United States. Census Office (12th census : 1900).

Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Census Office (12th census : 1900)Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] → online text (page 109 of 222)
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m pil^% 6 r^n g G po^ LSOS AND °- A - CATLIN - ^ration of sodium

v,ot?nt c i^ powder "Jl Which the 5?i iv P ingredient is an acid sodium phosphate
having an excess of base over a dihydrogen sodic phosphate, and with the acid
phosphate and sulphate of lime completely hydrated: produced bydecompos.



DIGEST OF PATENTS RELATING TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES.



303



tag tricalcic phosphate with dilute oil of vitriol, and then effecting a double
decomposition with sodium sulphate under agitation and heat ami fonveXe
the mass into a dry powder. ' wnverang

301,t08; 301,107-July 1, 188U. S. G. THOMAS. Manufacture of alkaline phosphates.

See Group VIII, Fertilizers.
SlS,S69-March 3, 1885. C. V. PETRAEUS. Solution of acid phosphates.

A combination of free phosphoric acid with phosphate of soda, consisting of



- T -ing to the solution 161 parts of' Glauber's
salts for each 28 parts of lime therein. ' u

322,698— July 21, 1885. F. DIBBEN. Manufacture of superphosphates.
«9 n n ^ rt *?f acid , l oda . su JP h ate is dissolved in 4 parts of water at a temperature
of 130° F,, allowed to stand until the neutral sulphate is crystallized out of the
mother liquor, when 3i pounds of the mother liquor is added to 1 pound of
phosphate of lime, and heated until the surplus water is evaporated.

SU,U71— August 18, 1885. L. IMPERATORI. Extraction, of phosphate soda from

obUyot

Slags from phosphatic materials, as from the Thomas Gilchrist process are
smelted with sulphate of potash or soda and carbon, and subsequently treated
with carbonic acid.

S7i,201— December 6, 1887. C. V. PETRAEUS. Process of making acid potassium
phosphates.

Impure acid phosphate of lime, produced by decomposing bone or similar
phosphate with a suitable acid and leaching, is decomposed by sulphate of pot-
ash; then carbonate of potash or caustic potash is added in excess, that is, in
sufficient quantity to form in the solution an acid phosphate of potash contain-
ing an excess of potash over that in the dihydrogen potassium phosphate: and,
after filtration, the solution is evaporated to crystallization.

389,586— September 18, 1888. C. GLASER. Process of making acid phosphate.

Insoluble phosphoric acid contained in mineral and petrified phosphates is
converted into available phosphoric acid by finely pulverizing the mineral and
then applying phosphoric acid directly thereto. The ground mineral may be
divided into 2 parts, and the phosphoric acid extracted from 1 portion, by any
method, and applied to the other portion.

U2,792— October 15, 1889. J.REESE. Crystalline calcic tetraphosphate and the pro-
cess of making the same.

Crystallized tetrabasic phosphate of lime; produced by oxidizing phosphorus
at a high temperature while in the presence of lime, until the lime is charged
with phosphoric acid, and then withdrawing the charged lime and subjecting
it to slow cooling. It is pulverized and used as a fertilizer.

142,793— October 15, 1889. J.REESE. Process of making phosphates.

In the manufacture of calcium phosphate from phosphoritic iron, the molten
phosphoritic iron is blown with an air blast, in a basic-lined vessel and in the
presence of lime additions, until the phosphorus has been reduced to not less
than one-half of 1 per cent (but little iron being oxidized when the phos-
phorus is in excess thereof ), when the phosphate so formed is withdrawn. After
lime is charged to the desired amount of phosphorus it is withdrawn and-a
charge of fresh lime added, whereby phosphates having any desired percentage
of phosphoric acid may be produced.

427,520 — December 21,, 1889. C. GLASER. Process of making acid phosphate.

Mineral and petrified phosphates are ground and exposed to the action of
dilute phosphoric acid, and the moisture subsequently evaporated; the amount
of acid used is theoretically insufficient to convert all of the tricalcic phos-
phate (or corresponding compounds) into monocalcic phosphate, but exceeds
the theoretical amount necessary to convert the same into bicalcic phosphate,
thus forming a mixture of monocalcic and bicalcic phosphates, or equivalents.
(See No. 389,566.)

