United States. Census Office (12th census : 1900).

Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] online

. (page 151 of 222)
Online LibraryUnited States. Census Office (12th census : 1900)Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] → online text (page 151 of 222)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


The press prints upon separate sheets which can be fed
either by hand or by an automatic arrangement; the
automatic feeder carries several thousand sheets of
paper, which are fed from the bottom by an ingenious
device permitting the renewal of the pile without
stopping the press. The speed of this press is from
5,000 to 14,000 impressions per hour, according to the
class of work.

The Kidder Press Company manufactures job presses
which feed automatically from a roll.

Cylinder Presses.— Until the close of the last decade
the cylinder press was the main reliance of publishers
for larger work, such as books, posters, and all large
forms. It was in general use also for papers of small
circulation and for all high-class work. Improvement
in perfecting presses has to some extent caused the
displacement of the cylinder press, but it is still
generally used.

There are four kinds of cylinder presses in use — the
drum cylinder, the double cylinder, the stop cylinder,
and the two-revolution cylinder. Of these, the last
named is now regarded with the greatest favor.

The past twenty years have witnessed numerous im-
provements in the three styles of presses last mentioned.
From the old, cumbersome drum cylinder, still in opera-
tion in many country newspaper offices, with a speed



63



of 1,200 to 1,500 per hour, to the modern, rapid two-
revolution press, with all its delicate adjustments and
labor-saving devices, is a very great advance.

From the old-fashioned drum-cylinder press was
evolved the double cylinder, a duplication of the cylin-
der, by which the capacity of the press was doubled.
The cylinders were fed alternately. The stop-cylinder
press was so named because the cylinder stops at a cer-
tain point in its revolution, thus permitting greater
accuracy in feeding. Owing to the exactness with
which the sheet was printed — technically called "regis-
ter" — this press was used where fine grades of work,
such as half-tone or color work, were required. It
attained great popularity, but has been supplanted by
the two-revolution press, because the latter possesses
much greater speed and nearly equal accuracy. In this
press the cylinder is smaller, and revolves twice at each
impression, once in contact with the type and again in
a slightly elevated position while the sheet is being
released and the form returned to its former position.

In 1885 Robert Miehle made a number of improve-
ments in the two-revolution press, which increased its
capacity and brought it into more general use. Since
then this type of press has been subject to continuous
improvement. The Century two-revolution press is one
of the most perfect machines of this class. The con-
stant aim of improvements in this field has been to in-
crease speed and accuracy, and to give the utmost
facility in adjustment and operation. Among recent
improvements in the two-revolution press are the sub-
stitution, for cam gears, of a crank movement of the
bed; an adaptation of the stop-cylinder principle; and
perfected methods of ink distribution.

Perfecting Presses. — In the web perfecting press
occurred the most noteworthy development of the past
two or three decades. While modern presses of this
class possess remarkable capacity, they are the result
of improvement, rather than a radical departure from
the earlier form of rotary presses. Various mechanical
problems, resulting from high speed, were met and
solved; among these were the questions of combining
the printed sheets, cutting, folding, and preventing the
offsetting of ink. Although attempts were made before
.1870, in this country as well as in England and Fraace,
to build presses embodying this principle, the machine
constructed, in 1871, by Hoe & Co., of New York, may
be said to be the first successful perfecting press. This
press printed 15,000 papers per hour from one set of
plates. In 1876 this firm brought out the rotary folder.
The development of folding mechanisms has naturally
kept pace with that of the press proper, until at the
present time papers consisting of any even number of
pages from 4 to 32 are turned out, cut, pasted, folded,
and counted, in lots of 25 or 50, at rates of speed vary-
ing from 12,000 to 150,000 per hour.

