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budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. With an
authoritarian ex-communist regime in power and a tribally based social
structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic
reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient
economy. Privatization goals remain limited. Turkmenistan is working
hard to open new gas export channels through Iran and Turkey to
Europe, but these will take many years to realize. In 1998-99,
Turkmenistan faced revenue shortfalls due to the continued lack of
adequate export routes for natural gas and obligations on extensive
short-term external debt. Prospects in the near future are
discouraging because of widespread internal poverty and the burden of
foreign debt. IMF assistance would seem to be necessary, yet the
government is not as yet ready to accept IMF requirements.
Turkmenistan's 1999 deal to ship 20 billion cubic meters (bcm) of
natural gas through Russia's Gazprom will help alleviate the 2000
fiscal shortfall, but will not make up for the absence of meaningful
progress in economic reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 62%
services: 28% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.9% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.34 million (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 44%, industry
and construction 19%, other 37% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $521 million
expenditures: $548 million, including capital expenditures of $83
million (1996 est.)

Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 8.745 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.94%
hydro: 0.06%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5.453 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 2.74 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 60 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain; livestock

Exports: $1.1 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas 55%, cotton 22% (1998)

Exports - partners: Iran, Turkey, Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan,
Azerbaijan

Imports: $1.25 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 45%, chemicals,
foodstuffs (1998)

Imports - partners: Ukraine, Turkey, Russia, Germany, US, Kazakhstan,
Uzbekistan

Debt - external: $2.1 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $27.2 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Turkmen manat (TMM) = 100 tenesi

Exchange rates: Turkmen manats per US$1 - 5,200 (January 2000), 5,350
(January 1999), 4,070 (January 1997), 2,400 (January 1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turkmenistan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 320,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: poorly developed
domestic: NA
international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS
republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow
international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to
Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches
international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth
stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 1.225 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (much programming relayed from Russia
and Turkey) (1997)

Televisions: 820,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Turkmenistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,187 km
broad gauge: 2,187 km 1.520-m gauge (1996 est.)

Highways:
total: 24,000 km
paved: 19,488 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning
that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced)
unpaved: 4,512 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km

Ports and harbors: Turkmenbashi

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,896 GRT/3,389 DWT
ships by type: petroleum tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 64 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 42
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 35 (1994 est.)

@Turkmenistan:Military

Military branches: Ministry of Defense (Army, Air and Air Defense,
Navy, Border Troops, and Internal Troops), National Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,141,227 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 926,160 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 46,487 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $90 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY99)

@Turkmenistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet
determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of opium poppy, mostly for
domestic consumption; limited government eradication program;
increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from
Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe; also a transshipment
point for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

______________________________________________________________________



TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Introduction

Background: The islands were under Jamaican jurisdiction until 1962,
when they assumed the status of a crown colony. The governor of The
Bahamas oversaw affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence,
the islands received a separate governor in 1973. Although
independence was agreed upon for 1982, the policy was reversed and the
islands are presently a British overseas territory.

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of The Bahamas

Geographic coordinates: 21 45 N, 71 35 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 430 sq km
land: 430 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 389 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and
relatively dry

Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Blue Hills 49 m

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources,
private cisterns collect rainwater

Geography - note: 30 islands (eight inhabited)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:People

Population: 17,502 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 2,889; female 2,806)
15-64 years: 63% (male 5,834; female 5,274)
65 years and over: 4% (male 313; female 386) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.55% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.65 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.57 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 14.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.28 years
male: 71.15 years
female: 75.51 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.25 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: none
adjective: none

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1970 est.)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turks and Caicos Islands

Data code: TK

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Cockburn Town (on Grand Turk)

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976; suspended in 1986; restored
and revised 5 March 1988

Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales, with a small number
adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953),
represented by Governor John KELLY (since NA September 1996)
head of government: Chief Minister Derek H. TAYLOR (since 31 January
1995)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex officio members and
five appointed by the governor from among the members of the
Legislative Council
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the
monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (19 seats, of which
13 are popularly elected; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 4 March 1999 (next to be held by NA 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDM 52.2%, PNP 40.9%,
independent 6.9%; seats by party - PDM 9, PNP 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Movement or PDM
; Progressive National Party or PNP [Washington
MISICK]; United Democratic Party or UDP

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half
of the flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster,
and cactus

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism,
fishing, and offshore financial services. Most capital goods and food
for domestic consumption are imported. The US was the leading source
of tourists in 1996, accounting for more than half of the 87,000
visitors; tourist arrivals had risen to 93,000 by 1998. Major sources
of government revenue include fees from offshore financial activities
and customs receipts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $117 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,700 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1995)

Labor force: 4,848 (1990 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: about 33% in government and 20% in
agriculture and fishing; significant numbers in tourism, financial,
and other services (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $47 million
expenditures: $33.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997/98 est.)