1,18,259— December 31, 1889. C. E. D. WINSSINGER. Process of making bicalcic

phosphate.

In the production of bicalcic phosphates, a mother liquor of monocalcic
phosphate of lime is produced by forming a phosphoric-acid solution— by treat-
ing suitable phosphatic material with an excess of sulphuric acid— filtering, and
treating the solution with carbonate of lime, or milk of lime, to convert it into
a monocalcic-phosphate solution free from iron, etc. The solid residue from
the filtration may be treated with a phosphoric-acid solution and sulphate of
lime obtained as a by-product. The monocalcic solution is converted into a
monosodic solution by treatment with sulphate of soda, which is then treated
with carbonate of soda, and the resulting neutral solution is treated with lime;
the phosphate of lime separated from the resulting caustic-soda solution (a by-
product), and the separated phosphate treated with an aqueous monocalcic
solution, and the bicalcic phosphate separated.
445,567— February S, 1891. A. MEMMINGER. Process of making acid phosphates.

The drying of a compound of phosphatic material and acid is accelerated by
adding thereto a fluoride compound, as calcium fluoride, and the drying period
is graduated by comminuting to a definite degree and adding a greater or less
proportion of the fluoride compound, or by varying the degree of comminution.
US,815— February 17,1891. C. GLASER. Process of making alkaline phosphates.

Pure phosphates of the alkalis are obtained from crude commercial phos-
phoric acid by decomposing the salt of an alkali and an acid volatile at higher
temperature (as nitrate of soda) by fusing same with crude commercial phos-
phoric acid in excess of the amount required to form a pyrophosphate; then
dissolving the fused mass in water and boiling until conversion of meta and pyro
phosphoric acid is effected; then treating with the carbonate of an alkali (or
free alkali) till alkaline reaction is obtained; and finally separating the solution
from insoluble impurities and crystallizing.
A9S,889— March HI, 1893. S. L. GOODALE. Method of treating hydrated phosphates

of alumina.

Insoluble hydrated phosphates of alumina and iron are heated by indirect
heat in suitable receptacles until all the water of constitution is expelled or
usually until the entire mass has a temperature of about 325° C, when the heat
is arrested and the mass cooled before unfavorable molecular rearrangement is
developed.

502,424— August 1,1893. H. PRECHT. Process of obtaining meta or pyro phosphoric-
acid combinations.

To produce a soluble potassium phosphate the insoluble potassium metaphos-
phate is melted and rapidly cooled to prevent crystallization. A basic body as
potash or soda, is added either before or during the melting, so that phosphoric
acid in the form of pyrophosphate will in part be present m the molten salt.



572,612— December 8, 1896. H.ALBERT. Process of manufacturing phosphates of
cumxbis.

See Group X, Electro-chemistry.
598,182— February 1, 1898. H.POOLE. Process of making phosphates.

Pulverized native aluminum phosphate is mixed with a boiling solution of
("l™' soda t0 decompose the native phosphate, then filtered; then silica is
added to the boiling solution while open to the atmosphere, whereby the alu-
mina is precipitated as a silicate; the tribasic-sodium phosphate crystallized
out; and finally the aluminum silicate treated with sulphuric acid, whereby
aluminum sulphate is formed.

601,089— March 22, 189S. J. G. WIBORG. Phosphate and method of making same.

A tetra-calcium-sodium (or potassium) phosphate. See Group VIII, Fertilizers,
Products.

637,267— June 20, 1899. C. LUCKOW- Process of producing basic phosphates of
copper by means of electrolysis.
See Group X, Electro-chemistry.

CARBONATES.

200,lSh— February 12, 1878. C. FAHLBERG. Improvement in processes for utilizing
zinc sulphate.

See Group XIX, Sulphites and Sulphates.
236,231— December 7, 1880. F. GUTZKOW. Manufacture of carbonate of magnesia.