The term "web perfecting" exactly describes the
process employed; a roll, or "web," of paper passes



into the press and is printed, or "perfected," on both
sides before being cut and folded. The early form of
rotary press was the "single." Then the length of the
cylinder was doubled, thus doubling the capacity of
the press — that is, printing a paper of the same size at
twice the speed, or a paper double the size at the same
speed, as the "single rotary." Then came the double-
supplement press, with a set of single cylinders at one
side, permitting the printing of 10-page and 12-page
papers. The next step was to double the supplemen-
tary press, forming the quadruple press — a style in
common use to-day — with a capacity of from 48,000
4-page papers to 12,000 24-page papers per hour. In-
stead of being arranged side by side, the presses were
often constructed with the supplementary press on top,
making a "double decker." The quadruple press was
then converted into a sextuple press by the addition of
a supplementary double press placed at one side. It
was a simple matter to convert this into an octuple, a
type of press now in use on such papers as the New
York Journal and the Chicago Tribune. The octuple
is sometimes constructed by piling four double presses
one above another. One style of press, designed for
the New York Journal, consists of two sextuples work-
ing side by side. This is a three-decker machine,
equivalent to six double presses. In these presses each
double-cylinder machine is fed from a separate roll of
paper. The folding and cutting mechanism can be ad-
justed to assemble the pages in any desired combina-
tion within the limits of the press.

The illustrated colored supplements of the large city
journals have been made possible by the adaptation of
these presses to color printing, permitting the use of
one, two, or three colors besides black. This principle
has been carried still further in a rotary multicolor and
half-tone machine, which prints in as many as eleven
colors, and has a capacity 48,000 full-sized 8-page papers
per hour.

Two general classes of the web press are made. In
one, what is called the "angle bar" is utilized to turn
the sheets in order to assemble them from the different
webs. The other is designated the "straight line," the
sheet being run through the press without being di-
verted from a straight course, and was invented by
Joseph L. Firm, of Jersey City, N. J., who associated
himself with the Gross Company, of Chicago, in 1890.
By means of this invention greater accuracy in register
was obtained, with less danger of tearing the running
sheet in rapid work.

The Scott Company has produced an "all-size" rotary
web press, by which pages of different sizes can be
printed, the adjustment being graduated to quarter
inches.

Another type of perfecting press is shown in the flat-
bed "multipress" of the Campbell Company, and the
Cox duplex press, in which the type beds are stationary,
the cylinders rolling back and forth upon them. These
are adapted to small country dailies.



64



Many variations in the perfecting press are made to
order to satisfy individual requirements. Some of
these even place colored covers upon their products
and stitch or staple them. The colored supplements of
newspapers are often printed in colors on one side and
black on the other, and half-tones often occur on the
same page in different colors. Music is printed on
heavier paper and folded in with the supplement. All
this is accomplished without marring the product. A
space is often reserved also for a type column of late
news, to avoid stereotyping another set of plates.

The presses of the Goss Company are fitted with an
ingenious arrangement to prevent offsetting. Rollers
made of molasses and glue pass over the freshly
printed paper, absorbing the excess of ink, which is
then transferred to a polished metal cylinder, from
which it is removed by a cylindrical cotton wiper.

Toward the latter part of the last decade the product
of the perfecting press was greatly improved, so that it
became a competitor for the finer grades of magazine
work, for which it is being utilized more and more.

Lithographic Presses. — Few changes of consequence
were recorded in this branch of the industry during
the decade. Aluminum plates have been employed with
considerable success as a substitute for stones, but the
notable feature in their employment is that they permit
the use of the rotary principle. Special presses, con-
structed with great care to meet the exacting require-
ments of lithographic work, are manufactured for this
process, and have attained some success.

PATENT BLANKETS AND MECHANICAL OVERLAYS.

There were many attempts to substitute mechanical
processes for the laborious task of " making ready" by
hand. Among the inventions of this class were the
Savary, Dittman, De Vinne-Bierstadt, and Humphrey
and Upham methods, all of which must be regarded, so
far as general use is concerned, as still more or less in
the experimental stage.

The Savary device is a blanket composed of a collec-
tion of very short wires. This blanket is mounted on
a cylinder, and by equalizing the pressure serves to
correct irregularities in the height of type and cuts.
Another invention substituted a blanket of woven wire
for that of pointed wires.

