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yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky


Economy - overview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and
away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union,
producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic.
Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet
agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of
meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its
diversified heavy industry supplied equipment and raw materials to
industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.
Ukraine depends on imports of energy, especially natural gas. Shortly
after the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, the Ukrainian
Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for
privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the
government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to
some backtracking. Output in 1992-99 fell to less than 40% the 1991
level. Loose monetary policies pushed inflation to hyperinflationary
levels in late 1993. Since his election in July 1994, President KUCHMA
has pushed economic reforms, maintained financial discipline, and
tried to remove almost all remaining controls over prices and foreign
trade. The onset of the financial crisis in Russia dashed Ukraine's
hopes for its first year of economic growth in 1998 due to a sharp
fall in export revenue and reduced domestic demand. Output continued
to drop, slightly, in 1999. The government has also not been able to
significantly decrease its huge backlog of wage and pension arrears.
Despite increasing pressure from the IMF to accelerate reform,
substantial economic restructuring remains unlikely in 2000, largely
because of resistance in the communist-dominated legislature to
further privatization.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $109.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 26%
services: 62% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 20.8% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 22.8 million (yearend 1997)

Labor force - by occupation: industry and construction 32%,
agriculture and forestry 24%, health, education, and culture 17%,
trade and distribution 8%, transport and communication 7%, other 12%

Unemployment rate: 4.3% officially registered; large number of
unregistered or underemployed workers (December 1999)

revenues: $8.3 billion
expenditures: $8.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing
(especially sugar)

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 171 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 52%
hydro: 5.9%
nuclear: 42.1%
other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 144.011 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 7 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 4.15 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds,
vegetables; beef, milk

Exports: $11.6 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and
petroleum products, machinery and transport equipment, food products

Exports - partners: Russia 20%, EU 17%, China 7%, Turkey 6%, US 4%

Imports: $11.8 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: energy, machinery and parts, transportation
equipment, chemicals

Imports - partners: Russia 48%, EU 23%, US 3% (1999)

Debt - external: $12.6 billion (January 2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended Funds
Facility $2.2 billion (1998)

Currency: 1 hryvna = 100 kopiykas

Exchange rates: hryvnia per US$1 - 5.59 (February 2000), 5.3811
(January 2000), 4.1304 (1999), 2.4495 (1998), 1.8617 (1997), 1.8295
(1996), 1.4731 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 9.45 million (April 1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 236,000 (1998)

Telephone system: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan,
running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines and
international connections, and developing a mobile cellular system
domestic: at independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a
telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient and in disrepair;
more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be
satisfied; telephone density is now rising slowly and the domestic
trunk system is being improved; from a small base, the mobile cellular
telephone system is expanding at a high rate
international: two new domestic trunk lines are a part of the
fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and three Ukrainian links
have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL)
project which connects 18 countries; additional international service
is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic
submarine cable and by earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and
Intersputnik satellite systems

Radio broadcast stations: AM 134, FM 289, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 45.05 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: at least 33 (plus 21 repeater stations
that relay broadcasts from Russia) (1997)

Televisions: 18.05 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 35 (1999)


total: 23,350 km
broad gauge: 23,350 km 1.524-m gauge (8,600 km electrified)

total: 176,310 km
paved: 170,139 km (including 1,770 km of expressways); note - these
roads are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning that some are paved and
some are all-weather gravel-surfaced
unpaved: 6,171 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 4,400 km navigable waterways, of which 1,672 km were on the
Pryp'yat' and Dnistr (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 4,000 km (1995); petroleum products 4,500 km
(1995); natural gas 34,400 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson,
Kiev (Kyyiv), Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni

Merchant marine:
total: 156 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 862,690 GRT/963,550 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 105, container 4, passenger 11,
passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 14, rail car carrier 2,
roll-on/roll-off 5, short-sea passenger 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 706 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 163
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 55
1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 57 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 543
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 476 (1994 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Internal
Troops, National Guard, Border Troops

