United States. Census Office (12th census : 1900).

Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] online

. (page 203 of 222)
Online LibraryUnited States. Census Office (12th census : 1900)Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] → online text (page 203 of 222)
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manufacture during the last decade, and especially the
last four years. This applies particularly to the manu-
facture of fruit jars and wide-mouth ware, such as
vaseline jars, jam jars, etc. Prior to 1890 the manu-
facture of machine-made wide-mouth bottles or jars
was largely experimental, and practically no fruit jars
had been made by machinery. Since that date the
enormous production of small wide-mouth articles, such
as vaseline jars, of which one establishment in New York
uses 10,000,000 yearly, has been made almost entirely
by machines, while fully 90 per cent of the fruit jars
are machine-made, and it is only a question of a very
short time until the fruit jar will be made exclusively in
this manner. The results so far attained indicate that
in a few years the bulk of the entire wide-mouth bottle
production will be made by machinery.

Prior to the use of machinery, the method of manu-
facture of wide-mouth ware was to gather the glass from
the furnace on a blowpipe, forming it to a suitable pre-
liminary shape in a block or on a marver, and then in-
serting the glass in a mold and blowing to the desired
form. After separating the glass from the blowpipe, a
ragged edge of superfluous glass remained attached to
the neck of the article, which had to be chipped and
ground off to make the product salable. The manu-
facture of the Mason fruit jar, which since it was pat-
ented, in 1858, has constituted 90 per cent of the fruit
jar production, has been most completely revolution-
ized by machinery. Prior to 1896 the glass was gath-



27



ered from the furnace upon a blowpipe, was then
blocked or rolled in a hollow block to get a preliminary
shape, then swung by the blower and blown up, rolled
on a flat slab or marver, and again blown until it was
just large enough to admit of being inserted in the blow
mold. The mass of glass was then put into the mold
and blown up, so as to completely fill the mold and
form a collar of surplus glass extending above the top
of the jar about an inch and a quarter. Above this
collar was the remainder of a thin bubble into which the
blower had formed the glass outside the mold so as to
separate it from the blowpipe. This collar and bubble
constituted the " blow -over," which had to be removed
before the jar was marketable. After being annealed
the jar was taken by a workman who, with a file, chipped
off most of the " blow-over" and then filed it down as
smooth as possible, leaving about one-sixteenth of an
inch of the collar remaining, which was finally removed
from the jar by the grinding machine. Then the jar
had to receive a thorough washing by hand to remove
all particles of broken glass and sand resulting from the
chipping and grinding. After being carefully dried,
the jar was at last ready to pack. The speed with
which it was necessary to perform the operations of
chipping, grinding, washing, and drying made the risk
of breakage great, being estimated at the rate of from
8 to 20 per cent.

By the use of machinery the costly "blow-over" is
avoided by first pressing the neck of the jar to finished
form and then forming the body of the jar by blowing,
so that when the jar leaves the blow mold to be annealed
it is, so far as form is concerned, a marketable article.
The process patented July 11, 1882, by Philip Arbogast,
of Pittsburg, Pa. , has been the basis for all machinery
used in the manufacture of jars and wide-mouth bottles.
He employed two separate molds, a press mold and a
blow mold. Sufficient glass to make the desired article
was taken from the furnace on a solid rod or punty and
dropped into the press mold, the required quantity
being separated from the mass on the punty by shears
in the hands of a workman. A lever operated by the
workman then brought down a plunger into the mold,
pressing the mouth or neck of the article to finished
form and pressing a wind cavity in the dependent mass
of glass to aid in the blowing operation. The plunger
being withdrawn, the mold was opened, and the ring
inclosing the pressed neck with the dependent mass of
glass was carried to the blow mold and inserted, after
which the body of the article was blown up to the
desired form. From 1884 to 1893 this process was fol-
lowed in a small way on large candy and druggists' jars,
wide-mouth bottles, vaseline and jam jars, milk jars,
and tableware, such as bowls, pitchers, sugars, and
creams, but the principal products were large drug and
candy jars, which, after having the necks pressed to the
finished form, were taken out of the press mold and
greatly increased in size by manipulation of the blower



before being placed in the blow mold. In 1893 the
process began to be more extensively used on vaseline
jars.

