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CIA World Factbook (2000) online

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Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km
from France and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel;
because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km
from tidal waters

@United Kingdom:People

Population: 59,511,464 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,816,313; female 5,519,479)
15-64 years: 65% (male 19,622,152; female 19,228,938)
65 years and over: 16% (male 3,864,612; female 5,459,970) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.25% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 11.76 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 10.38 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.66 years
male: 74.97 years
female: 80.49 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.74 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective: British

Ethnic groups: English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%,
Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%

Religions: Anglican 27 million, Roman Catholic 9 million, Muslim 1
million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 400,000, Hindu
350,000, Jewish 300,000 (1991 est.)

Languages: English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales),
Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
total population: 99% (1978 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@United Kingdom:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
conventional short form: United Kingdom
abbreviation: UK

Data code: UK

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: London

Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26
districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas; England - 39 counties, 7
metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham,
Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon,
Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*,
Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford,
Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln,
Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, North Yorkshire,
Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*, Stafford,
Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*, West Sussex,
West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire; Northern Ireland - 26 districts; Antrim,
Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast,
Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down,
Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry,
Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh,
Strabane; Scotland - 9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central,
Dumfries and Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*,
Shetland*, Strathclyde, Tayside, Western Isles*; Wales - 8 counties;
Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South Glamorgan,
West Glamorgan
note: England may now have 35 counties and Wales 9 counties

Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar,
Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint
Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos

Independence: England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th
century; the union between England and Wales was enacted under the
Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284; in the Act of Union of 1707, England and
Scotland agreed to permanent union as Great Britain; the legislative
union of Great Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801, with the
adoption of the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland;
the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Ireland; six
northern Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom as
Northern Ireland and the current name of the country, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was adopted in 1927

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and

Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern
continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; British courts
and legislation are increasingly subject to review by European Union

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir
Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government: Prime Minister Anthony C. L. (Tony) BLAIR (since 2
May 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the prime minister is the
leader of the majority party in the House of Commons (assuming there
is no majority party, a prime minister would have a majority coalition
or at least a coalition that was not rejected by the majority)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of House of Lords
(the old House of Lords has been disbanded, and the new one is still
being formed; the most likely plan calls for 500 members, one-fifth
elected and the rest appointed) and House of Commons (659 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms unless
the House is dissolved earlier)
elections: House of Lords - no elections; note - the newly-forming
House of Lords may call for some elected seats; House of Commons -
last held 1 May 1997 (next to be held by NA May 2002); note - in 1998
elections were held for a Northern Ireland Parliament (because of
unresolved disputes among existing parties, the transfer of power from
London to Northern Ireland came only at the end of 1999 and was
rescinded in February 2000); in 1999 there were elections for a new
Scottish Parliament and a new Welsh Assembly
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Labor
45%, Conservative and Unionist 31%, Liberal Democratic 17%, other 7%;
seats by party - Labor 418, Conservative and Unionist 165, Liberal
Democrat 46, other 30
note: in 1999, the government ended the right of most hereditary
members, except for life members and 92 hereditary members, to sit in
the House of Lords; they will sit until final reforms are made

Judicial branch: House of Lords, several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary
are appointed by the monarch for life

Political parties and leaders: Alliance Party (Northern Ireland)
; Conservative and Unionist Party ;
Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) ; Labor
Party ; Liberal Democrats ;
Scottish National Party ; Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland)
; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern
Ireland) ; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [David
TRIMBLE]; Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru)

Political pressure groups and leaders: Campaign for Nuclear
Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers'
Union; Trades Union Congress

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA
(associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Christopher J. R. MEYER
chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 588-6500
FAX: (202) 588-7870
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston,
Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Dallas, Miami, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Philip LADER
embassy: 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W. 1A1AE
mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone: (171) 499-9000
FAX: (171) 409-1637
consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh

Flag description: blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron
saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red
cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) and which is
superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint
of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and
colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number
of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their
constituent states or provinces, as well as British overseas

@United Kingdom:Economy

Economy - overview: The UK, a leading trading power and financial
center, deploys an essentially capitalistic economy, one of the
quartet of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe. Over the past
two decades the government has greatly reduced public ownership and
contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is
intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards,
producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. The
UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy
production accounts for 10% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any
industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and
business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP
while industry continues to decline in importance. Economic growth has
been slowed in 1999; recovery to 3% is in prospect for 2000, based on
a rise in exports and domestic demand. The BLAIR government has put
off the question of participation in the euro system until after the
next election, not expected until 2001; Chancellor of the Exchequer
BROWN has identified some key economic tests to determine whether the
UK should join the common currency system.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.29 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 25.3%
services: 73% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 17%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 24.7% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1999)

Labor force: 29.2 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 68.9%, manufacturing and
construction 17.5%, government 11.3%, energy 1.2%, agriculture 1.1%

Unemployment rate: 6% (1999)

revenues: $541 billion
expenditures: $507.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $35.1
billion (FY98/99)