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 12,311,052 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 9,645,925 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 373,595 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $500 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY99)

@Ukraine:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Romania over continental shelf
of the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may
exist; agreed in 1997 to two-year negotiating period, after which
either party can refer dispute to the ICJ; has made no territorial
claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not
recognize the claims of any other nation

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to
West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment
point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America,
and Turkey, and to Europe and Russia; drug-related money laundering a
minor, but growing, problem



@United Arab Emirates:Introduction

Background: The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf coast granted the
UK control of their defense and foreign affairs in 19th century
treaties. In 1971, six of these states - Abu Zaby, 'Ajman, Al
Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, and Umm al Qaywayn - merged to form
the UAE. They were joined in 1972 by Ra's al Khaymah. The UAE's per
capita GDP is not far below the GDPs of the leading West European
nations. Its generosity with oil revenues and its moderate foreign
policy stance have allowed it to play a vital role in the affairs of
the region.

@United Arab Emirates:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian
Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 54 00 E

Map references: Middle East

total: 82,880 sq km
land: 82,880 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 867 km
border countries: Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 457 km

Coastline: 1,318 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of
vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal Yibir 1,527 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 50 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms

Environment - current issues: lack of natural freshwater resources
being overcome by desalination plants; desertification; beach
pollution from oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location along southern approaches to
Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

@United Arab Emirates:People

Population: 2,369,153
note: includes 1,576,472 non-nationals (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 359,134; female 345,518)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,029,898; female 582,783)
65 years and over: 2% (male 35,928; female 15,892) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.61% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 3.68 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.26 male(s)/female
total population: 1.51 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.06 years
male: 71.64 years
female: 76.61 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.29 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Emirian(s)
adjective: Emirian

Ethnic groups: Emiri 19%, other Arab and Iranian 23%, South Asian 50%,
other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)
note: less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)

Religions: Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4%

Languages: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.2%
male: 78.9%
female: 79.8% (1995 est.)

@United Arab Emirates:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Arab Emirates
conventional short form: none
local long form: Al Imarat al Arabiyah al Muttahidah
local short form: none
former: Trucial States
abbreviation: UAE

Data code: TC

Government type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE
federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates

Capital: Abu Dhabi

Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu
Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy
(Dubai), Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

Constitution: 2 December 1971 (made permanent in 1996)

Legal system: federal court system introduced in 1971; all emirates
except Dubayy (Dubai) and Ra's al Khaymah have joined the federal
system; all emirates have secular and Islamic law for civil, criminal,
and high courts

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (since 2
December 1971), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 6 August 1966)
and Vice President MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 October 1990),
ruler of Dubayy (Dubai)
head of government: Prime Minister MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since
8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy (Dubai); Deputy Prime Minister SULTAN
bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 20 November 1990)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
note: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) which is composed
of the seven emirate rulers; the council is the highest constitutional
authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions
federal legislation, Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers
have effective veto power; meets four times a year
elections: president and vice president elected by the FSC (a group of
seven electors) for five-year terms; election last held NA October
1996 (next to be held NA 2001); prime minister and deputy prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan reelected president;
percent of FSC vote - NA, but believed to be unanimous; MAKTUM bin
Rashid al-Maktum elected vice president; percent of FSC vote - NA, but
believed to be unanimous

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council or Majlis
al-Ittihad al-Watani (40 seats; members appointed by the rulers of the
constituent states to serve two-year terms)
elections: none
note: reviews legislation, but cannot change or veto

Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court, judges appointed by the

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad bin Husayn al-SHAALI
chancery: Suite 700, 1255 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: (202) 955-7999

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Theodore H. KATTOUF
embassy: Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi
mailing address: P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi; American Embassy Abu
Dhabi, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-6010 (pouch); note -
work week is Saturday through Wednesday
telephone: (2) 436691, 436692
FAX: (2) 434771
consulate(s) general: Dubai

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and black with a thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