It is obtained in a light and floceulent form by forcing carbonic-acid gas
through the pulp of magnesium hydrate in a heated state.

278,283— May 22, 188S. D. SIDERSKY AND Hj PROBST. Process of obtaining
carbonate of strontium.

To recover the strontium salts from the residues of the treatment of saccha-
rine solutions with strontium, the strontianite is dissolved in said residues with
an excess of hydrochloric acid, the strontium solution filtered oft", the strontium
in the solution converted into a sulphate, and the latter finally reconverted
into a carbonate.

280,172— June 26, 1883. H. GROOVEN. Manufacture of strontium carbonate.

Powdered celestine, or strontium sulphate, is mixed with a double sulphate of
potassium and magnesium, and powdered carbon or coal, and the mixture
lurnaced in crucibles with exclusion of air. The mass is then lixiviated with
exclusion of air, and the solution evaporated with introduction of carbonic-acid
gas until the development of hydrogen sulphide stops. The precipitated stron-
tium carbonate is separated from the potassium carbonate left in the solution.

301,383— July 1, 1881,. E. A. MEBUS AND J. W. DE CASTRO. Manufacture of

carbonate of strontium.

Sulphate of strontium is finely ground, mixed with water, and treated with
carbonate of ammonia, or ammonia and carbonic-acid gas— water may be used —
producing carbonate of strontium and sulphate of ammonia. Ammonia is
recovered by distillation of the sulphate of ammonia with lime.

303,962— August 19, 188i. A. WtJNSCHE. Method of obtaining carbonate of mag-
nesia.

Ammonia and carbonic acid are introduced into a solution of soluble mag-
nesic salts, whereby ammonium-magnesium carbonate is formed, which is
separated from the lye and heated to drive off the ammonia and a part or all of
the carbonic acid. Caustic magnesia may be added to the compound salt of
ammonia and magnesia to drive off the ammonia separately.

510,979— December 19, 1893. G. LUNGE AND C. H. M. LYTE. Process of making
basic lead salts and caustic alkali.
Basic lead carbonate is formed and caustic soda.
See Group II, Sodas, Caustic Soda.

534,177 — February 12, 1895. E. RUEFF. Process of making light basic magnesium

carbonate.

Carbonic-acid gas is introduced with agitation into a mixture of magnesia,
1 part, and water, 25 parts, until about 1 part by weight of gas has been absorbed,
when the mixture is boiled down.

5Stt,212 — February 12, 1895. H. ENDEMANN. Process of making light magnesium

carbonate.

A mixture of magnesia, 20 parts; carbonate of ammonia, 30 parts; and water,
500 parts, is agitated and allowed to harden into a cake. The ammonia may be
expelled by exposing to a temperature of 60° C. in a partial vacuum, or the cake
can be broken up and washed.

53U,213 — February 12, 1895. H. ENDEMANN. Process of making light carbonate of



A mixture of magnesia, 10 parts, and the bichromate of a fixed alkali, as of
soda, 32 parts, in 250 parts of water, is subjected to agitation under a gradually-
rising temperature to about 65° O, the light carbonate of magnesia then being
collected.

601,007— March 22, 1898. H. E. STURCKE. Amorphous carbonate of lime and

method of and apparatus for obtaining same.

A new product: dry powdered carbonate of lime, in extremely fine particles
having a specific weight of from 78 to 94 grams per 100 c. c. when dried at not
exceeding 100° C, is produced from the residues of the manufacture of caustic
alkali by removing the caustic lime, mixing the residue with water, mechan-
ically separating the impurities, then subjecting the carbonate and water to the
action of a vacuum filter and drying.

603,225 — April 26, 1898. H. E. STURCKE. Process of preparing amorphous carbon-
ate of lime from residues.

Amorphous calcium carbonate is produced from residues by first removing
the insoluble impurities from calcium oxide and alkali carbonate by mechan-
ical separation, then causing the oxide and carbonate to react upon each other
in water, and separating the calcium carbonate formed from the alkali hydrate
and from all soluble impurities including calcium hydrate. The calcium car-
bonate is then mixed with water, passed through a mechanical separator, filtered,
and dried.

