United States. Census Office (12th census : 1900).

Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] online

. (page 41 of 222)
Online LibraryUnited States. Census Office (12th census : 1900)Bulletins of the twelfth census of the United States : issued from October 6, 1900 to [October 20, 1902] ... number 4 [-247] → online text (page 41 of 222)
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154

Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TEKEITOKIES,

1900— Continued.





products — continued.


STATES AND TERRITORIES.


Group XVIII.— Fine chemicals— Continued.


Silver salts.


Platinum salts.


Chloroform.


Ether.


Acetone.


All other.




Ounces.


Value.


Ounces.


Value.


Pounds.


Value.


Pounds.


Value.


Pounds.


Value.


Value.




1,252,604


8499,345


7,312


$54,600


396 540


$98, 070


263,238


8129,876


1,638,715


$178, 666


$1,485,465


































































































































































































£66, 060
















































12,000
9,390




103,576


37,719


6,380


46,678






116, 350


56, 211






40,000














325,121


120,104


932


7,922


334,000
62,540


66,800
31, 270


56,000
74, 500


18,650
45,700


63, 593

1,455,865


6,359
158,712


135, 103


North Carolina

Ohio






128,024
i,"650
















16, 388


9,315


119,257


13, 595


959,238


South Carolina

Tennessee

Texas

Vermont

Virginia ,

West Virginia

Wisconsin . .•

All other states




















"


50,000



155



Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES,

1900— Continued.





products — continued.




Group XIX.— Chemicals not otherwise specified.




Total
value.


Glycerin.


Cream of tartar.


Epsom salts.


Blue vitriol.


Copperas.


Phosphates of
soda.




Pounds.


Value.


Pounds.


Value.


Pounds.


Value.


Pounds.


Value.


Pounds.


Value.


Pounds.


Value.


United States


85, 189, 992


15, 383, 798


$2,012,886


10, 620, 000


82,081,500


7,559,809


$57,966


7,500,000


$375,000


19,884,306


$87, 927


3,478,350






$104, 554






























326,000






1,610,000


326,000




























































































































Florida


























































182,391


1,403,506


169, 695














2, 086, 400


12, 696




































































































































































Maryland


116,215
30, 191










1,421,500


14,215










3,400,000


102,000


Massachusetts


































































































Missouri


2,554
31, 655


1


















78,350


2,554


Nebraska


372,418 | 31,655








































New Jersey


1, 120, 977
2,133,275




4,210,000
4, 800, 000


795,500
960, 000










871, 902
67,403


5,231
675






New York


8,000,000 1,120,000


20,000


1,000




















Ohio


726,211


5,607,874 , 691,536














10,158,600


34, 675


























520, 623








6, 118, 309


42,751


7,500,000


375,000


6,700,000


34,650


















































































































































































































































'1 '





156

Table 9.-CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES,

1900— Continued.





products — continued.


COMPARISON OP PRODUCTS.


POWER.




Group XIX.— Chem-
icals not other-
wise specified —
Continued.


All other.


Num-
ber of
estab-
lish-
ments
report-
ing for
both
years.


Census year
1900.


Preceding
business year


Num-
ber of
estab-
lish-
ments
report-
ing.


Total
horse-
power.


Owned.


STATES AND TERRITORIES.




Engines.




Water


wheels.




Tin salts.


Steam.


Gasorgasoline.






Pounds.


Value.


Value.


Value.


Value.


Num-
ber.


Horse-
power.


Num-
ber.


Horse-
power.


Num-
ber.


Horse-
power.




