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Prisoners and juvenile delinquents in the United States 1910 online

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61.6

56.3
43.1
44.9

58.9
31.8
57.3
67.3



39.8
18.2
59.5
48.7
45.9

25.9

55.8
60.8
59.2
54.5

46.3
66.1
58.8

37.0

41.8

59.3

27.5
49.5



10.5



Vio-
lating
liquor

laws.



1.6



12.4
3.0
8.5
9.4

12.6
0.9

10.0
9.4
7.9



8.2



7.0
4.6
10.1

7.9
9.3
9.8
6.6
10.4

10.4
10.4

10.6
14.9



9.9

11.4
9.0
3.6



10.1
3.8
6.5
3.5
5.5



10.0
13.1
8.7
3.8
2.9

11.3
8.1

U.5
7.9
6.7



8.0
10.2
7.3

16.2

4.4
7.3

7.8
8.7
12.9

11.2

10.8
10.3
9.5
12.3

4.8
7.7
9.9

2.4

11.0

11.2

38ji9
4.3



0.7
1.5
0.3
1.1



MaU-
eious
mis-
chief
and
tres-



ing.



0.6
0.9
1.7
0.8
1.6



1.6

4.5
1.1
1.3
1.6

1.0
0.8
0.6
1.0
1.4

0.2
0.2

1.5
1.5

1.0

0.5

0.6

'i.'o'



1.0
5.3
2.3
2.5
2.8
0.7

1.4
1.4



25.7
0.6

0.3
0.7

1.4
0.9
0.6

0.3
6.1
0.3
1.0

1.2

8.5
0.3
1.7
2.7
0.6

1.3

0.6
0.7
1.2
0.4

2.6
0.9
0.3

2.4

1.7
0.2



1.1



1.6
1.5
1.9
0.7
0.6

2.4
0.9
1.3
1.6
3.4



1.1

5.3
1.5
1.3

1.2

1.4
1.7
1.1
0.8
2.5

1.4
0.8



Of-
fenses
pecul-
iar to
chil-
dren.



Of-
fenses
ill-de-
fined
or not

re-
ported.



1.4



1.6

1.3

3.4

2.1
1.8
0.5



2.5
1.3
1.7
1.8
1.2
1.6

2.6
0.7
0.7



0.6

3.1
0.1

2.6
0.9
0.6

2.5
1.9
2.8
1.2

0.6

0.7
1.5
1.7
3.7
0.4

2.6

2.8
1.7
2.2
0.9

0.4
0.6
1.9



1.8



1.0
4.9



1.1
0.1



1.7



0.6



0.2
0.2
1.1



0.2



1.5,
1.1



0.2

0.2
0.3

e.3

0.1
1.4



0.4
0.3



0.2



0.9
2.0



3.5
0.4
1.0
0.2



0.6
0.7



0.1
0.2

0.1
0.5
0.6



0.8
0.2
0.1



0.1
23.0



0.1
0.2

19.5

0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3

0.4
0.1
0.2



0.4
0.2



0.8
2.0
0.5
, 0.7.
3.3

0.8
5.2
0.7
1.0
1.0



0.6

1.5
3.0
2.0
0.8

0.9
0.9
0.7
1.6
l."4

0.6
0.7

2.3
1.2

0.6

1.6

0.6
0.9
4.1



0.8
1.8
1.5
1.3
0.6
0.3

1.6
0.9
0.9
1.0
2.3

0.6
0.2

1.5
1.1
0.6

2.0
1.9
0.7
0.6

3.0

2.3
0.5



2.6
1.9

0.6

0.9
LO
1.0
0.6

2.2
0.5
0.8

2.4

0.8

1.0



AU

Other

of.



10.0



12.8
12.4
6.0

11.1

9.4

9.5
47.8
10.9
7.6
5.3



7.8

10.5
4.8

18.4
9.9

8.5
12.5

9.9
11.3

9.0

6.4
12.3

10.6
9.5

16.2

10.8

8.0
10.8
12.2



10.3
16.0
12.1
19.1
7.3
■7.7

5.1
6^0
8.0
20,3
17.9

7.4
9.8

8.6
10.2
23.0



18.9
8.1
8.0

11.4

22.5
6.2
11.2
11.4
11.0

9.3

5.2
6^8
12.5
19.4

20.3
8.7
7-0

18.1

12.3

6.6

13.0
15.a



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.