The idea of dispensing with the manual operation of
transferring the glass from one mold to another was
patented in England in 1886, both molds being com-
bined into one by the use of sliding parts. About the
same time the idea of placing a s,eries of molds on a
revolving table was also patented in that country, and
patents were granted in the United States in 1889 on
both devices, but they were never put into practical
use. In 1896 an American combined the consolidated
mold and rotary table. On a rotating table is placed
a series of five separate, duplicate, double molds, each
mold containing an outer blow section having a ring
integral with it in which the neck of the article* is
pressed, and a telescopic press section rising within the
blow section and receiving the glass, forming, with the
neck of the blow section, a press mold. The glass is
dropped into the combined mold when in this press
mold position, and the table rotated, bringing the mold
under the plunger, which enters it and presses the neck,
and wind cavity into the dependent mass of glass. The
plunger is withdrawn, and another rotation of the table
brings the mold under the blow stem, the telescopic
press section of the combined mold having dropped in
the meantime, exposing the glass blank within the blow
section. The bottom plate is inserted and the air ad-
mitted to expand the glass blank to the form of the
blow mold. The next rotation of the table brings the
mold to where it is opened by a boy, and the finished
article is taken out and removed to the annealing oven.
All of the above operations are performed simul-
taneously, a finished article being produced at each
rotation of the table. On such a machine the first com-
mercially successful machine-made Mason fruit jar was
manufactured in July, 1896, at the plant of the Atlas
Glass Company at Washington, Pa. The numerous jar
and wide-mouth bottle machines now in use have either
separate blow and press molds arranged near together
on a revolving table so that the shifting of the glass
from one to the other is almost instantaneous, or have
the molds combined in one. In all, the basic principle
is the pressing of the finished neck and the subsequent
blowing of the body. Compressed air for blowing and
electricity for motive power have added much to the
speed of the operation. The machine has a much
greater productive capacity than is possible by the old
hand method of blowing, and has reduced the cost of
manufacture more than a third. Loss by breakage has
been reduced to a minimum, while the finish of the ware
is far superior to that of the handmade article.

So far, the manufacture of narrow neck bottle ware
by machinery is not beyond the experimental stage in
this country, although commercial success is claimed in
Germany and Russia. The claim is made by the best
authorities that the manufacture of narrow neck bot-



28



ties by machinery will soon be perfected and become as
general as the mechanical production of wide-mouth
ware. The method employed at present in making
narrow neck bottles is to gather a suitable amount of
glass from the furnace on the blowpipe, to roll it on a
marver or turn in a block, to swing and blow and again
roll on the marver to give it the proper form for inser-
tion in the mold, where it is blown, forming the body
and neck of the bottle. The article is then taken from
the mold and carried to the glory hole, where the top
of the neck is reheated and the ring or lip of the bottle
neck is formed by the workman with a finishing tool,
after which the bottle is ready for annealing. The
greatest advance made so far in the mechanical produc-
tion of narrow neck ware has been in the finishing
process, although the finishing machine, as yet, is used
to but a limited extent.

The number of fruit jars reported in 1900 was 789,298
gross of different sizes — pints, quarts, and half gallons —
valued at $2,935,036. It is estimated that about 90 per
cent of these were the Mason patent jar, which has a
screw threaded neck for a metallic cap which presses
down a rubber band on the shoulder of the jar, making
a perfect seal. The other jars manufactured were more
expensive kinds with special sealing devices, of which
that with an all-glass top was the favorite. There
were 34 establishments engaged in the manufacture of
fruit jars during the census year, 6 of which made
that class of ware exclusively. The largest fruit jar
plant in the world, with a daily capacity of 240,000 jars,
all machine-made, is in Indiana. Comparison with the
statistics of the last two censuses shows a great devel-
opment in this branch of the industry, caused princi-
pally by the introduction of the continuous tank in the .
last decade and the adoption of machinery within the
last four years. In 1890, 268,978 gross of fruit jars were
reported, valued at $1,390,430. There was an increase
of 193.4 per cent in the number manufactured in 1900
over 1890. The average value per gross in 1900 was
$3.72 as compared with $5.17 in 1890, a decrease of 28
per cent in the value per gross.