4,677,471


$470, 159


S19, 003, 538


1,473


$180,675,706


$156,604,049

1,562,913
6,981,138
190,952
2,313,213
1,098,490

83,855

469,492

1,409,770

9,567,420

2,270,170

566, 051
554,593
829, 686
808, 938
374, 600

4, 513, 513

6,526,099

7, 664, 301

310, 500

441,000

6,868,038

841, 650

25, 900

20, 281, 702

35, 058, 082

1, 084, 357
10,501,736

158, 794
26,031,791

999, 561

792, 863
971, 818
28, 060
267, 368

3,129,320

257, 168

694, 383

74, 764


1,354


198,338


2,682


158,646


86


1,669


311


9,273













100, 454
629, 649
33,154
970, 673
167,573

14,157

10, 164

121, 613

869, 683

56, 365

4,265


13
48
4
26
13

7
10
23
74
36

8
4

15
9

10

54

79

89

6

4

35

5

4

131

246

15

115

5

277

12

7

13

5

3

47
7
9
5


1,817,640
7,863,041
299, 954
2,485,964
1,077,926

85,637

533, 789

1, 516, 461

10, 886, 616

2,546,039

696. 022
728, 943
953, 730
1,036,453
366,000

4,921,377

8,027,083

9, 362, 568

377, 031

505, 972

7,026,687

954,840

27,225

23, 823, 809

38, 930, 455

1, 152, 111

12, 414, 903

239, 359

30,791,552

1,127,329

865, 429

1, 577, 587

39, 830

404,337

3, 756, 967

303, 503

1,074,347

77, 190


19
42
4
21
12

3
7

36
66
34

7
4
15
8
8

47

60

52

6

3

29

5

3

120

224

16
103

4
272

5

18

11

6

4

57
8

11
4


1,630
3,653
199
2,692
2,602

94

527

3,913

6,726

2,441

753

1,105

969

927

2,644

4,487

6,390

23,774

.271

'415

2,805

380

59

17,817

49,974

1,292

10, 017

90

30, 855

730

3,940

2,105

180

380

9,782
550

1.090
280


34
65
6
38
30

1

10
56
76
49

22
6
17
12
10

78
89
179
4
4

49

4

5

321

538

29

166

2

559

15

36

23

6

6

127

8

11

1


1,515
2,553
167
1,731
1,360

65

515

3,855

6,086

2,008

753
730
902
835
196

4,056

4,890

23,494

201

415

2,599

360

57

16, 293

28, 784

1,153

7,657

60

27, 372

647

3,940

1,833

175

380

9,292
500

1,087
130
















6


47


7


200




















33
40

1


911












1,082












9


































8
3


139
73


1


15


























1
1
1


5
10
36












64,425
26, 600
13, 630

1, 027, 229

515, 106

1,300,784






















17

2
6
6


2,420








5
1


87
10


44




179,587


30, 191


470




150




































1,192,242

26, 120

2,400

4,185,535

2, 557, 133

10, 292
1,050,044

45, 928

3,371,440

465, 509


3


37






















1

3

10

16
7


2

47

228

56
267








3,130,578
257, 329


320, 246
51, 600


2

67


30




1,201












12


603












1,109,977


68, 122


17


598


102

2


1,582




60




















22,500
15,540


1


22


6


250






























91, 091

32, 750

490

9,000


1


2


7


246
















1


3































157



Table 9.— CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS: DETAILED STATEMENT BY STATES AND TERRITORIES,

1900— Continued.





power— continued.


FACTORIES.




Owned — Continued.


Rented.


Fur-
nished to

other
establish-
ments.


Total
num-
ber of
estab-
lish-
ments.


No em-
ployees.


Under
5.


5 to
20.


21 to
50.


51 to
100.


101 to
250.


251 to
500.


501 to
1,000.




STATES AND TERRITORIES.


Electric motors.


Other power.


Over
1,000.




Num-
ber.


Horse-
power.


Num-
ber.


Horse-
power.


Electric,
horse-
power.


Other
kind,
horse-
power.


Horse-
power.