OCCUPATIONS.



153



Table 166— Continued.


MALE PKISONEKS AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS COMMITTED IN 1910.




Total.














Per cent


coTnmittod for—












OCXJUPATION.


Grave
homi-
cide.


Lesser
homi-
cide.


As-
sault.


Roh-
hery.


Bur-
glary.


Lar-
ceny.


Fraud.


For-
gery.


Rape.


Forni-
cation.


Dnmk-
ermess

and
disor-
derly

con-
duct.


Va-
grancy.


Vio-
lating
liquor
laws.


Mali-
cious
mis-
chief
and
tres-
pass-
ing.


Of-
fenses
pecul-
iar to
chil-
dren.


Of-
fenses
ill-de-
flned
or not

re-
ported.


All
other

of-
fenses.


Bailway employees (steam):
Conductors and brakemen. .

Engineers and firemen

Flagmen, gatemen, and


1,581
1,032

1,163
6,4t)4

4,030

3,190

2,190

448

149

911

443

105

14,126

4,696

1,546

19,690

70,380


0.3
0.3

"'6.'2'

0.1
0.1
0.1


0.5
0.6

0.1
0.4

0.2
0.3
0.7


4.2
3i8

3.9
4.7

4.3
2.4
6.4
8.5
0.7

2.4
7.0
1.9

4.7

4.3
3.7
4.7
3.5


0.4
1.0

0.3
0.3

0.3
0.3
0.5
0.2

0.4

"0.5

0.3
0.3
0.5
0.2


3.2

5.4

1.3
1.3

1.1
2.0
0.6
0.7
3.4

2.3
0.2
1.9
1.8

1.4
2.1
2.4
1.2


10.3
10.6

8.2
7.2

6.4
13.9
7.6
8.9
12.8

5.2
3.6
9.5
10.3

6.3
6.2
9.0
9.8


3.7
3.3

1.4
1.7

2.3
3.8
1.6
3.6
5.4

1.2
1.1

7.6
1.0

2.0

1.4
2.0
1.0


0.8
2.4

0.1
0.2

0.2
2.5
0.2
0.2
12.1

0.7
0.2
6.7
0.3

0.1
0.2
0.5
0.2


0.3
1.2

0.2
0.1

0.2
0.4
0.3

0.3

"""i."9"
0.3

0.3
0.1
0.4
0.1


0.7
0.5

0.3
0.2

0.2
0.5
1.1
0.9
1.3

0.1

0.2
1.0
0.4

0.4
0.1
0.5
0.2


45.8
46.2

61.1

54.6

62.3
49.1
35.4
53.6
43.0

67.2
74.7
22.9
55.5

65.7
60.5
55.1
44.6


11.8
11. a

15.2
13.0

11.8
8.0
7.1

13.2
8.1

9.3
7.0
9.5
10.6

9.4
8.2
9.3
11.8


0.8
0.8

0.6
0.9

0.4
0.9
16.8
0.2
0.7

0.5
0.7
3.8
0.7

1.2
1.2
1.2
2.0


3.7
1.9

1.4
2.7

2.7
1.3
0.8
1.6
1.3

2.6
0.7


"'"o.'e"


1.6
1.1

0.6
0.7

0.9
1.1
1.1

0.7
0.7

0.5
0.5
3.8
0.6

0.6
0.9
1.0
3.9


12.0
9.7

5.5




11.6




6.6


Salesmen


12.8


Saloon keepers and bartenders. .

Slaughterhouse workers

Stenoeranhers


19.7
7.1


0.7

"■■6.'i"

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1


0.1
0.5
3.8
0.2

0.1
0.3
0.4
0.1


10.1




7.0


^knners


3.6


fPeanisters


25.7


1.6

2.1

1.4
2.0
2.7


0.2

0.6
0.7
0.9
8.9


10.8


Textile mill operatives


5.1




12.7


All other occupations


9.9


No occupation or not reporting. .


