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(1998), 148.8 (1997), 118.2 (1996); (old currency) Sudanese pounds per
US$1 - 2,526.34 (2d Qtr 1999), 2,008.02 (1998), 1,575.74 (1997),
1,250.79 (1996), 580.87 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 75,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,000 (1998)

Telephone system: large, well-equipped system by regional standards,
but barely adequate and poorly maintained by modern standards;
cellular communications started in 1996
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone
communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system
with 14 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 7.55 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 2.38 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)


total: 5,311 km
narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067-m gauge; 716 km 1.6096-m gauge plantation
note: the main line linking Khartoum to Port Sudan carries over
two-thirds of Sudan's rail traffic

total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 5,310 km navigable

Pipelines: refined products 815 km

Ports and harbors: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan,

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,093 GRT/49,727 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 61 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 49
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,144,048 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 5,014,429 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 386,168 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $550 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Sudan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administrative boundary with Kenya does not
coincide with international boundary; Egypt asserts its claim to the
"Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km under partial
Sudanese administration that is defined by an administrative boundary
which supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899




Background: Independence from the Netherlands was granted in 1975.
Five years later the civilian government was replaced by a military
regime that soon declared a socialist republic. It continued to rule
through a succession of nominally civilian administrations until 1987,
when international pressure finally brought about a democratic


Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between French Guiana and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 56 00 W

Map references: South America

total: 163,270 sq km
land: 161,470 sq km
water: 1,800 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,707 km
border countries: Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m
highest point: Wilhelmina Gebergte 1,286 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite,
gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 96%
other: 4% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation as timber is cut for
export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of
flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by
new development; relatively small population, most of which lives
along the coast


Population: 431,303 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 70,871; female 67,466)
15-64 years: 62% (male 137,209; female 131,905)
65 years and over: 6% (male 10,907; female 12,945) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.65% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 21.08 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.69 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.36 years
male: 68.71 years
female: 74.14 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Surinamer(s)
adjective: Surinamese

Ethnic groups: Hindustani (also known locally as "East Indians"; their
ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th
century) 37%, Creole (mixed white and black) 31%, Javanese 15%,
"Maroons" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the
17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 10%,
Amerindian 2%, Chinese 2%, white 1%, other 2%

Religions: Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant
25.2% (predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5%

Languages: Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo
(Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles
and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others),
Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 95%
female: 91% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Suriname
conventional short form: Suriname
local long form: Republiek Suriname
local short form: Suriname
former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana

Data code: NS

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Paramaribo

Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten, singular -
distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para,
Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica

Independence: 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)

Constitution: ratified 30 September 1987

Legal system: based on Dutch legal system incorporating French penal

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jules WIJDENBOSCH (since 14 September 1996);
Vice President Pretaapnarian RADHAKISHUN (since 14 September 1996);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jules WIJDENBOSCH (since 14 September
1996); Vice President Pretaapnarian RADHAKISHUN (since 14 September
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president from among
the members of the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate
receives a constitutional majority vote in the National Assembly after
two votes, by the larger People's Assembly (869 representatives from
the national, local, and regional councils), for five-year terms;
election last held 23 May 1996; runoff election held 5 September 1996
(next to be held NA May 2000)
note: widespread demonstrations during the summer of 1999 led to the
calling of elections a year early
election results: Jules WIJDENBOSCH elected president; percent of
legislative vote - NA; National Assembly failed to elect the
president; results reflect votes cast by the People's Assembly - Jules
WIJDENBOSCH (NDP) received 438 votes, Ronald VENETIAAN (NF) received
407 votes

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or National Assemblee
(51 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
elections: last held 23 May 1996 (next to be held NA May 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP
16, NF 14, BVD 5, KTPI 5, Pertjaja Luhur 4, The Progressive
Development Alliance 3, DA '91 2, OPDA 2
note: widespread demonstrations during the summer of 1999 led to the
calling of elections a year early

Judicial branch: Court of Justice, justices nominated for life

Political parties and leaders: Alternative Forum or AF [Rick VAN
RAVENSWAY]; Democratic Alternative '91 or DA '91 (a coalition of the
AF and BEP, formed in January 1991) ; Democratic
Party or DP ; Independent Progressive Democratic
Alternative or OPDA ; National Democratic Party
or NDP ; National Party of Suriname or NPS [Ronald
VENETIAAN]; Naya Kadam ; Party for Brotherhood
and Unity in Politics or BEP ; Party for Renewal and
Democracy or BVD ; Party of National Unity and Solidarity
or KTPI ; Party of the Federation of Land Workers or
PVF ; Pertjaja Luhur ; Progressive Reform
Party or VHP ; Progressive Workers' and Farm
Laborers' Union or PALU ; Reformed Progressive Party
or HPP ; Suriname Labor Party or SPA ;
The New Front or NF (a coalition of four parties NPS, VHP, SPA, and
Pertjaja Luhur) ; The Progressive Development
Alliance (a combination of two parties, HPP and PVF) [Harry

Political pressure groups and leaders: General Liberation and
Development Party or ABOP ; Mandela Bushnegro
Liberation Movement ; Tucayana Amazonica [Alex
JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO]; Union for Liberation and Democracy [Kofi