United States


399


6,84a


15


542


19,445


1,914


. 875


1,740


43


413


655


319


143


122


34


6


6






1
37


25
570






30

173

15

17


60
65
2




19
53
4
31
15

8
10
46
88
42

8

5

18

10

13

63
83
97
8
4

39

5

4

160

285

23

137

5

306

12

22
14

7
5

64
9

12
6




1

12


6
23

2
13
10

4
1

18
31
22

1


5
9

1
4
1

1
6
10
22
7

2


4
4
1
3
1


3

4









California


2
3
1


45
15
25


40




1




Colorado






2
5


8
140




1

2

1
2

1
6


9
1

3
1
3

19
9

2
2
6

2

10
27
48
1


1

1


1
1








20
20








District of Columbia
























12
30
23
23




8

10

2

1
3
1
1

3

4
5


1

6
5
2

1
2










2

9

35


28
159
337










1
1












304


161
































Kansas


3


70








300
















57




6

4
5

23
37
19
5
1

13
2
2

56
106

7
61
3
126
3

3
5
3
3

20
4
4
3


3
2
3

17
10
10
2
2

10

1

27
56

3

22
1

66
1

1
3










2
3

8
26
15


31
19

210
645
115






25




2








Maine






9










Maryland






90
95
10




8
2
6


2
2
1






Massachusetts


1


50


30

5

70










140




























1

2
3












3


6






123
20


40






10


2


2
































5
5

3
6

9
1

1


1
36
67

4
33

1
70

4

2
1
3
1

15
4
3
2












74
63


1,171
989


2


55


20
18, 435

83

57
30
28


201
337


10
146


12
28

3
6


18
14

3
6


5
6


2






1










Ohio


66


1,376






57


208


3


















40
1


893
15


4


302


80
8


155
15


17
3

2
2
1


13

1

11


2


2


1














3
2




































5
























1
8










3

1


27
15


1

1


40
10




175
25




3

1


11

1


2


1


















1


















150



































APPENDIX



(159)



CONTENTS,



DIGEST OP UNITED STATES PATENTS RELATING TO THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES.
(Products and processes.)



Group I.— ACIDS.

Sulphuric 163

Nitric 164

Mixed 165

Hydrochloric 165

Phosphoric 165

Other inorganic 166

Acetic 166

Lactic 167

Tartaric 167

Citric 167

Salicylic 167

Tannic 167

Other organic 167

Group II.— SODAS.

Caustic soda 168

Sodium carbonates 169

Borates '. 171

Recovery processes 171

Packing processes 172

Group III.— POTASH.

Carbonates 173

Group IV. -ALUMS.

Ammonia alum 173

Potash alum - 173

Soda alum 173

Concentrated alum 173

Alum cake 174

Other alums 174

Group V.— COAL-TAE PRODUCTS

See group XVIII, Fine chemicals.

Group VI.— CYANOGEN COMPOUNDS.

Cyanides i75

-i 70

Ferrocyanides 1/0

Other cyanides 17 °

Group VII.— WOOD DISTILLATION.

Wood distillation 176

1 77

Kesinsand turpentine L "

Group VIII— FERTILIZERS.

Products 178

182
Processes

No. 210 11



Group IX.— BLEACHING MATERIALS AND Page.
BLEACHING PROCESSES.

Chlorine 187

Hypochlorites:

Materials 188

Processes 189

Sulphur dioxide 190

Hydrogen dioxide and ozone 190

Other metallic dioxides 190

Metallic permanganates 190

Other bleaching agents:

Materials 190

Processes 191

Group X.— CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES PRODUCED
BY THE AID OF ELECTRICITY.
Products:

Inorganic 191

Organic —

Carbides 192

Other organic 192

Processes 192

Apparatus 201

Group XL— DYESTUFFS AND EXTRACTS.

Natural: ,

Inorganic 205

Organic 205

Artificial:

Inorganic 206

Organic 207

Processes 237

Mordants 240

Group XII.— TANNING.

Natural 242

Artificial, inorganic 242

Group XIII.— PAINTS, COLORS, AND VARNISHES.

Pigments 244

Paints 245

Varnishes." 245

Group XIV.— EXPLOSIVES.

Gunpowder, including blasting powder 245

Nitroglycerine 248

Cellulose nitrates and other organic nitrates 248

Dynamites 250

Smokeless powder 252

Nitro-substitution compounds 253

(161)



162



CONTENTS.



Page.

Fulminates, priming compositions, and fuses 254 -

Pyrotechnic compositions 255

Match compositions 256

Group XV.— PLASTICS.

Pyroxyline plastics 257

Viscose - 262

Rubber and rubber substitutes 262

Caseine plastics 268

Other plastics 268

Processes 277

Group XVI.— ESSENTIAL OILS.