11.1



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.



Of the 48,566 female prisoners and juvenile delin-
quents conunitted in 1910, as shown in General Table
108 (p. 490), 25,426, or over one-half, reported an occu-
pation prior to commitment. In the total population
10 years of age or over, only 23.4 per cent of the females
were reported as having gainful occupations in 1910.
The relatively large proportion of female prisoners and
juvenile delinquents reporting an occupation indicates
that women of the wage-earning class are more hable
to be committed to prisons, jails, and reformatories,
and presumably they are more hkely to be guilty of
penal oflFenses, than are their more sheltered sisters.
Over two-thirds of the female prisoners and juvenile



delinquents who reported an occupation (67.6 per cent)
had been domestic servants, while in the total popula-
tion only 16.2 per cent of the females reporting an oc-
cupation were domestic servants. Laundresses formed
the next largest group (11.8 per cent) of the females
committed who reported an occupation. Drunken-
ness and disorderly conduct accounted for 58.8 per cent
of the commitments of females, and constituted the
leading cause of commitment for eachoccupationshown,
followed in the case of five occupations by prostitu-
tion and fornication, although these latter offenses
were responsible for but 9.2 per cent of the total num-
ber of commitments of females.



JUVENILE OFFENDERS.

By Reginald L. Brown, A. M.



IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT.

The subject of juvenile delinquency has in recent
years come to be regarded as one which should re-
ceive entirely separate consideration from that of
crime in general. This is in recognition of the fact
that in its causes, the problems to which it gives rise,
and the methods by which it may best be treated,
juvenile delinquency differs from the lawbreaking of
adults. There is not the same presumption of a
wilful violation of the law in the case of the juvenile
offender as in the case of an adult who supposedly has
arrived at years of discretion and responsible judg-
ment; the offenses of juveniles, in fact, have their
origin in very large measure in thoughtlessness, the
exuberance of the youthful temperament, or lack of
moral training, and do not contain the same implica-
tion of moral obliquity o§ intentional disregard of the
law as do those committed by adults. This very dif-
ference in nature, moreover, makes desirable a dis-
tinct difference in the manner of imposing correction
for the two classes of offenders. In punishing crime
in general one of the predominant ideas is that society
must be protected from those who wilfully disregard
its laws, this protection being obtained to a consider-
able extent by subjecting the offender to confinement
within the walls of a prison. It is only in exceptional
cases, however, that juvenile offenders become so
grave a menace to society as to make segregation in
prisons the only satisfactory way of dealing with
them, and even when the main object in view is pun-
ishment it is nevertheless generally recognized that
the violations of law committed by juveniles should
be dealt with more leniently than the corresponding
offenses committed by adults. In most, if not all,
cases of juvenile delinquency, the primary con-
sideration is, or should be, the education and reform
of the offender, and whUe this is also an important
consideration in dealing with adults, the problem is
very different when the offender is stiU in the forma-
tive period of life from what it is when his habits and
ways of thinking have become more or less fixed. On
this very account, moreover, the tendency at the
present time is entirely to separate juvenile from
adult offenders in com-t proceedings and to provide
distinct institutions for the two classes in cases where
it appears necessary to impose institutional restraint,
in order that this task of education and reform may
not be rendered more difficult by bringing the juvenile
into association with depraved and vicious adult law-
breakers. For these reasons, while from the stand-
point of the main object of a statistical report on
(154)



prisoners, namely, the fiimishiag of a record of the
offenses punished by confinement in prisons or re-
formatories and the extent to which different com-
munities or classes are represented in the commission
of these offenses, no special distinction between adult
and juvenile offenders may be necessary, yet if the
report is to attain its maximum usefulness from a
strictly sociological standpoint, it is essential that the
data for juvenile offenders should, in addition to being
included in the general tabulation for prison inmates,
be made the basis for a separate and distiact study.