Industries: production machinery including machine tools, electric
power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment,
shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and
communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper
and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other
consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: -0.3% (1999)

Electricity - production: 343.099 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 68.24%
hydro: 1.49%
nuclear: 28.48%
other: 1.79% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 331.482 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 200 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 12.6 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables;
cattle, sheep, poultry; fish

Exports: $271 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food,
beverages, tobacco

Exports - partners: EU 58% (Germany 12%, France 10%, Netherlands 8%),
US 13% (1998)

Imports: $305.9 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery, fuels;

Imports - partners: EU 53% (Germany 13%, France 9%, Netherlands 7%,
Italy 5%), US 14% (1998)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $3.4 billion (1997)

Currency: 1 British pound = 100 pence

Exchange rates: British pounds per US$1 - 0.6092 (January 2000),
0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@United Kingdom:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 29.41 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 13 million (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: technologically advanced domestic and international
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and
fiber-optic systems
international: 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
(Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large
international switching centers

Radio broadcast stations: AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 84.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 78 (plus 869 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 30.5 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 364 (1999)

@United Kingdom:Transportation

total: 16,878 km
broad gauge: 342 km 1.600-m gauge (190 km double track); note - all
1.600-m gauge track, of which 342 km is in common carrier use, and is
in Northern Ireland
standard gauge: 16,536 km 1.435-m gauge (4,928 km electrified; 12,591
km double or multiple track) (1996)

total: 371,603 km
paved: 371,603 km (including 3,303 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 3,200 km

Pipelines: crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km; petroleum
products 2,993 km; natural gas 12,800 km

Ports and harbors: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover,
Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool,
London, Manchester, Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Scapa Flow,
Southampton, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne

Merchant marine:
total: 173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,917,708 GRT/3,063,113
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 33, chemical tanker 5, combination
ore/oil 1, container 39, liquified gas 2, passenger 8, passenger/cargo
1, petroleum tanker 50, roll-on/roll-off 18, short-sea passenger 10,
specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 498 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 357
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 166
914 to 1,523 m: 93
under 914 m: 55 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 141
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 117 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 12 (1999 est.)

@United Kingdom:Military

Military branches: Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal
Air Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 14,574,955 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 12,134,272 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $36.884 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY97/98)

@United Kingdom:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Northern Ireland issue with Ireland
(historic peace agreement signed 10 April 1998); Gibraltar issue with
Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina
claims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims
island of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall
continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area); territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory);
Seychelles claims Chagos Archipelago in British Indian Ocean Territory

Illicit drugs: gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the
European market; producer and major consumer of synthetic drugs,
synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian
heroin; money-laundering center



@United States:Introduction

Background: The United States became the world's first modern
democracy after its break with Great Britain (1776) and the adoption
of a constitution (1789). During the 19th century, many new states
were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North
American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The
two major traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil
War (1861-65) and the Great Depression of the 1930s. Buoyed by
victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991,
the US remains the world's most powerful nation-state. The economy is
marked by steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid
advances in technology.

@United States:Geography

Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and
the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 38 00 N, 97 00 W

Map references: North America

total: 9,629,091 sq km
land: 9,158,960 sq km
water: 470,131 sq km
note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia

Area - comparative: about one-half the size of Russia; about
three-tenths the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South
America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China;
about two and one-half times the size of Western Europe

Land boundaries:
total: 12,248 km
border countries: Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska),
Cuba 29 km (US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), Mexico 3,326 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
of Cuba

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic
in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River,
and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures
in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February
by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low
mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska;
rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Death Valley -86 m
highest point: Mount McKinley 6,194 m

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates,
uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver,
tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 207,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around
Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico
coasts; tornadoes in the midwest and southeast; mud slides in
California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern
Alaska, a major impediment to development

Environment - current issues: air pollution resulting in acid rain in
both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon
dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff
of pesticides and fertilizers; very limited natural fresh water
resources in much of the western part of the country require careful
management; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes

Geography - note: world's third-largest country (after Russia and

@United States:People

Population: 275,562,673 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21.25% (male 29,956,875; female 28,597,880)
15-64 years: 66.11% (male 90,345,154; female 91,827,471)
65 years and over: 12.64% (male 14,472,865; female 20,362,428) (2000

Population growth rate: 0.91% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 14.2 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.12 years
male: 74.24 years
female: 79.9 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.06 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: American(s)
adjective: American

Ethnic groups: white 83.5%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Amerindian 0.8%
note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US
Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American
descent (especially of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) living
in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian,

Religions: Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%,
none 10% (1989)

Languages: English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1979 est.)

@United States:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United States of America
conventional short form: United States
abbreviation: US or USA

Data code: US

Government type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Capital: Washington, DC

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska,
Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah,
Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa
Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, Wake Island
note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a
new political relationship with all four political units: the Northern
Mariana Islands is a commonwealth in political union with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free
Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994); the Federated
States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands
signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October

Independence: 4 July 1776 (from Great Britain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January

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