The statistics of fruit jars manufactured at the census
of 1880 are incomplete, yet the total of 148,271 gross
reported for Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jer-
sey probably comprised very nearly the production
of the entire country. The increase in the quantity
manufactured in 1900 over 1880 was 432.3 per cent.
No fruit jars were reported in Indiana in 1880; but this
state headed the list in 1890 with 83,270 gross, valued
at $440,657, or 31 per cent of the total production, and
also in 1900 with 559,549 gross, valued at $2,106,250,
or 70.9 per cent of the total production. Pennsylvania,
which was first in 1880 in the manufacture of fruit jars,
67,770 gross having been reported, was third in 1890,
with a product of 47,250 gross, valued at $233,125, and
second in 1900, with 115,000 gross, valued at $436,104.
Ohio was second in the manufacture of fruit jars in 1890



by reason of the discovery of natural gas, 60,726 gross,
valued at $296,065, having been reported, while in 1900
the number had dwindled to 2,000 gross of a special
kind, valued at $8,000. In 1880 there were 51,749 gross
reported as manufactured in New Jersey; in 1890,
33,406 gross, valued at $181,410; and in 1900 this state
reached third place, with 61,871 gross, valued at
$192,467. In New York there were 28,752 gross man-
ufactured in 1880; in 1890 there were reported 9,500
gross, valued at $55,000; and 31,235 gross, valued at
$128,965, in 1900, an increase in the number manufac-
tured of 228.8 per cent over 1890. The statistics for
Illinois show a large decrease in fruit jars manufactured
since 1890, the number reported in 1900 being 1,500
gross, valued at $9,000, compared with 20,750 gross in
1890, valued at $103,798. In West Virginia, from
which no fruit jars were reported in either 1880 or 1890,
there were manufactured 14,643 gross, valued at$43,750,
in 1900.

At the close of the census year large quantities of
fruit jars, roughly estimated at 340,000 gross, were
being held in stock and were controlled by a selling
agency formed among the principal manufacturers. A
large portion of this stock was neld by one firm, which
had thousands of jars stacked in an open field. This
stock had accumulated for several years and was held in
prospect of the approaching failure of the natural gas
and the consequent advance in prices.

The manufacture of prescription bottles, vials, and
druggists' ware was carried on by 77 establishments in
1900, several of the largest factories in the country being
operated almost exclusively on this class of goods. The
value of these products in 1900 was 21.5 per cent of the
total value of all bottles and jars manufactured. The
statistics reported in 1890 of bottles and jars manufac-
tured are of no value for comparative purposes, as
they were not complete. However, the total number of
bottles reported in that year, exclusive of beer bottles,
was 2,170,961 gross. The average value per gross of
this class of ware in 1900 was $1.92, which was a con-
siderable reduction from the value per gross in 1890.
This was due to the increased quantity of ware pro-
duced from the continuous tank furnace. Of the total
quantity of this class of ware manufactured in the United
States in 1900, 30.2 per cent was made in New Jersey,
constituting 28 per cent of the total value, the average
value per gross for the state being$1.79. Indianaranked
second, with 25.7 per cent of the total quantity and 25.4
per cent of the total value of the products, the average
value per gross for the state being $1.90. Pennsylva-
nia, by reason of much of the product of that state be-
ing of higher grade, closely followed Indiana in the
value of the products, producing 25.4 per cent of the
total value and 22.7 per cent of the total quantity, the
average value per gross being $2.12. In Illinois 11 per
cent of the total quantity and 8.7 per cent of the total
value was manufactured, the average value per gross for



29



the state being $1.52. A large part of the southern trade
was supplied by that state. The manufacture of homeo-
pathic vials was carried on by 4 glass making estab-
lishments. These vials were also made duringthe census
year in a large number of small shops where the tubing
is bought and reworked. No account of these shops is
taken in this report. The American prescription bottle
has no superior inform and finish, and is far in advance
of the ware manufactured abroad. Export shipments
of this class of ware direct from factories in 1900 were
reported to Canada, Australia, South and Central Amer-
ica, Cuba, Great Britain, France, Africa, East Indies,
China, and Japan, of a total value of $93,094, which
represented only a portion of the actual exportation, as
the most of the trade was done through exporting
houses.