METHOD OF PRESENTATION.

At each census since detailed statistics of prisoners
were first collected, the investigation has included
within its scope the inmates of juvenile reformatories.'
In the reports for the censuses of 1880, 1890, and 1904,
however, the statistics for the latter class were not
included with those for prisoners, but were tabulated
separately, being made, in fact, at the two later cen-
suses the basis of an entirely distinct presentation,
although included in the same volume as the report
on prisoners. This separation was of course in recog-
nition of the fact already pointed out that there is in
many respects an essential difference between juvenile
dehnquency and the lawbreaking of adults who are
presumably possessed of responsible judgment,' and
that this difference is such as to call for a special type
of institution for the custody of those juvenile offend-
ers whose delinquency is sufficiently serious to require
institutional restraint. In formulating the plans for
tabulating the returns for the census of 1910, however,
it was felt that in view of the fact that some states
provided no special custodial institutions for their
juvenile offenders, but committed them to the same
institutions as adult lawbreakers, a continuance of the
policy adopted in previous reports of confining the
presentation for juvenile delinquents to inmates of
reformatories exclusively for this class wotdd be lay-
ing undue stress upon the particular type of machinery
employed ia dealing with this class of lawbrealdng.
On the contrary, it appeared that the very diversity
of methods existing between the states in regard to

' It is uncertain whether the inmates of juvenile reformatories
were included in the enumerations of prisoners prior to 1880. (Re-
port on the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes of the
Population of the United States as Returned at the Tenth Census
(June 1, 1880), p. IX.)

" "The term delinquent is applied to criminals and to juvenile
offenders, whose acts would be criminal, had their perpetrators
arrived at the years of discretion and legal responsibility to the
criminal code." (Report on the Defective, Dependent, arid
Delinquent Classes of the Population of the United States as Re-
turned at the Tenth Census (June 1, 1880), p. IX.)



JUVENILE OFFENDERS.



155



the treatment of their juvenile offenders was itself a
fact of considerable significance which the limitation
of the presentation to inmates of juvenile reformato-
ries almost entirely obscured. In other words, it was
beheved that any study of juvenile delinquency based
upon institutional statistics, in order to have the great-
est possible value and significance, must cover all
juveniles in institutions for the delinquent classes and
not merely those in a special type of institution, the
fact that the offender is a juvenile being considered
more distinctive and significant than the fact that he
is confined in an institution exclusively for juveniles.
In addition to the considerations just mentioned
as affecting the question from the standpoint of those
interested in the problem of juvenile delinquency, a
separate presentation of the data relating to the
inmates of juvenile reformatories did not seem alto-
gether satisfactory from the standpoint of prison
statistics considered as a record of penaHzed law-
breaking. In so far as juvenile offenders are commit-
ted to juvenile reformatories for offenses which if
committed by adults would have resulted in their
commitment to prisons or jails, their exclusion from
the statistics of prisoners restilts in an incomplete
statement of the extent to which the offenses in ques-
tion are ptmished by institutional restraint. To
the extent that juvenile reformatories care for such
offenders, they simply replace the general prisons,
and must properly, therefore, be regarded as a part
of the regular correctional system. Moreover, siuce
special institutions for juvenile offenders are not found
in all states, the exclusion of these institutions from
the tabulation for statistics of prisoners creates a
certain element of incomparabihty in the statistics
for different censuses, due to the fact that a state
having no institutions of this nature at one censais
but committing all its juvenile offenders to the general
prisons or jails may by the time another census is
taken have one or more such institutions, so that if
the latter are excluded from the tabulation of pris-
oners the retTims for the earlier census wiU include
practically all juvenile offenders, while those for the
later census may include comparatively few.* In ad-
dition, even among the states having special reform-
atories for juveniles there is considerable varia-
tion in the extent to which juvenile offenders are
committed to such reformatories, due to differences