The Dittman process utilizes the expansion which
occurs in wheat flour when dusted onto a fully inked
impression.

The De Vinne-Bierstadt process utilizes the action of
light upon gelatin in combination with other substances.
A print taken on a thin sheet of transparent celluloid
is dusted with plumbago to thicken the lines, and
exposed in a photographer's printing frame over a film
of gelatin. This film is afterwards swelled in those
parts not made insoluble by the action of light, and
from it a plaster of paris mold is made. From the lat-
ter a flexible reverse in gutta-percha is formed, and the



gutta-percha, backed, becomes the overlay, being thick-
est in the darkest parts of the illustration.

The Humphrey and Upham process is of use only for
duplicating overlays. This duplication is made by rub-
ber or gutta-percha impressions of a reversed overlay.

ILLUSTRATING AND ENGRAVING.

The introduction of photoengraving, about the year
1875, marked a new era in the history of illustrating and
engraving.

Wood and steel engraving were unable to fulfill the
increasing demand of the public for large quantities of
good, inexpensive pictorial work. Proper production
of this work by hand was impossible, save by an artist
of no mean ability. Accordingly, if illustration was
cheap, it was poor; if good, it was expensive.

Half-tone Engraving and Zinc Etching. — The half-
tone process is a method of making cuts suitable for use
upon ordinary printing presses. The first step is the
taking of a photograph on a wet sensitive plate, in
front of which, in the camera, a fine screen is placed.
These screens are an essential feature of the process, as
they permit the accurate reproduction of the half tones
in the object. They are made by mechanically cutting
or scratching lines on two glass plates; these lines are
then filled with some opaque substance, and the two
plates are placed together, face to face, with the lines
of one plate crossing those of the other. They are
made in varying degrees of fineness, the lines ranging
from 40 to 400 to the inch. The coarser screens are
placed farther from the sensitive plate than the finer
ones. The finer screens cut off about nine-tenths of
the light; therefore, the negative is often exposed for
eight or ten minutes.

After the negative is developed the film is stripped
from the plate, reversed, and placed on another, called
a turning glass, thus becoming a positive. This is
placed in contact with a copper plate coated with a sen-
sitized solution, and exposed to the light for about two
minutes. After being developed, this plate is enameled
and "burned in" over a flame. It is then etched with
a solution of perchloride of iron. In this process the
portions of the coated copper plate which have been
exposed to the light in the printing process — in other
words, the lines that were formed by the screen in the
original negative — are etched away, producing a print-
ing surface composed of dots which vary in size accord-
ing to the lights and shadows of the object. Further
processes pertain mainly to finishing and mounting. A
certain amount of expert hand work is required for the
finishing of the half-tone plate and its final preparation
for the press. In this field many artists who were for-
merly engravers have found work.

Half tones are of three classes, considered according
to the treatment of their background — the silhouette,
the square-etched, and the vignette. The silhouette is
an effect of sharply defined edges; the square-etched is



65



an exact reproduction as to background, of the origi-
nal picture; and the vignette is a production of soft-
ened, gradually-fading background, without definite
termination.

Zinc etching is practically the same process, except
that the copy must be a pen-and-ink or line drawing,
and no screen is used. In the etching process, in place
of perchloride of iron, muriatic acid is employed. This
gives a plate which is cut deeper, but is less durable
than the copper half-tone plate.

Three-color Process. — The attempt to print in colors
from half-tone plates by means of photographic proc-
esses was partially solved by Frederick Ives, of Phila-
delphia, in 1888. Since that date the process has been
improved with gratifying results. The principle upon
which it is based is that by a combination of the three
primary colors — red, yellow, and blue— almost any shade
of color can be produced. Photographic plates that are
specially sensitive to color are used. As in the half-tone
process, a glass screen is placed in the camera. Three
photographic negatives, each of which is to produce a
separate printing plate, are made of the object. In each
case a colored glass screen, excluding certain color rays
of light, is used in front of the lens. In the production
of the plate which is to print the blue ink, a red color
screen is employed; to produce the plate for yellow ink,
a blue-violet screen is used; and to produce the plate
which is to print red ink, a green screen is used.