Essential oils, perfumes, and flavors 280

Artificial musk 280

Group XVII.— COMPRESSED AND LIQUEFIED GASES.

Hydrogen 280

Chlorine 280

Oxygen 280

Nitrogen 281

Nitrous oxide 281

Sulphur dioxide 281

Carbon dioxide 281

Apparatus 281

Group XVIII.— FINE CHEMICALS.
Inorganic:

Bromine and iodine 282

Sodium and potassium 282

Selenium 282

Rare earths 282

Platinum metals 283

Carbon compounds:

Hydrocarbons 283

Haloid compounds —

Chlorides 283

Bromides 284

Iodides 284

Fluorides 284

Alcohols and phenols 284

Aldehydes and their products —

Aldehydes 285

Vanillin 285



Page.
Carbon compounds — Continued.

Ethers 286

Acids 286

Esters or salts 286

Ketones 289

Sulphur compounds 289

Nitrogen compounds —

Nitrosubstitution compounds 290

Substituted ammonias 290

Purins and derivatives —

Purins 291

Xanthins 292

Pyrazoles 292

Chinolines or quinolines 292

Chinaldines - - - - 293

Isatins 293

Alkaloids 293

Pyrazines and piperazines 293

Proteids 294



Group XIX.— CHEMICALS NOT OTHERWISE
ENUMERATED.

Inorganic:

Sulphur 294

Phosphorus 294

Carbon 294

Haloid compounds 294

Oxides 295

Sulphides 297

Basic hydroxides —

Ammonia 297

Other hydroxides 299

Chlorates 299

Nitrites and nitrates 300

Sulphites and sulphates „ 300

Phosphates : 302

Carbonates 303

Silicates 304

Aluminates 304

Manganates and permanganates 304

Processes and apparatus 304

Organic:

Processes and apparatus 306



DIGEST OF UNITED STATES PATENTS.



Prepared by Story B. Ladd, under the direction of Chakles B. Muneoe.



GROUP I.— ACIDS.

SULPHURIC ACID.

8,S08— August 96, 1851. E. L. SEYMOUR. Improvement in process of reducing
ores by zinc compounds.

Sulphurous gas from the calcination of sulphuret ores with air and steam is
passed through feldspathlc rock, magnesian limestone, sulphurets of metals or
the like, converting the same into their sulphates, and the surplus gas is con-
verted into dilute sulphuric acid. The gases remaining or evolved are combined
with crude or raw ammonia or other alkaline substance producing fertilizers;
or the sulphurous gases of the first operation are passed into water m the pres-
ence of metallic zinc, forming sulphate of zinc, which is converted into white
oxide of zinc.

il,6U7— February 16, 1861,. J. SMITH AND J. R. SAVAGE. Improvement in the
manufacture of sulphuric acid.
Sulphuric acid is heated for concentration by steam coils in leaden pans and

still.

i2,985— May SI, 1881,. L. CHANDOR. Improvement in the manufacture of sul-
phuric acid.

Columns of stoneware or clay flasks are used in lieu of lead chambers, and
the sulphurous acid is passed through masses of porous bodies, such as coke or
pumice stone.

43,157 — June Ik, 186U. R. G. LOFTUS. Improved process of recovering the acid

used in refining petroleum.

The spent acid is, first, diluted with 50 per cent of water, subjected to agita-
tion and then repose in a leaden-lined tank, and the oily matters subsequently
drawn off; second, the diluted acid is concentrated by evaporation to from 1.650
to 1.700 and subjected to further dilution and repose; third, the clear liquid is
siphoned off from the heavier impurities and again concentrated to from 1.650
to 1.700; and, fourth, it is concentrated in glass, porcelain, or other suitable
vessels to a specific gravity of 1.845.

52,090— January 16, 1866. A. H. TAIT AND J. ,W. AVIS. Improved apparatus for

desulphurizing ores.

Air heated to from 260° to 315° C. is forced through sulphuret ore in a closed
chamber .under a pressure of 20 to 40 pounds. The admission of a small quan-
tity of nitric oxide gas is advantageous.