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom, ECLAC, FAO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OIC,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arnold Theodoor HALFHIDE
chancery: Suite 460, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 244-7488
FAX: (202) 244-5878
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis K. HAYS
embassy: Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, Paramaribo
mailing address: P. O. Box 1821, American Embassy Paramaribo,
Department of State, Washington, DC, 20521-3390
telephone: 472900, 477881, 476459
FAX: 420800

Flag description: five horizontal bands of green (top, double width),
white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there
is a large, yellow, five-pointed star centered in the red band


Economy - overview: The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry,
which accounts for more than 15% of GDP and 70% of export earnings.
After assuming power in the fall of 1996, the WIJDENBOSCH government
ended the structural adjustment program of the previous government,
claiming it was unfair to the poorer elements of society. Tax revenues
fell as old taxes lapsed and the government failed to implement new
tax alternatives. By the end of 1997, the allocation of new Dutch
development funds was frozen as Surinamese Government relations with
the Netherlands deteriorated. Economic growth slowed in 1998, with
decline in the mining, construction, and utility sectors. Rampant
government expenditures, poor tax collection, a bloated civil service,
and reduced foreign aid in 1999 contributed to the fiscal deficit,
estimated at 11% of GDP. The government sought to cover this deficit
through monetary expansion, which led to a dramatic increase in
inflation and exchange rate depreciation. Suriname's economic
prospects for the medium term will depend on renewed commitment to
responsible monetary and fiscal policies and to the introduction of
structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.48 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 22%
services: 65% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 170% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 100,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services

Unemployment rate: 20% (1997)

revenues: $393 million
expenditures: $403 million, including capital expenditures of $34
million (1997 est.)

Industries: bauxite and gold mining, alumina and aluminum production,
lumbering, food processing, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.008 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 24.65%
hydro: 75.35%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.867 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts,
plantains, peanuts; beef, chickens; forest products; shrimp

Exports: $406.1 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: alumina, aluminum, crude oil, lumber, shrimp
and fish, rice, bananas

Exports - partners: Norway 24%, Netherlands 23.8%, US 21.7%, France
7.3%, Japan 4.9%, UK (1998 est.)

Imports: $461.4 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs,
cotton, consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 31.2%, Netherlands 17.3%, Trinidad and Tobago
16.1%, Japan 4.3%, UK 4%, Brazil (1998)

Debt - external: $175.6 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: Netherlands provided $37 million for project
and program assistance, European Development Fund $4 million, Belgium
$2 million (1998)

Currency: 1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.) per US$1
- 995 (December 1999), 710 (May 1999), 850 (January 1999); central
bank midpoint rate: 639.50 (1st Qtr 1999), 401.00 (1998), 401.00
(1997), 401.26 (1996), 442.23 (1995); parallel rate: 1,325 (December
1999), 2000 (May 1999), 800 (December 1998), 412 (December 1995)
note: beginning in July 1994, the central bank midpoint exchange rate
was unified and became market determined; during 1998, the exchange
rate splintered into four distinct rates; in January 1999 the
government floated the guilder, but subsequently fixed it when the
black-market rate plunged

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 56,844 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,671 (1995)

Telephone system: international facilities good
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 13, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 300,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus seven repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 63,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)


total: 166 km (single track)
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 86 km 1.000-m gauge

total: 4,530 km
paved: 1,178 km
unpaved: 3,352 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing
vessels with drafts ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of the
principal waterways

Ports and harbors: Albina, Moengo, New Nickerie, Paramaribo, Paranam,

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,432 GRT/4,525 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 46 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 41
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 35 (1999 est.)


Military branches: National Army (includes small Navy and Air Force
elements), Civil Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 120,152 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 70,580 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8.5 million (FY97 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY97 est.)

@Suriname:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims area in French Guiana between Litani
Rivier and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); claims area
in Guyana between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Koetari
Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
mostly for Europe




Background: First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century,
the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th
and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five
years later it officially took over the territory.


Location: Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents
Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway

Geographic coordinates: 78 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

total: 62,049 sq km
land: 62,049 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not
recognized by Russia
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool
summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and
north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of
the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west
coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and
north coasts

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m

Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife,

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a
transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make
parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists
of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total


Population: 2,416 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -3.55% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Ethnic groups: Russian and Ukrainian 62%, Norwegian 38%, other NEGL%

Languages: Russian, Norwegian


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as

Data code: SV

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Ministry
of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in
Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was
given to Norway

Government type: NA

Capital: Longyearbyen

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

National holiday: NA

Legal system: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)
head of government: Governor Morten RUUD (since NA November 1998) and
Assistant Governor Rune Baard HANSEN (since NA 1996)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant
governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of

International organization participation: none

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used


Economy - overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on
Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gives the 41 signatories equal
rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation.
Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the
past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The
settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian
state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian
population on the island, runs many of the local services, and
provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping
of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.


GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: $NA

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

revenues: $11.7 million
expenditures: $11.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Exports: $NA

Imports: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $8.7 million from Norway (1997)

Currency: 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 8.0129 (January
2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996),
6.3352 (1995)


Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: local telephone service
international: satellite earth station - 1 of NA type (for
communication with Norwegian mainland only)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters), shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA


Railways: 0 km

total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)


Military - note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)




Background: Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed
by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted
1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the
monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to grudgingly allow
political reform and greater democracy.


Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 26 30 S, 31 30 E

Map references: Africa

total: 17,363 sq km
land: 17,203 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 535 km
border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 102 of 140)