' Compare in this connection the following: _ , 4. j

• ' Imprisonment as a penalty for minor offenses is being supplanted
more and more by reformative measures. Thousands who formerly
would have been sent to prisons are now placed on probation or
are dealt with by other means than imprisonment. Even where
a formal probation system has not been estabUshed the tendency
is away fiom imprisonment as the one penalty for offenses 01 aU
Irinds. Particularly is this true in the case of juvenile dehnquents,
who a decade ago formed a not unimportant part of the general
prison population, but are now more and more disappearing from
ft Ti,^=f fo^f«™ ora BiiflfinifiTit * * * to destroy m a notable



It,



... These factors are sufficient . , , - .

degree the comparability of the returns with those of previous
censuses * * *." (Prisoners and Juvenile Delinquents in
Xnstitutions: 1904, p. 13.)



in the maximum age limit for commitment, in the
gravity of the offenses for which commitment to
juvenile reformatories is permitted, and in the poUcy
as to commitments to the different classes of penal or
reformatory iostitutions for the two sexes or different
races, or to other causes. Until aU states have
special institutions for juvenile offenders and a uni-
form law for dealing with such offenders any statistics
of prisoners from which inmates of juvenile reforma-
tories are excluded will ia certain important respects
lack that full degree of comparabiUty as regards
different years and diEferent sections of the country
which is essential if they are to furnish an accurate
iadication of existing conditions and tendencies.

In view of all the circumstances just mentioned,
it was decided in making the tabulation .for the
present report to include the inmates of juvenile
reformatories with those of prisons and jails, instead of
tabulating them separately, as in the reports of the
previous censuses, and to substitute for the separate
report on inmates of special institutions for juvenile
delinquents a section presenting the main facts for all
juvenile offenders under 18 years of age whether in
juvenile reformatories or ia prisons, reformatories,
or jails receiving also adult offenders, this age limit
being selected because it represented the maximum
age for admissipn to juvenile reformatories existing
in any considerable number of states. In making
this decision it was recognized that this method of
treatment was not in every respect entirely satis-
factory, since a considerable niunber of the inmates
of juvenile reformatories are sent there not for spe-
cific breaches of the criminal code, but for conduct,
such as incorrigibility, which differs essentially in its
nature from the crimes and misdemeanors for which
adults are conimitted to prisons. It was believed,
however, that this disadvantage could be largely
overcome by introducing into the offense classifi-
cation a group designated "offenses peculiar to chil-
dren" to which should be assigned all cases where
the juvenile had been committed for reasons other
than those for which adults are sentenced to prison,
and that in other respects the statistics tabulated
on this basis would be of much greater significance
for a study of the criminahstic classes and afford a
more accurate representation of their character and
composition than would a presentation confined to
certain types of institutions, while, on the other hand,
a much more comprehensive and adequate presenta-
tion in regard to juvenile offenders would result
than if the former policy of confining the study to
inmates of institutions exclusively for juveniles were
adhered to.

Inasmuch as the prisoners and juvenile delmquents
enumerated on January 1, 1910, were not tabulated
by age, it has been impossible to segregate those
under 18 for the purpose of this special presentation.



156



PRISONERS AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS.



Consequently the tables in this section, with a few
exceptions, relate exclusively to juvenile offenders
committed during the year 1910.

SXBIMARY.

The total number of juvenile offenders under 18
years of age reported as committed to penal or
reformatory institutions in 1910 was 25,422. As
compared with the total population under 18 years
of age, this represents a ratio of 72.9 per 100,000.
In view of the fact, however, that children imder 10
years of age are not ordinarily considered as capable of
committing a violation of the law, a fairer measure of
juvenile delinquency would be a comparison between
the juvenile offenders 10 to 17 years of age and the
total population of the same age. Siace 568 of the
juvenile offenders reported were under 10 years of
age, the number from 10 to 17 years of age committed
was 24,854, which represents a ratio of 171.7 per
100,000 of the general population of corresponding age.
The corresponding ratio for offenders 18 years of age
or over was 820.5 per 100,000 population of the same
age. This difference in the ratios for juvenile and
adult offenders is of course not sm-prising, since
juveniles lack the opportunity or the temptation to
commit many of the crimes for which adults are
imprisoned, and it is furthermore the tendency to a
considerable degree to send juvenile offenders to a
penal or reformatory institution only after all other
means of correction have failed.

