards on lateral G.
Timber structures were built on laterals wherever water applica-
tions indicated their immediate use. The steam-shovel excavation
on the Pablo feeder canal was extended about a mile south of Post
Creek; work was discontinued, on account of lack of funds, April
12, 1912, and has not since been resumed. Government forces con-
structed Post Creek headworks, Pablo lateral X, and a number of
timber and concrete structures on Pablo lateral A and sublaterals.
Contractor Nelson Rich constructed the North and Middle Pablo
Dams, started the South Pablo Dam, and practically completed the
supply canals.

1913.

In the year 1913, Post MA lateral was excavated to station 93 by
steam shovel. The headworks, several of the other structures, and

fart of the lateral system were built by Government forces. In
^ablo division, Government forces constructed 252 structures on
laterals % and A. Contractor Nelson -Rich completed the construc-
tion of the Pablo dams and canals. The work was inspected on
May 21 by Messrs. Charles P. Williams and D. C. Henny; June 8,
by Messrs. H. N. Savage, George O. Sanf ord, and E. F. Tabor ; and



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