@United Arab Emirates:Economy

Economy - overview: The UAE has an open economy with a high per capita
income and a sizable annual trade surplus. Its wealth is based on oil
and gas output (about 33% of GDP), and the fortunes of the economy
fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since 1973, the UAE
has undergone a profound transformation from an impoverished region of
small desert principalities to a modern state with a high standard of
living. At present levels of production, oil and gas reserves should
last for over 100 years. Despite higher oil revenues in 1999, the
government has not drawn back from the economic reforms implemented
during the 1998 oil price depression. The government has increased
spending on job creation and infrastructure expansion and is opening
up its utilities to greater private-sector involvement.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $41.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 52%
services: 45% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.38 million (1998 est.)
note: 75% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 32%, agriculture
8% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $5.5 billion
expenditures: $6.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction
materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 20.11 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 18.702 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: dates, vegetables, watermelons; poultry, eggs,
dairy products; fish

Exports: $34 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil 45%, natural gas, reexports, dried
fish, dates

Exports - partners: Japan 30%, South Korea 10%, India 6%, Singapore
4.5%, Oman 3%, Iran (1998)

Imports: $27.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals,

Imports - partners: US 10%, Japan 9%, UK 9%, Germany 6%, South Korea
5%, Italy (1998)

Debt - external: $15.5 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1 - central bank mid-point
rate: 3.6725 (from 1998); 3.6711 (1997), 3.6710 (1995-96)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@United Arab Emirates:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 915,223 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1 million (1999)

Telephone system: modern system consisting of microwave radio relay
and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai
domestic: microwave radio relay and coaxial cable
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain,
India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio
relay to Saudi Arabia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 7, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 820,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (1997)

Televisions: 310,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@United Arab Emirates:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

total: 1,088 km
paved: 1,088 km
unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 830 km; natural gas, including natural gas
liquids, 870 km

Ports and harbors: 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Das Island, Khawr Fakkan,
Mina' Jabal 'Ali, Mina' Khalid, Mina' Rashid, Mina' Saqr, Mina' Zayid,
Umm al Qaywayn

Merchant marine:
total: 68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,107,442 GRT/1,795,235
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 18, chemical tanker 3, container 8,
liquified gas 1, livestock carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker
27, roll-on/roll-off 7, specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 40 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)

@United Arab Emirates:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, paramilitary
(includes Federal Police Force)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 785,253
note: includes non-nationals (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 422,826 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 24,506 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.1 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.8% (FY99)

@United Arab Emirates:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: location and status of boundary with Saudi
Arabia is not final, de facto boundary reflects 1974 agreement; no
defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far
north; claims two islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran: Lesser
Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e
Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in
Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); claims
island in the Persian Gulf jointly administered with Iran (called Abu
Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran) -
over which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since
1992, including access restrictions and a military build-up on the
island; the UAE has garnered significant diplomatic support in the
region in protesting these Iranian actions

Illicit drugs: growing role as heroin transshipment and
money-laundering center due to its proximity to southwest Asian
producing countries and the bustling free trade zone in Dubai



@United Kingdom:Introduction

Background: Great Britain, the dominant industrial and maritime power
of the 19th century, played a leading role in developing parliamentary
democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith, the
British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The
first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously
depleted in two World Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling
of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and
prosperous European nation. The UK currently is weighing the degree of
its integration with continental Europe. A member of the EU, it chose
to remain outside of the EMU for the time being. Constitutional reform
is also a significant issue in the UK. Regional assemblies with
varying degrees of power opened in Scotland, Wales, and Northern
Ireland in 1999.

@United Kingdom:Geography

Location: Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of
the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North
Sea, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 54 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Europe

total: 244,820 sq km
land: 241,590 sq km
water: 3,230 sq km
note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 360 km
border countries: Ireland 360 km

Coastline: 12,429 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in
accordance with agreed upon boundaries
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the
North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast

Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling
plains in east and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fenland -4 m
highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m

Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron
ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 10%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,080 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: sulfur dioxide emissions from power
plants contribute to air pollution; some rivers polluted by
agricultural wastes; and coastal waters polluted because of
large-scale disposal of sewage at sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air

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