Industries: tourism, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 5 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), citrus fruits;
fish

Exports: $4.7 million (1993)

Exports - commodities: lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells

Exports - partners: US, UK

Imports: $46.6 million (1993)

Imports - commodities: food and beverages, tobacco, clothing,
manufactures, construction materials

Imports - partners: US, UK

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $5.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system: fair cable and radiotelephone services
domestic: NA
international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3 (one inactive), FM 6, shortwave 0
(1998)

Radios: 8,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (broadcasts from The Bahamas are
received; cable television is established) (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 121 km
paved: 24 km
unpaved: 97 km

Ports and harbors: Grand Turk, Providenciales

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics
destined for the US

______________________________________________________________________



TUVALU

@Tuvalu:Introduction

Background: In 1974, ethnic differences within the British colony of
the Gilbert and Ellice Islands caused the Polynesians of the Ellice
Islands to vote for separation from the Micronesians of the Gilbert
Islands. The following year, the Ellice Islands became the separate
British colony of Tuvalu. Independence was granted in 1978. In 2000,
Tuvalu negotiated a contract leasing its Internet domain name ".tv"
for $50 million in royalties over the next dozen years.

@Tuvalu:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group consisting of nine coral atolls in the
South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 178 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 26 sq km
land: 26 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to
November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: severe tropical storms are usually rare, but, in
1997, there were three cyclones; low-level of islands make them very
sensitive to sea-level rise

Environment - current issues: since there are no streams or rivers and
groundwater is not potable, most water needs must be met by catchment
systems with storage facilities (the Japanese Government has built one
desalination plant and plans to build one other); beachhead erosion
because of the use of sand for building materials; excessive clearance
of forest undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the
spread of the Crown of Thorns starfish; Tuvalu is very concerned about
global increases in greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on
rising sea levels, which threaten the country's underground water
table

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

@Tuvalu:People

Population: 10,838 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 1,872; female 1,802)
15-64 years: 61% (male 3,149; female 3,458)
65 years and over: 5% (male 239; female 318) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.41% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 21.78 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.66 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.32 years
male: 64.21 years
female: 68.53 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.11 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tuvaluan(s)
adjective: Tuvaluan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian 96%

Religions: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%

Languages: Tuvaluan, English

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Tuvalu:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tuvalu
former: Ellice Islands

Data code: TV

Government type: constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary
democracy; began debating republic status in 1992

Capital: Funafuti

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

Constitution: 1 October 1978

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Tomasi PUAPUA (since 26 June 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Ionatana IONATANA (since NA April
1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Lagitupu (of Nanumea) TUILIMU (since
NA April 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by
the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime
minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of
Parliament; election last held 27 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: Ionatana IONATANA elected prime minister; percent of
Parliament vote - NA; Lagitupu (of Nanumea) TUILIMU elected deputy
prime minister; percent of Parliament vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Fale I Fono, also called
House of Assembly (12 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 26-27 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 12

Judicial branch: eight Island Courts; High Court; note - a chief
justice visits twice a year to preside over sessions of the High Court

Political parties and leaders: there are no political parties but
members of Parliament usually align themselves in informal groupings

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C (special),
ESCAP, IFRCS (associate), Intelsat (nonsignatory user), ITU, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tuvalu does not have an embassy
in the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Tuvalu; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tuvalu

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of
the country with nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine
islands

@Tuvalu:Economy

Economy - overview: Tuvalu consists of a densely populated, scattered
group of nine coral atolls with poor soil. The country has no known
mineral resources and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are
the primary economic activities. Government revenues largely come from
the sale of stamps and coins and worker remittances. About 1,000
Tuvaluans work in Nauru in the phosphate mining industry. Nauru has
begun repatriating Tuvaluans, however, as phosphate resources decline.
Substantial income is received annually from an international trust
fund established in 1987 by Australia, NZ, and the UK and supported
also by Japan and South Korea. Thanks to wise investments and
conservative withdrawals, this Fund has grown from an initial $17
million to over $35 million in 1999. The US government is also a major
revenue source for Tuvalu, with 1999 payments from a 1988 treaty on
fisheries at about $9 million, a total which is expected to rise
annually. In an effort to reduce its dependence on foreign aid, the
government is pursuing public sector reforms, including privatization
of some government functions and personnel cuts of up to 7%. In 1998,
Tuvalu began deriving revenue from use of its area code for "900"
lines and from the sale of its ".tv" Internet domain name. Royalites
from these new technology sources could raise GDP three or more times
over the next decade. Low-lying Tuvalu is particularly vulnerable to
any rise in the sea level from future global warming.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.8 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (average 1985-93)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: people make a living mainly through
exploitation of the sea, reefs, and atolls and from wages sent home by
those working abroad (mostly workers in the phosphate industry and
sailors)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $4.3 million
expenditures: $4.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1989 est.)

Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 3 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: 3 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1995)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: coconuts; fish

Exports: $165,000 (f.o.b., 1989)

Exports - commodities: copra

Exports - partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ

Imports: $4.4 million (c.i.f., 1989)

Imports - commodities: food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery,
manufactured goods

Imports - partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $7.9 million (1995); note - substantial
annual support from an international trust fund

Currency: 1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100
cents

Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per
US$1 - 1.5207 (January 2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439
(1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Tuvalu:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 400 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system:
domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 4,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Tuvalu:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 8 km (1996 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Funafuti, Nukufetau

Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,500 GRT/63,978 DWT
ships by type: cargo 5, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Tuvalu:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force includes



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