603,226— April 26, 1898. H. E. STURCKE. Process of preparing amorphous car-
bonate of lime from residues.

Calcium carbonate, when made from residues according to No, 603,225 and sep-
arated from insoluble impurities, is dried, ground, and bolted.



304



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES.



SILICATES.

28,540— May 29, 1860. G. E. VAN DERBOURGH. Seissue April 1, 1862. No.

1297. Reissue May 17, 2864; 1,671,, (A). Improved mode of reducing silicates to

a liquid or gelatinous state. 1,675 (B) . Improvement in apparatus/or treating sili-

cious substances.

Superheated steam is employed In a digester to reduce siliclous and other re-
fractory substances to a liquid or gelatinous state.

39,185— July 7, 186S. T. ELKINTON. Improvement in the manufacture of alkaline

silicates.

The ingredients are led through roof openings onto the sloping bed of a fur-
nace, down which the fused silicate flows in a continuous stream to an outlet,
subject to the direct heat of the furnace.

304,044— August 26,188k. S.G.THOMAS. Manufacture of alkaline salts.

Alkaline chlorides are decomposed, and alkaline silicates and other non-
haloid alkaline salts and hydrates produced, together with chlorine and hydro-
chloric acid, by acting on sodium chloride in a Bessemer converter or Siemens
or puddling furnace by the silicon contained in molten pig iron in presence of
oxygen, oxide of iron, or any oxygen-yielding body. The chlorides are sub-
mitted to treatment inclosed in iron cases or compressed into shapes with or
without oxide of iron to render the reaction more effective and prevent vola-
tilization.

S60,8W— April 12, 1887. J. T. ADAMS. Batch for making glass.

A substance containing volatile hydrocarbon, as coal or sawdust, is mixed
with a glass batch to clarify the bath.

376,h09— January 10, 1888. A. KAYSER. Process of making alkaline silicates and

carbonates. .

The oxide of sodium or potassium is obtained from the chloride by mixing
the chloride with clay, heating the mixture in a converter directly by passing
highly-heated gases containing steam through the converter, smelting the con-
verted material together with an alkali, and then extracting the sodium or
potassium combinations by lixiviation.

376,1,10— January 10, 1888. A. KAYSER. Process of making alkaline silicates.

Silicate of sodium or potassium is made from the chloride thereof by mixing
the chloride with silica, molding into bricks, and heating in a converter with
highly-heated gases containing steam passed through the converter.

US, 091— January 20, 1891. P. SIEVERT. Process of dissolving water-glass.

A clear solution of water glass is made by softening and partially dissolving
the lumps by intimate contact with a jet of steam and treating them with a
spray of alkaline lye, the solution being enriched by flowing over the glass
lumps and continuously discharged as it forms.

448,77*— March 24, 1891. M. W. BEYLIKGY. Silicate compound.

A new product, an alkaline-magnesian silicate solution, in which the silicate
has the general formula, 7(Na.O,5Si0 2 ), 2(Mg" OSi0 2 ), insoluble after per-
fect drying, is produced by the action of a compound salt of fluosilicate of
magnesium and hydrocarbonate of magnesia on a solution of tersilicate of
soda.

B90,liS— September U, 1897. W. GARROWAY. Process of making alkaline silicates
and nitric acid.

Silica and an alkaline nitrate are heated with superheated steam passed
through the retort or furnace.

633,81,1— September 26, 1899.
silicates.



E. HENKEL. Pivcess of making soluble alkaline



Six parts of a solid alkaline silicate is mixed with 1 part of water and heated
at from 100° to 120° C. until the water disappears and a nomogeneous mass forms
which is easily soluble in cold water. Or the solid alkaline silicate is mixed
with a hot concentrated solution of the silicate. Sawdust, peat, or other sub-
stance may be added as a loosening agent when it is to be used as a fertilizer.

ALU Ml NATES.

U5U,137—June 16, 1891. A. KAYSER. Process of making sodium aluminate.

