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the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,627 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km,
Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary
agreed upon with the former USSR
territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in
Mediterranean Sea

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher
in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau
(Anatolia)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate,
sulfur, iron ore, arable land, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 36,740 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern
Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Environment - current issues: water pollution from dumping of
chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas;
deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship
traffic

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Environmental Modification

Geography - note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits
(Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean
Seas

@Turkey:People

Population: 65,666,677 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 9,722,217; female 9,375,920)
15-64 years: 65% (male 21,671,638; female 20,966,110)
65 years and over: 6% (male 1,811,599; female 2,119,193) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.27% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.65 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.96 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.97 years
male: 68.63 years
female: 73.41 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and
Jews)

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.3%
male: 91.7%
female: 72.4% (1995 est.)

@Turkey:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye

Data code: TU

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 80 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana,
Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan,
Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol,
Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli,
Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gazi Antep,
Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul,
Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri,
Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya,
Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye,
Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanli Urfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas,
Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat,
Zonguldak
note: Karabuk, Kilis, Osmaniye and Yalova are the four newest
provinces (there may be a fifth - Duzce); the US Board on Geographic
Names is awaiting an official Turkish administrative map for
verification of the boundaries

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29
October (1923)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various European continental legal systems;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ahmed Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Bulent ECEVIT (since 11 January
1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
nomination of the prime minister
note: there is also a National Security Council that serves as an
advisory body to the president and the cabinet
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year
term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next scheduled to be held NA May
2007); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the
president
election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - 60%

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or
Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DSP
136, MHP 130, FP 110, DYP 86, ANAP 88; note - as of 7 March 2000
seating was DSP 136, MHP 127, FP 103, DYP 85, ANAP 88 independents 6,
vacancies 5

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the
president; Court of Appeals, judges are elected by the Supreme Council
of Judges and Prosecutors

Political parties and leaders: Changing Turkey Party or DEPAR [Gokhan
CAPOGLU]; Democracy and Peace Party or DBP ;
Democratic Left Party or DSP ; Democratic Party or DP
; Democratic Turkey Party or DTP ;
Enlightened Turkey Party or ATP ; Freedom and
Solidarity Party or ODP ; Grand Unity Party or BBP [Muhsin
YAZICIOGLU]; Labor Party or EP ; Liberal Democratic
Party or LDP ; Motherland Party or ANAP ;
My Turkey Party or TP ; Nation Party or MP [Aykut
EDIBALI]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP ; New
Democracy Movement or YDH ; Peace Party or BP [Ali
Haydar VEZIROGLU]; People's Democracy Party or HADEP ;
Republican People's Party or CHP ; Revolutionary People's
Party ; Socialist Power Party or SIP ; True
Path Party or DYP ; Virtue Party or FP ;
Workers' Party or IP
note: Welfare Party or RP was officially outlawed
on 22 February 1998

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Revolutionary
Workers Unions or DISK ; Independent Industrialists and
Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD ; Moral Rights Workers
Union or Hak-Is ; Turkish Industrialists' and
Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD ; Turkish
Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK ; Turkish
Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is ; Turkish Union of
Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB

International organization participation: AsDB, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, EU (applicant), FAO,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA,
UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Baki ILKIN
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 612-6700
FAX: (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert PEARSON
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: (312) 468-6110
FAX: (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana

Flag description: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed
portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered
just outside the crescent opening

@Turkey:Economy

Economy - overview: Turkey has a dynamic economy that is a complex mix
of modern industry and commerce along with traditional village
agriculture and crafts. It has a strong and rapidly growing private
sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry,
banking, transport, and communication. Its most important industry -
and largest exporter - is textiles and clothing, which is almost
entirely in private hands. The economic situation in recent years has
been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. After a
sharp drop in 1994, real GNP averaged 6.5% annual growth in 1995-98;
it then fell about 5% in 1999 as Turkey was adversely affected by
Russia's economic crisis and two major earthquakes. The already-large
public sector fiscal deficit widened in 1999 to perhaps 14% of GDP -
due in large part to the huge burden of interest payments which
accounted for 42% of central grovernment spending. Despite the
implementation in January 1996 of a customs union with the EU, foreign
direct investment in the country remains low - less than $1 billion
annually - perhaps because potential investors are concerned about
economic and political stability. Prospects for the future are
brighter - including prospects for foreign investment - because the
ECEVIT government is implementing a major economic reform program,
including a tighter budget, social security reform, banking
reorganization, and greatly accelerated privatization.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $409.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 29%
services: 53% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 65% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 23.8 million (April 1999)
note: about 1.5 million Turks work abroad (1994)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 45.8%, services 33.7%,
industry 20.5% (April 1999)

Unemployment rate: 7.3% plus underemployment of 6.9% (April 1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $45.2 billion
expenditures: $66.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.4
billion (1999)

Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite,
copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate: -5.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 116.5 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 69.4%
hydro: 30.5%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.1% (1999 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 118.5 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 209 million kWh (1999 est.)

Electricity - imports: 2.3 billion kWh (1999 est.)