In printing from these plates great exactness, tech-
nically called " register," is required, in order that the
colors may be laid on in proper place as the three im-
pressions are consecutively made.

One serious problem which confronted the inventor
was the difficulty experienced in so arranging the line
screens that the diagonal lines would not form geo-
metric patterns in the finished picture. This was solved
by the discovery that by varying in certain ways the
directions of the lines used for the three negatives, the
pattern effect could be avoided.

Lithographic Color Printing . — A widespread but un-
successful attempt was made, about 1880, to substitute
zinc for stone in lithographic work. After this failure,
zinc was generally abandoned as a factor in the litho-
graphic problem, but one firm has continued to make
experiments along this line with considerable success.

In 1898 the great superiority of aluminum over litho-
graphic stone was demonstrated. Aluminum is far
lighter, requires less space for storage, is cheaper, is
almost noncorrosive, can be used in sheets upon rotary
presses, can be used for longer runs without repro-
duction of the design, and after some manipulation
possesses all the desirable qualities of stone.

The methods of manipulation are two. By the first,
the surface of a sheet of fine-rolled aluminum is ground
off, producing a porous surface. The second method
is the formation of an aluminum surface by electro-
deposition.



To prevent the ink from spreading over the limits of
the design, phosphoric acid is used; this is removed
from the plate by the application of nitric acid.

About four-fifths of present-day lithographic work
is done on stone, but the number of printing machines
constructed to use aluminum is rapidly increasing.

BOOKBINDING.

Kecent advances in the bookbinding department of
the printing and publishing business have been numer-
ous, but not revolutionary.

Automatic feeding devices for folding machines, as
well as for printing presses, are a product of the last
decade. Of these there are many variations, but as the
problem which they solve is comparatively simple they
need not be described in detail. Three-fourths of the
folding machines of the present day are supplied with
automatic feeders. Folding machines have been greatly
improved also by parallel-fold arrangements and by
automatic pointing.

Many improvements have been made in wire-stitching
machines. One of these machines will stitch anything
from two sheets to a book 2 inches thick, and with
several of them either round or flat wire may be used.
There has been introduced recently a noteworthy com-
bination folding and wire-stitohing machine, which by
a continuous and automatic operation takes the sheets
from the feeders, and folds, gathers, collates, covers,
and wire-stitches copies of magazines and pamphlets,
delivering them ready for distribution.

Paper-cutting machines have been improved by the
introduction of automatic clamps, indicators, and gauges.

The invention of a steam rounding and backing ma-
chine, increasing a capacity of from 500 to 1,000 books per
day to a capacity of from 5,000 to 6,000 in the same time,
should be noted. The latest case-making machine feeds
itself from a roll of cloth which it automatically cuts into
pieces of proper size for use. The cloth is first covered
with glue by contact with a cylinder revolving in a pot
of glue, it is then cut by the machine and nicked in
corner sections; boards are supplied from a holder and
a back lining from a roll, both receptacles forming
parts of the machine. This process completed, the
nearly finished product drops a little, the cloth is folded
over the boards and back lining, and the binding, after
passing through a case smoother, is delivered in a fin-
ished state. This automatic process is very satisfac-
tory. Another interesting invention in this line is a
machine for covering paper books and magazines, which
has been known to cover 22,000 books in a day.

Among late inventions are a casting-in machine, for
putting the body of a book into its cover, and a gath-
ering machine.

During the next ten years the principal advance in
bookbinding doubtless will be in those branches of the
industry which are concerned with casting-in, gathering,
smashing, folding, and sewing.



No. 216 5



66



NEWS-GATHERING ORGANIZATIONS.

The only changes in news gathering since 1880 have
been those of detail.

In 1880 the leading news-gathering association was
the body then known as the Associated Press, which
was furnishing news to 30 per cent of the dailies of the
United States. This organization, composed of New
York papers, gathered news for its own members on
the cooperative plan, but exchanged news with other
associations on terms that made the exchange practically
a sale, a large cash bonus being asked from associations
receiving their news.