A mixture of insoluble sodium silico-aluminate— produced by process No.
376,409 (see Group II, Sodas, Sodium Carbonates)— and lime is subjected to a
decomposing temperature and the product leached.

472,688— April 12, 1892. E. FLEISCHER. Process of making aluminates of alkalies.
In the manufacture of alkali aluminates from aluminous substances and
alkaline sulphates, thiosulphates, or sulphides, the ingredients are mixed with
iron and lime and heated in the presence of a reducing agent, the iron and
lime being so proportioned that the sulphur present is taken up by the iron and
the silicic acid by the lime, while the latter is in excess to prevent the forma-
tion of soluble combinations of sulphide of iron with the alkalis.

672,026— November 21,, 1896. D. A. PENIAKOFF. Process of making aluminate.

A mixture of an alkaline sulphate and an alkaline sulphuret and a substance
containing alumina is heated to incandescence, producing an alkaline alumi-
nate. The gas mixed with heated air is passed into retorts filled with calcined
alkaline chloride to produce chlorine and alkaline sulphate.

603,657— May 10, 1898. D. A. PENIAKOFF. Process of making alkaline alumi-
nates.

Aluminates, free from sulphides of iron and the like, are produced by calcin-
ing a mixture of bauxite, alkaline sulphate, and carbon in the proportions indi-
cated by the formula 2 (4Al2O8.Fej.O3) +8Na,S0 4 +5C, the proportions of the car-
bon being such that only one-fourth of the oxygen in the alkaline sulphate
will be combined therewith.

612,361,— October 11, 189S. F. RAYNAUD. Process of making alkaline aluminates.
Alkaline aluminates free from silicates are produced by passing steam through
a heated mixture of aluminous ore and any sulphide, the base of which is capa-
ble of combining with alumina, sulphureted liydrogen being simultaneously
produced. Preferably, briquets are formed of aluminuous ore (alumina 640
parts) ; carbon, 207 parts; and an alkaline sulphate, as sulphate of soda, 900 parts;
and dried for treatment.

618,772- January 31, 1899. H. S. BLACKMORE. Process of making alkali alumi-

7lCLZ€S»

An alkali aluminate is produced by gradually introducing aluminium hy-
droxide, or aluminium hydrated oxide into a molten alkali salt. With sodium
chloride, sodium aluminate and hydrochloric acid are produced



MANGANATES AND PERMANGANATES.

326,657— September 22, 1885. T. KEMPF. Process of manufacturing permanganates.
Solutions of the manganic-acid salts are electrolyzed in the positive compart-
ment of a cell having a porous diaphragm, producing permanganic-acid salts
and free metallic hydroxides.

515, 448— February 27, 1891,. J. H. PARKINSON. Porous permanganate block and

process of making same.

Permanganate of potash or soda is thoroughly mixed with kaolin— say from
10 to 12i percent— and formed with water into a stiff paste, which is baked hard
and dry m a partial vacuum for use in the production of oxygen.

588,611,— August 24, 2897. E. B. STUART. Manganate and process of producing

same.

A double manganate of sodium and calcium, for use in extracting oxygen
from air, is produced by subjecting sodium hydrate 80 parts, calcium oxide 56
parts, and bmoxide of manganese 88 parts, with oxygen 128 parts, to a tempera-
ture of from 300°/to 400° C. An excess of from 5 to 15 per cent of caustic soda is
preferred.

631,228— August 15, 1899. R.H.REEVES. Method of disinfecting.

Sulphuric acid is mixed with a dry mixture of manganate of soda and carbon
or wood dust to evolve gases for suppressing noxious vapors. After the gases
are evolved water is added to form permanganic acid, which acts on sewage.

PROCESSES AND APPARATUS.

9,11,5— July 27, 1852. H. W. ADAMS. Process for the manufacturing of metallic zinc

in the form of a fine powder by the use of steam.

Vaporized zinc is brought into contact with steam, the temperature of the
steam being less than the melting point of the zinc, whereby the zinc vapor is
instantly cooled and reduced to an impalpable metallic powder.