The manufacture of beer, soda, and mineral water
bottles in 1900 was reported by 75 establishments in 15
states, the total value of which was $5,075,068, or 23.4
per cent of the total value of all bottles and jars manu-
factured. Several establishments were employed almost
exclusively in the manufacture of beer and soda bottles,
the bulk of the trade being done by them. Plans were
being prepared at the close of the census year for 6 new
establishments to manufacture beer and soda bottles
exclusively, while increases of capacity among estab-
lished plants were general, nearly all being in the line
of continuous tanks. Demand for ware in the census
year was extraordinary, tht home consumption being
unusually large, while large quantities of bottles filled
with beer were shipped to Cuba and the far East. The
export trade in beer and soda bottles with Mexico
reached its highest development during the census year,
direct factory shipments aggregating 21,147 gross, val-
ued at $66,333, being reported for that country. The
manufacture of mineral water bottles largely increased
during the decade and was unusually large during the
census year. By far the largest part of the production
in this branch of the industry was made from the con-
tinuous tank furnace.

The general use of the tank and better facilities for
the maintenance of a high rate of speed by the work-
men have resulted in a great increase in the average
factory output within the last ten years, yet consump-
tion at the close of the census year was demanding still
greater capacity, and prices were at a high point. In
1890 a production of 204,948 gross of beer bottles was
reported, the figures probably not being complete, but
showing nearly all of the country's production in that
year; this was exceeded in 1900 by Illinois alone, with 4
establishments reporting. As in 1890, Illinois in 1900
was first in the manufacture of beer, soda, and mineral
water bottles, with 26.3 per cent of the total value and
30.1 per cent of the total quantity manufactured in the
United States. Pennsylvania ranked second in value
of products, with 17.8 per cent of the total, but the
quantity manufactured was only 10.9 per cent of the



total quantity. Establishments in Ohio reported 12.6
per cent of the total value and 16.2 per cent of the total
number of gross, while the production in New York
constituted 9.9 per cent of the total quantity and 9.3
per cent of the total value. A large percentage of the
total value and quantity was reported under the head
of "all other states," which came chiefly from Wiscon-
sin and Missouri, each having a large establishment
devoted to the exclusive manufacture of this class of
ware. California, Colorado, Georgia, Michigan, and
Virginia were the other states included under this head.
New .Jersey, with a production slightly less in quantity,
led Indiana in the total value of beer, soda, and mineral
water bottles manufactured. Following Indiana in this
class of ware were Maryland, West Virginia, and Mas-
sachusetts, in the order named.

There were 81 establishments engaged in the manu-
facture of flasks and liquor bottles in 1900, the total
value of the products being 11.1 per cent of the total
value of bottles and jars manufactured, Indiana heading
the list with 50.2 per cent of the total value and 61.4
per cent of the total quantity. There were several
small establishments equipped with tank furnaces in
this state operating exclusively on flasks with very cheap
gas fuel, and cheap unorganized labor, that created con-
siderable demoralization in prices and in the trade of
the old establishments. To counteract this, the Ameri-
can Flint Glass Workers' Union, to which the organized
flask" workers belong, at the close of the census year
was erecting a tank factory in Indiana to be operated
exclusively on flasks, which were to be sold at prices to
compete with these new firms, and thus to either force
them out of the business or cause them to maintain
prices and working conditions equal to those in force
among organized manufacturers. This movement is
unique in the history of trades unions, and is based on
the principle that there is greater economy and efficiency
in direct business competition than in the old method of
taking men out on strike and supporting them on a
relief roll. Pennsylvania was next to Indiana in the
manufacture of flasks and liquor bottles, 14.5 per, cent
of the total quantity and 18.6 per cent of the total value
being manufactured in that state. Liquor bottles and
flasks were also manufactured in California, Georgia,
Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jer-
sey, New York, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, and
Wisconsin.

