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Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower,
forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 62%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: limited supplies of potable water;
wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting;
overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South


Population: 1,083,289
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 245,626; female 247,825)
15-64 years: 52% (male 270,308; female 291,884)
65 years and over: 2% (male 11,357; female 16,289) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 40.64 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 20.4 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 108.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 40.44 years
male: 39.54 years
female: 41.37 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.87 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups: African 97%, European 3%

Religions: Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%

Languages: English (official, government business conducted in
English), siSwati (official)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.7%
male: 78%
female: 75.6% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland

Data code: WZ

Government type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini,

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12
April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but
was not formally presented to the people; since then a few more
outlines for a constitution have been compiled under the
Constitutional Review Commission (CRC), but so far none have been

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory
courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9
August 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by
the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
by the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory
body, consists of the Senate (30 seats - 10 appointed by the House of
Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members serve five-year
terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats - 10 appointed by the
monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held 16 and 24 October 1998 (next
to be held NA 2003)
election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty
basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of
each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with
the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single
winner by a second round

Judicial branch: High Court, judges are appointed by the monarch;
Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: Convention for Full Democracy in
Swaziland or COFUDESWA ; Ngwane Socialist
Revolutionary Party or NGWASOREP ; People's United
Democratic Movement or PUDEMO ; Swaziland Communist
Party or SWACOPA ; Swaziland Democratic Alliance
(represents key opposition parties) ; Swaziland
Federation of Trade Unions or SFTU ; Swaziland Liberation
Front or FROLISA ; Swaziland National Front or SWANAFRO
; Swaziland Youth Congress or SWAYOCO (included in PUDEMO)
note: political parties are banned by the constitution promulgated on
13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large
public gatherings

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA
chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 362-6683
FAX: (202) 244-8059

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gregory L. JOHNSON
embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane
mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone: 404-6441 through 404-6445
FAX: 404-5959

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple
width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red
band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff
decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally


Economy - overview: In this small landlocked economy, subsistence
agriculture occupies more than 60% of the population. Manufacturing
features a number of agroprocessing factories. Mining has declined in
importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted
by 1978, and health concerns have cut world demand for asbestos.
Exports of soft drink concentrate, sugar, and wood pulp are the main
earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a
short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South
Africa from which it receives four-fifths of its imports and to which
it sends three-fourths of its exports. Remittances from Swazi workers
in South African mines supplement domestically earned income by as
much as 20%. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for
foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, and drought persist
as problems for the future.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 48%
services: 42% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: private sector about 70%, public sector
about 30%

Unemployment rate: 22% (1995 est.)

revenues: $400 million
expenditures: $450 million, including capital expenditures of $115
million (FY96/97)

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (FY95/96)

Electricity - production: 420 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 48.81%
hydro: 51.19%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.078 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 687 million kWh
note: imports about 60% of its electricity from South Africa (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice,
citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep

Exports: $825 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp,
cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit

Exports - partners: South Africa 74%, EU 12%, Mozambique 5%, US, North
Korea (1997)

Imports: $1.05 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment,
foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

Imports - partners: South Africa 83%, EU 6%, Japan, UK, Singapore

Debt - external: $180 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $55 million (1995)

Currency: 1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1 - 6.1237 (January 2000),
6.1087 (1999), 5.4807 (1998), 4.6032 (1997), 4.2706 (1996), 3.6266
(1995); note - the Swazi lilangeni is at par with the South African

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March


Telephones - main lines in use: 20,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1996)

Telephone system:
domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and
low-capacity, microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 155,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus seven repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 21,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)


total: 297 km; note - includes 71 km which are not in use
narrow gauge: 297 km 1.067-m gauge

total: 2,896 km (1997 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 18 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal
Swaziland Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 242,398 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 140,299 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $23 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY95/96)

@Swaziland:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom




Background: A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not
participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality
was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic
formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare
elements has recently been undermined by high unemployment, rising
maintenance costs, and a declining position in world markets.
Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic
integration of Europe caused Sweden not to join the EU until 1995, and
to forgo the introduction of the euro in 1999.


Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

total: 449,964 sq km
land: 410,934 sq km
water: 39,030 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,205 km
border countries: Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of
straits to high seas)

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly
cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber,
uranium, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 68%
other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in
the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment - current issues: acid rain damaging soils and lakes;
pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking
Baltic and North Seas


Population: 8,873,052 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 837,358; female 794,774)
15-64 years: 64% (male 2,901,809; female 2,805,138)
65 years and over: 18% (male 648,865; female 885,108) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.01 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 10.62 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.58 years
male: 76.95 years
female: 82.37 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups: indigenous population: Swedes and Finnish and Lapp
(Sami) minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns,
Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

Religions: Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim,
Jewish, Buddhist

Languages: Swedish
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%


Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige

Data code: SW

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (lan, singular and plural);
Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands,
Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands,
Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens,
Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands

Independence: 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir
Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the
monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister elected by the
Parliament; election last held NA September 1998 (next to be held NA
election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister with 131 out
of 349 votes

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation
basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 September 1998 (next to be held NA September
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 36.5%,
Moderates 22.7%, Left Party 12%, Christian Democrats 11.8%, Center
Party 5.1%, Liberal Party 4.7%, Greens 4.5%; seats by party - Social
Democrats 131, Moderates 82, Left Party 43, Christian Democrats 42,
Center Party 18, Liberal Party 17, Greens 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen, judges are
appointed by the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Center Party ;
Christian Democratic Party ; Communist Workers' Party
; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokesperson is
Briger SCHLAUG]; Left Party or VP (formerly Communist) [Gudrun
SCHYMAN]; Liberal People's Party ; Moderate Party
(conservative) ; New Democracy Party ;
Social Democratic Party

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rolf EKEUS
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702
telephone: (202) 467-2600
FAX: (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lyndon Lowell OLSON, Jr.
embassy: Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5750 (pouch)
telephone: (8) 783 53 00
FAX: (8) 661 19 64

Flag description: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges
of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)


Economy - overview: Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole
twentieth century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living
under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare
benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and
external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber,
hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy
heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account
for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector
accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only
2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. In recent years, however, this
extraordinarily favorable picture has been clouded by budgetary
difficulties, inflation, high unemployment, and a gradual loss of
competitiveness in international markets. Sweden has harmonized its
economic policies with those of the EU, which it joined at the start
of 1995. Sweden decided not to join the euro system at its outset in
January 1999 but plans to hold a referendum in 2000 on whether to
join. GDP growth is forecast for 4% in 2000, buttressed by solid
consumer confidence.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $184 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 30.5%
services: 67.3% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.3 million (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services
74% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% plus about 5% in training programs (1999 est.)

revenues: $109.4 billion
expenditures: $146.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and
telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed
foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 156.772 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 6.09%
hydro: 46.49%
nuclear: 45.16%
other: 2.26% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 135.098 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 16.8 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 6.1 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grains, sugar beets, potatoes; meat, milk

Exports: $85.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products,
pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 57% (Germany 11%, UK 9%, Denmark 6%, Finland
5%), Norway 9%, US 9% (1998)

Imports: $67.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners: EU 68% (Germany 19%, UK 10%, Denmark 6%, France
6%), Norway 8%, US 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $66.5 billion (1994)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)

Currency: 1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 8.4831 (January 2000),
8.2624 (1999), 7.9499 (1998), 7.6349 (1997), 6.7060 (1996), 7.1333

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 6.017 million (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3.835 million (October 1998)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international facilities;
automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cable carry most voice traffic;
parallel microwave radio relay network carries some additional
telephone channels
international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and
Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station
with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 8.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 163 (1997)

Televisions: 4.6 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 29 (1999)


total: 12,821 km (includes 3,594 km of privately-owned railways)
standard gauge: 12,821 km 1.435-m gauge (7,918 km electrified and
1,152 km double track) (1998)

total: 210,907 km
paved: 163,453 km (including 1,439 km of expressways)
unpaved: 47,454 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: natural gas 84 km

Ports and harbors: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall,
Kalmar, Karlshamn, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall

Merchant marine:
total: 165 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,301,633 GRT/1,726,018
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 26, chemical tanker 33, combination
ore/oil 4, liquified gas 1, petroleum tanker 23, rail car carrier 1,
roll-on/roll-off 43, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 6,
vehicle carrier 18 (1999 est.)

Airports: 256 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 147
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 25 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 109
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 104 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)


Military branches: Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 103 of 140)