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Antarctic Treaty Summary in the Antarctica entry); sections (some
overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New
Zealand, Norway, and UK; the US and most other nations do not
recognize the maritime claims of other nations and have made no claims
themselves (the US reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have
been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west






Background: Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th
centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England.
Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial
revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and
Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in
World Wars I and II, but suffered through a devastating Civil War
(1936-39). In the second half of the 20th century, it has played a
catch-up role in the western international community. Continuing
concerns are large-scale unemployment and the Basque separatist


Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay,
Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains,
southwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Europe

total: 504,782 sq km
land: 499,542 sq km
water: 5,240 sq km
note: includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco -
Ceuta, Melilla, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de
Velez de la Gomera

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 1,917.8 km
border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km,
Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and
cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy
and cool along coast

Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills;
Pyrenees in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites,
fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash,
hydropower, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 30%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 34,530 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from
raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas;
water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation;

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification

Geography - note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of


Population: 39,996,671 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15% (male 3,046,379; female 2,866,712)
15-64 years: 68% (male 13,702,947; female 13,618,766)
65 years and over: 17% (male 2,830,607; female 3,931,260) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.11% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 9.22 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.03 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.79 years
male: 75.32 years
female: 82.49 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.15 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Languages: Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%,
Basque 2%

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: NA%
female: NA%


Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local short form: Espana

Data code: SP

Government type: parliamentary monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades
autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon,
Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Canarias (Canary Islands),
Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad
Valencian, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra,
Pais Vasco (Basque Country)
note: there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of
Morocco: Ceuta and Melilla are administered as autonomous communities;
Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
are under direct Spanish administration

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

National holiday: National Day, 12 October

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir
Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968
head of government: President of the Government Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez
(since 5 May 1996); First Vice President Francisco ALVAREZ CASCOS
Fernandez (since 5 May 1996) and Second Vice President (and Minister
of Economy and Finance) Rodrigo RATO Figaredo (since 5 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme
consultative organ of the government
elections: the monarch is hereditary; president proposed by the
monarch and elected by the National Assembly following legislative
elections; election last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA 2004);
vice presidents appointed by the monarch on proposal of the president
election results: Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez (PP) elected president;
percent of National Assembly vote - 44%

Legislative branch: bicameral; General Courts or National Assembly or
Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (259 seats - 208
members directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by
the regional legislatures to serve four-year terms) and the Congress
of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; members are
elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation
to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March
2004); Congress of Deputies - last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held
NA March 2004)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PP 127, PSOE 61, CiU 8, PNV 6, CC 5, PIL 1; Congress of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 44.5%, PSOE 34%, CiU 4.2%, IU
5.4%, PNV 1.5%, CC 1%, BNG 1.3%; seats by party - PP 183, PSOE 125,
CiU 15, IU 8, PNV 7, CC 4, BNG 3, other 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo

Political parties and leaders: Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Xabier
ARZALLUS Antia]; Canarian Coalition or CC (a coalition of five
parties) ; Convergence and Union or CiU [Jordi
PUJOL i Soley, secretary general] (a coalition of the Democratic
Convergence of Catalonia or CDC and the
Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC );
Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG ; Party of
Independents from Lanzarote or PIL ; Popular Party or PP
; Spanish Communist Party or PCE [Francisco
FRUTOS]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Joaquin ALMUNIA
Amann, secretary general]; United Left or IU (a coalition of parties
including the PCE and other small parties)

Political pressure groups and leaders: business and landowning
interests; Catholic Church; Euskal Herritarok or EH ;
free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); on the extreme left, the
Basque Fatherland and Liberty or ETA and the First of October
Antifascist Resistance Group or GRAPO use terrorism to oppose the
government; Opus Dei; Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and
the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university
students; Workers Confederation or CC.OO

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio OYARZABAL MARCHESI
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward L. ROMERO
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: APO AE 09642
telephone: (91) 587-2200
FAX: (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona

Flag description: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double
width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of
the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by
the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and
Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar


Economy - overview: Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP
that on a per capita basis is three-fourths that of the four leading
West European economies. Its center-right government successfully
worked to gain admission to the first group of countries launching the
European single currency on 1 January 1999. The AZNAR administration
has continued to advocate liberalization, privatization, and
deregulation of the economy and has introduced some tax reforms to
that end. Unemployment, nonetheless, remains the highest in the EU at
16%. The government, for political reasons, has made only limited
progress in changing labor laws or reforming pension schemes, which
are key to the sustainability of both Spain's internal economic
advances and its competitiveness in a single currency area. Adjustment
to the monetary and other economic policies of an integrated Europe -
and reducing the unacceptably high level of unemployment - will pose
difficult challenges to Spain in the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $677.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.2%
industry: 33.6%
services: 63.2% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 25.2% (1990)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 16.2 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 64%, manufacturing, mining, and
construction 28%, agriculture 8% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1999 est.)