62,919— March 19, 1867. D. ASHWORTH AND R. B. EATON. Improvement in con-
centrating sulphuric acid.
A series of glass retorts is used in combination with a heating apparatus.

78,852— May 26, 1868. D. ASHWORTH AND R. B. EATON. Improved apparatus

for concentrating sulphuric acid.

The hot concentrated acid is cooled and the fresh acid heated by flowing the
latter through an encasing jacket of a vessel of the former. It also relates to
structural details.

86,881 — February 9, 1869. A. H. TAIT. Improvement in the manufacture of ml- ■

phuric acid.

Sulphurous acid is freed from nitrogen by liquefying the sulphurous acid and
allowing the nitrogen gas to escape. Arsenic is removed by refrigerating the
sulphurous-acid vapors. Sulphurous-acid gas is exposed to the action of nitric
oxide, air, and steam under pressure, forming sulphuric acid, which is concen-
trated by injecting hot air.

97,182— November 23, 1869. L. S. FALES. Improved mode of recovering the spent
acid from oil refineries.

To effect the separation of the tarry matter from the spent acid of oil refineries,
etc. , the spent acid, either with or without the addition of sulphate of potash or
of ammonia, and diluted with water, is subjected to the action of ammoniacal
vapors from gas liquor, and then allowed to stand, when the tarry matter is
removed, leaving a clear solution, which is then concentrated by evaporation,
sulphate of soda being first added.

127,350— May 28, 1872. J. HUGHES. Improvement in the manufacture of acids and
paints from the materials used to purify ff<w-

Saturated or spent gas-purifying materials are used as a base for the manufac-
ture of acids. The resultant oxide, in the case of iron materials, is available as
a base for paints.

129,201— July 16, 1872. W. ARCHDEACON. Improvement in preparing wooden
vessels for holding acids.

The interior of the vessel is impregnated with a composition of glue 1 part
and beeswax 3 parts, applied under pressure.

137 692— April 8 1873. J. KIRCHER. Improvement in obtaining sulphur, sul-
phuric acid, and sulphurets of sodium and potassium from gas lime, etc.
Saturated gas-purifying material— lime or iron— is heated with superheated
steam to evolve sulphureted hydrogen for the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
Flowers of sulphur is produced by mixing gas lime with loam and sublimating
the excess of sulphur; lac sulphur by mixing the gas lime with water and acid;
sulphuret of sodium or potassium by subjecting the gas lime to the action of
caustic soda or other alkali or salt.

liS,202-September 23, 1873. E. THOMSON AND W. H. GREENE. Improvement
in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.

It relates to details of structure and arrangement, including subjecting the
nitrous gases evolved from the reaction of sulphurous acid and nitric acid to the
action of cold water and air currents in a chamber with porous packing, to form
nitric acid.



H,h,928— November 25, 1873. J. SAUNDERS. Improvement in the manufacture of
sulphuric acid.

Hollow glass balls with one or more openings are used for filling sulphuric-acid
condensing towers.

150,095— April 21, 1871,. H. SPRENGEL. Improvement in the manufacture of sul-
phuric acid. '
Very fine spray or mist of water or acidified aqueous solutions are used in

place of steam. Sulphuric acid is sprayed to absorb the nitrous fumes in the

gases from the sulphuric-acid chambers, and the acid containing the absorbed

fumes is sprayed in the leaden chambers.

175,734— April 4, 1876. W. H. NICHOLS. Improvement in sulphuric-acid packages.
They are made of sheet iron, with the surfaces and edges coated with lead and
united by melted lead.

20U,2kh — May 28, 1878. A. PENISSAT. Improvement in processes for recovering

waste sulphuric acid.

Sulphuric acid is recovered from the refuse in the treatment of coal oil by
washing the acid from the tar, evaporating down to about 60° Baumfi, and then
vaporizing, condensing, and producing the white sulphuric acid and concen-
trating.

206,309— July 23, 1878. F. F. FARRAR AND F. P. GILL. Improvement in proc-
esses and apparatus for recovering waste sulphuric acid.