It should perhaps be noted in the present connection
that the niunber of juvenile offenders as reported falls
somewhat short of representing the actual number of
juveniles under 18 years of age committed to penal or
reformatory institutions. No returns were received
from several state reformatories for juveniles, most of
them in the South, a fact which should be borne in
mind in any comparisons involving the different parts
of the coimtry. In certain states, moreover, juvenile
delinquents may be committed to private institutions,
but returns were secured only from such institutions
as cared exclusively for juveniles, private institutions
receiving adults as well as juvenile delinquents being
excluded from the investigation as primarily benevo-
lent institutions. Even in the case of those private
institutions caring exclusively for juveniles, however,
there is so much overlapping of functions that it is not
always easy to distinguish between those that are
exclusively charitable in their character and those
that in part perform the fimctions of juvenile reforma-
tories, so that undoubtedly some institutions for chil-
dren to which delinquent children are conunitted by
court action have been omitted. The net result of
these conditions is to make the reported number of
commitments of juvenile offenders somewhat defi-
cient; but the deficiency is probably not sufficiently
great to affect the significance of the statistics mate-
rially, except to some extent in comparisons for dif-
ferent parts of the country.



It will be observed that the total number of juveiiile
offenders committed to penal or reformatory institu-
tions exceeds the total niunber of "juvenile delin-
quents," as previously defined (see p. 26) by 11,275.
This of course indicates that nearly one-half of the
juvenile offenders were committed to correctional
institutions also receiving adults. The difference
would have been even greater were it not for the fact
that 587 juvemle dehnquents committed to reforma-
tories for juveniles were 18 years of age or over and
consequently were excluded from the tabulation for
juvenile oft'enders.

COMPARISON WITH PKIOB CENSUSES.

Comparisons between the total nximber of juvenile
offenders in 1910 and the number at the two earliest
censuses for which detailed statistics are available,
those of 1880 and 1890, are not possible for the
reason that at the earher censuses the statistics relate
exclusively to prisoners and juvenile delinquents
enumerated on a given date, and in 1910, as already,
stated, no age tabulation was made for those entuner-
ated on a given date, making it impossible to segregate
the juvenile offenders in prisons for comparison. At
the census of 1904, however, statistics as to the niunber
of prison and reformatory commitments were obtained,
so that it is possible to make comparisons between
1910 and 1904 as to the niunber of juvenile offenders
committed. Inasmuch as prisoners committed for
nonpayment of fine were excluded from the canvass in
1904, it is necessary for purposes of comparison to
exclude such prisoners from the figures for 1910 also.
Table 167 accordingly shows for 1910 and 1904 the total
number of juvenile offenders under 18 years of age
committed to penal or reformatory institutions, exclu-
sive of those committed for nonpayment of fine, giving
separately the number under 10 years of age and 10 to
17 years of age, respectively, together with the number
of the latter per 100,000 general population of the same
age. The figures for 1910 are also exclusive of those
the nature of whose sentence was not reported, who, ia.
the tabulation of sentence in connection with age, were
included with those imprisoned for nonpayment of fine;
it is improbable, however, that this occasions any
significant degree of incomparabUity. The statistics
contain a further slight element of incomparability
resulting from the fact that aU juveniles under 10
years of age reported as committed to ordinary
penal or reformatory institutions . in 1904 were ex-
cluded from the tabulation for prisoners on the ground
that children under that age found in penal institu-
tions were either neglected children awaiting transfer
to other institutions or infants accompanying sentenced
mothers; as the number under 10 years of age com-
mitted to such institutions in 1910 was, however, only
26, the accuracy of the comparison is not materially
affected.



JUVENILE OFFENDERS.



157



Table 167


JUVBaHLE OPTENDEBa UNDEB 18 TEABS Or



Online LibraryUnited States. Bureau of the CensusPrisoners and juvenile delinquents in the United States 1910 → online text (page 36 of 110)