revenues: $115 billion
expenditures: $125 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and
beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding,
automobiles, machine tools, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 179.468 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 48.23%
hydro: 19.16%
nuclear: 31.23%
other: 1.38% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 170.306 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 5.6 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 9 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar
beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish

Exports: $112.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, other
consumer goods

Exports - partners: EU 72% (France 20%, Germany 14%, Italy 9%,
Portugal 9%, UK 8%), Latin America 7%, US 4% (1998)

Imports: $137.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals,
semifinished goods; foodstuffs, consumer goods (1997)

Imports - partners: EU 67% (France 18%, Germany 15%, Italy 10%, UK 8%,
Benelux 8%), US 6%, OPEC 5%, Japan 3%, Latin America 4% (1998)

Debt - external: $90 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.3 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 143.39 (January 1999), 149.40 (1998), 146.41
(1997), 126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is
now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a
fixed rate of 166.386 pesetas per euro; the euro will replace the
local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 17.336 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8.394 million (1999)

Telephone system: generally adequate, modern facilities
domestic: NA
international: 22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat;
tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 208, FM 715, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 13.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 228 (plus 2,112 repeaters); note -
these figures include 11 television broadcast stations and 89
repeaters in the Canary Islands (September 1995)

Televisions: 16.2 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 49 (1999)


total: 13,950 km
broad gauge: 12,781 km 1.668-m gauge (6,358 km electrified; 2,295 km
double track)
standard gauge: 525 km 1.435-m gauge (525 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 644 km 1.000-m gauge (438 km electrified) (1998)

total: 346,858 km
paved: 343,389 km (including 9,063 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,469 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Pipelines: crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas
1,666 km

Ports and harbors: Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena,
Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary
Islands), Malaga, Melilla, Pasajes, Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife
(Canary Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo

Merchant marine:
total: 130 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,131,648 GRT/1,688,996
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 24, chemical tanker 9, container 9,
liquified gas 2, livestock carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker
24, refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off 36, short-sea passenger 7,
specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 105 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 70
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 35
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 25 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard,
National Police, Coastal Civil Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 10,569,785 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 8,481,690 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 295,335 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY97)

@Spain:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Gibraltar issue with UK; Spain controls five
places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of
Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco
contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez
de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Illicit drugs: key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine
and North African hashish entering the European market; transshipment
point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin



@Spratly Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of reefs and islands in the South
China Sea, about two-thirds of the way from southern Vietnam to the
southern Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 8 38 N, 111 55 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

total: less than 5 sq km
land: less than 5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered
over an area of nearly 410,000 sq km of the central South China Sea

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 926 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: tropical

Terrain: flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Southwest Cay 4 m

Natural resources: fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: typhoons; serious maritime hazard because of numerous
reefs and shoals

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: strategically located near several primary shipping
lanes in the central South China Sea; includes numerous small islands,
atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

@Spratly Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are scattered garrisons occupied by personnel of several
claimant states (July 2000 est.)

@Spratly Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Spratly Islands

Data code: PG

@Spratly Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial
fishing. The proximity to nearby oil- and gas-producing sedimentary
basins suggests the potential for oil and gas deposits, but the region
is largely unexplored, and there are no reliable estimates of
potential reserves; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

@Spratly Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Spratly Islands:Military

Military - note: Spratly Islands consist of more than 100 small
islands or reefs, of which about 45 are claimed and occupied by China,
Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

@Spratly Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and
the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing
zone, which encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands,
but has not publicly claimed the island



@Sri Lanka:Introduction

Background: Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and the
Dutch in the 17th century, the island was ceded to the British in
1802. As Ceylon it became independent in 1948; its name was changed in
1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists
erupted in violence in the mid-1980s. Tens of thousands have died in
an ethnic war that continues to fester.

@Sri Lanka:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 81 00 E

Map references: Asia

total: 65,610 sq km
land: 64,740 sq km
water: 870 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,340 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March);
southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems,
phosphates, clay, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 15%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional cyclones and tornadoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife
populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal
degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater
resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste
disposal; air pollution in Colombo

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

@Sri Lanka:People

Population: 19,238,575
note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and
armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand
Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of mid-1999, approximately
66,000 were housed in 133 refugee camps in south India, another 40,000
lived outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have
sought refuge in the West (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 2,605,251; female 2,490,416)
15-64 years: 67% (male 6,285,118; female 6,606,196)
65 years and over: 7% (male 602,470; female 649,124) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.89% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.78 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.43 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.83 years
male: 69.33 years
female: 74.45 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and
Vedda 1%

Religions: Buddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 7% (1999)

Languages: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil
(national language) 18%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently
by about 10% of the population

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.2%
male: 93.4%
female: 87.2% (1995 est.)

@Sri Lanka:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form: Sri Lanka
former: Ceylon

Data code: CE

Government type: republic

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 100 of 140)