The manufacture of milk jars or bottles is practically
a development of the last decade. The demand has
steadily increased, causing a corresponding increase in
the furnace capacity used in the manufacture of this
class of ware. The manufacture of milk jars was re-
ported in 1900 by 31 establishments, 13 of which were
located in Pennsylvania. The total value of milk jars
of all sizes manufactured in 1900 was 3.4 per cent of
the total value of all bottles and jars manufactured.
The average value per gross for the United States was



30



$4.99. The mechanical production of milk jars is com-
mercially possible, and it is probable that a large part
of the product will be made by machinery during the
present decade. The manufacture of milk jars was one
of the most rapidly expanding branches of the glass
trade at the close of the census year, the overwhelming
merits of ,such a package for milk becoming more
widely recognized and the demand steadily increasing.
Pennsylvania led the productive list, with 55.1 per
cent of the total quantity and 59.6 per cent of the
total value. The percentages of the total quantity and
total value of milk jars manufactured in the other
states in 1900, are as follows: New Jersey, 13.5 per
cent of the quantity and 14.7 per cent of the value;
Indiana, 13.4 per cent of the quantity and 7.6 per
cent of the value; Illinois, 5.1 per cent of both quantity
and value; New York, 4.7 per cent of the quantity and
4.6 per cent of the value; Ohio, 4.1 per cent of both
quantity and value; West Virginia, 3.1 per cent of the
quantity and 3.2 per cent of the value.

The manufacture of bottles for patent and proprie-
tary medicines is largely confined to the states of New
Jersey, Illinois, and Indiana, although 47 establish-
ments in 8 states were reported as engaged in the man-
ufacture of such products. The value of bottles for
patent and proprietary medicines manufactured in 1900
was 12 per cent of the value of bottles and jars of all
kinds reported. The combined production of New Jer-
sey, Illinois, and Indiana was 88.6 per cent of the total
quantit\ r for the United States. Bottles of this kind are
made of a cheaper grade than prescription bottles and
are used in steadily increasing quantities, a large quan-
tity being exported filled. New Jersey for a long
period has been first in the manufacture of this class of
ware, and in 1900 there was reported from that state
46.4 per cent of the total quantity and 53.7 per cent of
the total value for the United States. From Illinois
was reported 23.4 per cent of the total quantity and 19
per cent of the total value; and from Indiana 18.9 per
cent of the total quantity and 14.5 per cent of the total
value. Bottles for patent and proprietary medicines
were also manufactured in Pennsylvania, New York,
Ohio, Maryland, and Georgia.

The manufacture of bottles and jars for the packing
and preserving industries, exclusive of the enormous
production of fruit jars, has steadily advanced during
the past decade, owing to the remarkable growth of the
above interests and the increasing recognition of glass
as the ideal package. In this branch of the bottle
and jar industry the value of the product in 1900 was
9.8 per cent of the total value of all bottles and jars
manufactured, and 45 establishments in 10 states re-
ported. The products covered a wide range of glass
food packages, the average value being f 2. 70 per gross.
The manufacture of machine-made ware in this line is
increasing, although constituting as yet a very small
proportion of the total. The 3 leading states in the



manufacture of bottles and jars for packers and pre-
servers were New Jersey, Indiana, and Pennsylvania.
In New Jersey, 35.6 per cent of the quantity and 29.3
per cent of the value of these products was manufac-
tured; in Indiana, 31.6 per cent of the quantity and 32.4
per cent of the value; and in Pennsylvania, 14.5 per
cent of the quantity and 19.8 per cent of the value.
Illinois followed, with 10.3 per cent of the quantity
and 9.2 per cent of the value. This class of ware was
also manufactured in Ohio, New York, California, West
Virginia, Maryland, and Georgia; these states reporting
in the order given as to quantity and value of product.

The number of demijohns and carboys manufactured
in 1900 was 83,243 dozens, valued at $206,061. The
average value per dozen for the several states varied
with the proportion of the state's output of the more
expensive carboy or the cheaper demijohn, the average
value of the carboy being about twice that of the demi-
john. New Jersey was first in the value of demijohns
and carboys manufactured in 1900, with 42 per cent of
the total value, followed by Illinois with 23.8 per cent
of the total value, Pennsylvania with 17.9 per cent, and
New York with 9.2 per cent. Under the head of "all
other products," bottles and jars which were not speci-
fied, valued at $940,277, were reported. A large vari-
ety of ware was embraced under this head. During
the census year the manufacture of large glass jars and
retorts for laboratory use and for water coolers was
successfully accomplished in this country, the process
having been brought from France.

There was no such close organization of manufactur-
ing interests in the bottle and jar industiy during the



Online LibraryUnited States. Census Office (12th census : 1900)Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] → online text (page 203 of 222)