Agriculture - products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets,
pulse, citrus; livestock

Exports: $26 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: apparel 28%, foodstuffs 17%, textiles 12%,
metal manufactures 9% (1998)

Exports - partners: Germany 21%, US 9%, UK 7%, Italy 6%, France 6%
(1999)

Imports: $40 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery 29%, semi-finished goods 16%,
chemicals 14%, transport equipment 11%, fuels 8% (1998)

Imports - partners: Germany 14%, Italy 8%, US 8%, France 8%, Russia
6%, UK 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $104 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $195 million (1993)

Currency: Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus (theoretical)

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 545,584 (January 2000),
418,783 (1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865 (1997), 81,405 (1996),
45,845.1 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turkey:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17.244 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3.2 million (1998)

Telephone system: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion,
especially cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase
in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically
advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and
digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between
urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite
system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service
is growing rapidly
international: international service is provided by three submarine
fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey
with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia, by 12
Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the
Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 72, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 11.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 69 (plus 476 low-power repeaters)
(1997)

Televisions: 20.9 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (1999)

@Turkey:Transportation

Railways:
total: 8,607 km
standard gauge: 8,607 km 1.435-m gauge (1,524 km electrified) (1999)

Highways:
total: 382,397 km
paved: 95,599 km (including 1,726 km of expressways)
unpaved: 286,798 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: about 1,200 km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural
gas 708 km

Ports and harbors: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli
(Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon

Merchant marine:
total: 547 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,935,173 GRT/9,771,421
DWT
ships by type: bulk 155, cargo 244, chemical tanker 37, combination
bulk 5, combination ore/oil 6, container 20, liquified gas 5,
passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 35, refrigerated cargo 3,
roll-on/roll-off 22, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 5 (1999
est.)

Airports: 118 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 82
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 5 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 26 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)

@Turkey:Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval
Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 18,523,950 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 11,227,922 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 664,024 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.737 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.3% (FY97)

@Turkey:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: complex maritime, air, and territorial
disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Greece;
dispute with downstream riparian states (Syria and Iraq) over water
development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; traditional
demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western
Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea
routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking
organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert
imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as
well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas
of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

______________________________________________________________________



TURKMENISTAN

@Turkmenistan:Introduction

Background: Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan
became a Soviet republic in 1925. It achieved its independence upon
the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV retains
absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated.
Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this
underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be
worked out.

@Turkmenistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 488,100 sq km
land: 488,100 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 3,736 km
border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km,
Uzbekistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical desert

Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains
in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian
Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m (note - Sarygamysh Koli is a
lake in north eastern Turkmenistan whose water levels fluctuate
widely; at its shallowest, its level is -110 m; it is presently at -60
m, 20 m above Vpadina Akchanaya)
highest point: Ayrybaba 3,139 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 63%
forests and woodland: 8%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater
with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of
soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion
of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation
contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Turkmenistan:People

Population: 4,518,268 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 887,088; female 850,384)
15-64 years: 58% (male 1,277,176; female 1,321,465)
65 years and over: 4% (male 69,383; female 112,772) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.87% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 28.88 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.04 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.91 years
male: 57.29 years
female: 64.71 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.63 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Turkmen(s)
adjective: Turkmen

Ethnic groups: Turkmen 77%, Uzbek 9.2%, Russian 6.7%, Kazakh 2%, other
5.1% (1995)

Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%

Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Turkmenistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TX

Government type: republic

Capital: Ashgabat

Administrative divisions: 5 welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal
Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty
(formerly Tashauz), Lebap Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)

Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct
presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the
chief of state and head of government
head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct
presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the
chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
note: NIYAZOV's term in office was extended indefinitely on 28
December 1999 by the Assembly (Majlis) during a session of the
People's Council (Halk Maslahaty)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 21 June 1992 (next scheduled to be held NA); note -
President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president for life by
the Assembly on 28 December 1999); deputy chairmen of the cabinet of
ministers are appointed by the president
election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without
opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%

Legislative branch: under the 1992 constitution, there are two
parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty
(more than 100 seats, some of which are elected by popular vote and
some of which are appointed; meets infrequently) and a unicameral
Assembly or Majlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: People's Council - NA; Assembly - last held 12 December
1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NA; note - all 50 elected officials preapproved by President
NIYAZOV; most are from the DPT

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT

note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small
opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries

International organization participation: CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Halil UGUR
chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 588-1500
FAX: (202) 588-0697

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Steven R. MANN
embassy: 9 Pushkin Street, Ashgabat
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: (9312) 35-00-45, 35-00-46, 35-00-42, 51-13-06, Tie Line
962-0000
FAX: (9312) 51-13-05

Flag description: green field with a vertical red stripe near the
hoist side, containing five carpet guls (designs used in producing
rugs) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive
branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon and five white stars
appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the
red stripe

@Turkmenistan:Economy

Economy - overview: Turkmenistan is largely desert country with
nomadic cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and
huge gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted
in cotton, making it the world's tenth largest producer. It also
possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas and
substantial oil resources. Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had
experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states
because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and
gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994, Russia's
refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting
debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries
contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the



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