Acid is reclaimed from the residuum tar of refineries by mixing the tar with
hot water and steeping with heat, then allowing it to cool and settle, when the
acid and tar are drawn off from below. The acid water is then heated and the
purer liquor withdrawn from the bottom and the water evaporated.

223,571— January 13, 1880. J. A. W. WOLTERS. Manufacture of anhydrous sul-
phuric acid.

Anhydrous sulphuric acid is obtained by the distillation of a mixture of anhy-
drous bisulphate of soda (or potash) and anhydrous sulphate of magnesia, or
compounds of the other so-called vitriols and alkaline earths.

230, 171— July 20, 1880. H. BOWER. Process of and apparatus for treating residuum

from petroleum refineries.

Sulphuric acid is recovered by washing the sludge acid with water in covered
tanks, mechanically separating the sulphuric-acid solution and carbonaceous
matters from the oily ingredients, as by centrifugal machines (for redistilla-
tion), separating the acid solution from the carbonaceous matters by heating
in a series of concentrators, and finally concentrating and distilling the sepa-
rated sulphuric-acid solution.

239,685 — September 28, 1880. E. CLARK. Recovering sulphuric acid from sludge

acid.

In the recovery of sulphuric acid from the sludge acid of oil refineries, the
offensive vapors are conducted off by an exhaust produced by an induced steam
blast while the sludge is being agitated by steam.

233,680— October 26, 1880. E. C. E. AND L. L. LABOIS. Manufacture of carbon
bisulphide and sulphuric acid from pyrites, and apparatus therefor.
A limited proportion of sulphur is first extracted from a determined quantity

of pyrites and combined with carbon in a separate retort, while the hot pyritic

residue is conducted to a separate furnace for the manufacture of sulphuric

acid.

2i0,2i8— April 19, 1881. J. GRIDLEY. Process of and apparatus for concentrating

sulphuric acid.

A strong heat is applied to the under surface of a thin body of dilute acid, and
at the same time a blast of superheated steam or hot air is applied to the upper
surface, and the vapors removed as they rise.

2L6,396— August SO, 1881. C. KOLBE AND T. L1NDFORS. Apparatus for concen-
trating sulphuric acid.
A series of platinum retorts is arranged on a plane and connected by pipes

from the bottom of one to a higher point of the next, giving an equilibrium of

level in all the retorts.

250,1,16— December 6, 1881. F. BENKER AND H. LASNE. Manufacture of sul-
phuric acid.
Nitrous compounds are economized, in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, by

mixing sulphurous-acid gas with the gases which enter the Gay-Lussac tower.

252,287— January 10, 1882. H. WURTZ. Process of treating mineral pyrites and
sulphides for the manufacture of sulphurous and sulphuric acids.
A new product for use in the manufacture of sulphuric acid is made by gran-
ulating sulphurets and mixing same with comminuted metallic iron and form-
ing into cakes or lumps. The iron in the lumps is oxidized by moistening with
a saline solution. Asbestus or mica may be incorporated as a binder.

265,495— October S, 1882. J. GRIDLEY. Process of and apparatus for concentrat-
ing sulphuric acid.

A small stream of dilute acid from the evaporating pan, of about 60° Baum6,
is continuously introduced into a large quantity of acid of 66° Baume in a con-
centrating pan and kept at the boiling point, with a proportionate constant
discharge therefrom. The pan of cast iron has its walls above the weak acid
line protected.

267,582— November Ik, 1882. R. N. R. PHELPS AND W. A. CLARK, Je. Process

of treating the waste pickle liquor of ironworks.

Ferric oxide, sulphuric acid, and other products are recovered from pickle
liquor by evaporating the liquor, drying and pulverizing the crystals of sulphate
of iron, heating them in a retort, say to 710° C. , with air in regulated quan-
tities, and condensing the sulphuric and sulphurous acid vapors.



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164



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES.



268,79$— December 1%, 188%. E. HA WORTH. Manufacture of sulphuric acid.

Sulphurous-acid gas — as from lead smelters— is first passed through water,
which dissolves the gas and condenses any metallic fumes. The water is then
passed to a heating tank and the sulphurous-acid gas there evolved conveyed to



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