12,819— May 8, 1855. B. HARDIN GE. {Reissue; SU,— January 22, 1856.) Improve-
ment in apparatus for dissolving silica.
The solvent is taken from the upper part of the charge in the digester, passed

through a heater, and the vapor discharged into the bottom of the charge in

connection with a stirrer.

45,684 — December 27, 2864. E. SONSTADT. Improvement in the manufacture and

purification of magnesium.

A solution of magnesium chloride and potassium chloride is evaporated to
dryness and the residue heated to redness and acted upon by sodium, producing
magnesium, which is distilled and purified, using an iron retort with exclusion
of air.

54,266— April 2k, 1866. C. H. WING. Improved method of preparing magnesium

for burning.

Magnesium wire or ribbon is formed into a spiral coil.
77,987 — May 19, 1868. C. KUEHN. Improved mode of utilizing tin scrap or waste.

The scrap is boiled in water and 25 per cent of muriatic acid and 2i per cent of
nitric acid (of weight of scrap metal) is added, and the tin dissolved. Succes-
sive charges are treated in the same bath with additions of acid until it is satu-
rated with chloride of tin, which may be deposited on zinc plates, or the bath is
evaporated and the chloride of tin is obtained.

96,521,—Novmber 2, 1869. F. WILCOX. Improved process of refining the waste from

German silver and other metals.

It is carbonized by pouring the molten waste into a crucible containing nitrate
of soda, or other material supplying oxygen.

96,525 — November 2, 1869. F. WILCOX. Improved process of utilizing the waste

formed in cleaning copper and brass goods.

The waste is settled and the sediment dissolved with the aid of steam and the
copper deposited out by means of iron plates. The liquor is then filtered, evap-
orated, and the sulphate of iron obtained. The deposited copper is washed,
fused, and cast.

202,248— April 19, 1870. D. D. PARMELEE. Improvement in treating tin scrap to

obtain useful products.

Tin is lemoved from tin scrap by treating the same in an inclosed vessel with
chlorine gas, carrying off the fumes and condensing them as chloride of tin.

107,711— September 27, 1870. A. OTT. Improvement in treating tin scrap for the
manufacture of stannate of potash, etc.

Fifty pounds of tin scrap is digested with 8 quarts of a lye of caustic soda 18°
BaumS, 10 pounds of litharge, l| pounds of sodium nitrate, and 1£ pounds of
sodium manganate along with steam. The liquor is decolorized by filtering
through boneblack evaporated to 18° Baume and cooled when stannate of
soda chrystallizes. For stannate of potash in place of the soda compounds, 14
pounds of a lye of caustic potash, 2 pounds of potassium nitrate and 2 pounds
of potassium manganate are used.

112,839— March 21, 1871. A. OTT. Improvement in preparing tin salts from tin-
ners' waste.

Scrap tin is digested with muriatic acid and steam. The liquor is evaporated
to 60° Baume, and bichloride of tin formed by heating it with muriatic acid,
sulphuric acid, and water. It is then distilled, bichloride of tin going over and
chloride of iron remaining. The bichloride is reconverted into chloride by
heating it with granulated tin.

119,267— September 26, 1871. F. W. DORN. Improvement in processes of utilizing
tinners 1 clippings.

Scrap metal is treated with a mixture of muriatic acid gas, hyponitric-acid
gas, and steam, or muriatic-acid gas and steam alone, followed by a jet of steam
to wash off the muriate of tin.

121, 9kS— December 19, 1871. C. LENNIG. Improvement in removing tin from tin

SCVQ/p ,

A solution of caustic soda or potash is poured over the scrap metal, drawn off
and then air forced through the mass of metal, and the operation successively
repeated. Stannate of soda or potash is deposited out of the liquor.

128,265- June 25, 1872. T. F. WELLS. Improvement in processes of separating tin
from iron in tinners' clippings.

■ Tin * 3 separated from iron by means of hydrochloric acid to which nitric acid
is gradually added in conjunction with chlorate of potash when the original
bath gets exhausted. The tin is deposited out of the charged solution by zinc



Online LibraryUnited States. Census Office (12th census : 1900)Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] → online text (page 109 of 222)