These methods caused much dissatisfaction among
the tributary associations. The claim was made that
the parent organization, having absolute control of the
news gathered, was selling it at a price covering the
entire cost of collection, giving the news to its members
practically for nothing.

The principal complaints came from the Western
Associated Press, which in 1882 was paying a bonus
amounting to $3,000 per month. The outcome of this
controversy was an amalgamation of the Associated
Press and the Western Associated Press into one organ-
ization, under the former title.

The next great conflict was tha^ between the new
Associated Press and the organization afterwards known
as the United Press, which was founded in 1882. In
1884 the Associated Press and the United Press made a
secret agreement for an exchange of services, by which
a practical union of the two organizations was effected.
It was claimed that the exchange was most unequal, the
United Press getting the benefit of the wide field cov-
ered by the stronger organization, and giving poor and
inadequate service in return. In 1891 the arrangement
was discontinued; but in 1892 the eastern branch of the
Associated Press — the original New York organization —
transferred its affairs to the United Press, while the
western branch — the former Western Associated Press —
continued in business, with headquarters in Chicago,
as the Associated Press. The new Associated Press,
like the United Press and other proprietary bodies, fol-
lowed the plan of selling its news to papers whose pro-
prietors were not stockholders or members of the
organization.

At the time of its organization tne western associa-
tion had contract relations with the eastern one. In
1893 the contract expired; the western association
refused to renew it, and there followed a bitter war
between the two associations, which was very disturbing
and expensive to the newspapers of the country, some
being compelled to receive news from both associations
to insure a complete service. Strong efforts were made
to bring about an agreement between the two organ-
izations, but all failed because of fundamental differ-
ences in their plan of organization. In 1897 the United
Press made an assignment, with large liabilities and no
assets.



The victory of the Associated Press was not, how-
ever, the end of newspaper difficulties. This organiza-
tion could not, under its regulations, admit to member-
ship all the newspapers which were left without service
by the failure of the United Press. Moreover, the
associations which were organized to supply the needs
of the papers not provided with a news service were
declared to be antagonistic, and members of the Asso-
ciated Press were forbidden to make contracts with
them.

The Chicago Inter- Ocean, having received news from
a bureau thus proscribed, and being threatened with
suspension of the Associated Press service, applied for
an injunction to restrain such action.

The circuit court and appellate court successively
dismissed the bill, but the supreme court of the state
(184 Illinois Reports, 438-455) reversed the previous
decision on the ground that the corporation had a vir-
tual monopoly of a commodity of vast importance to
the public, had used its franchise in such a manner as
to injure the public interests, and could not be allowed
to deprive the public of the services of a newspaper.

This decision did not, however, break up the monop-
oly held by the Associated Press, but merely caused
removal of that organization to New York state, where
it was reincorporated on May 22, 1900, with practically
all of its former 600 members and subscribers.

Under its new charter the Associated Press is simply
a mutual and cooperative organization of newspaper
proprietors. A distinction existing in the old organi-
zation between voting stockholders and ordinary mem-
bers was abrogated in the new charter, and all news-
paper owners who receive the news service of the
Associated Press are now members of the organization
on equal terms.

The certificate of membership designates in detail
the name of the newspaper entitled to receive the news
of the Associated Press, the language in which it is
printed, its place of publication, whether it is a morning
or an evening newspaper, and whether the member is
to receive a day or a night report. A certificate of
membership in the Associated Press is not transferable
except in special cases.

Each and every member of the Associated Press is
entitled to receive a service of news for the purpose of
publication in the newspaper specified in his certificate
of membership, and for that purpose only. Special
regulations forbid, in detail, publishing news in any
other newspaper than that specified, furnishing it in
advance of publication to any person not a member, or
anticipating the publication of documents of public
concern confided to the corporation for use on a stipu-
lated date, however the document may have been
secured.



Online LibraryUnited States. Census Office (12th census : 1900)Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] → online text (page 151 of 222)