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1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20
January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state;
president and vice president serve four-year terms; election last held
5 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: William Jefferson CLINTON reelected president;
percent of popular vote - William Jefferson CLINTON (Democratic Party)
49.2%, Robert DOLE (Republican Party) 40.7%, Ross PEROT (Reform Party)
8.4%, other 1.7%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of Senate (100 seats,
one-third are renewed every two years; two members are elected from
each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and House of
Representatives (435 seats; members are directly elected by popular
vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 2 November 1998 (next to be held 7
November 2000); House of Representatives - last held 2 November 1998
(next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Republican Party 55, Democratic Party 45; House of
Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Republican Party 223, Democratic Party 211, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the nine justices are appointed for
life by the president with confirmation by the Senate)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [Steve GROSSMAN,
national committee chairman]; Republican Party [Jim NICHOLSON,
national committee chairman]; several other groups or parties of minor
political significance

International organization participation: ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia
Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, NAM (guest),

Flag description: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and
bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged
in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom)
alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50
states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as
Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of
other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

@United States:Economy

Economy - overview: The US has the most technologically powerful,
diverse, advanced, and largest economy in the world, with a per capita
GDP of $33,900. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals
and business firms make most of the decisions, and government buys
needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US
business firms enjoy considerably greater flexibility than their
counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand
capital plant, lay off surplus workers, and develop new products. At
the same time, they face higher barriers to entry in their rivals'
home markets than the barriers to entry of foreign firms in US
markets. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological
advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and
military equipment, although their advantage has narrowed since the
end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the
gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the
bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of
those at the top and, more and more, fail to get pay raises, health
insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all
the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households.
The years 1994-99 witnessed solid increases in real output, low
inflation rates, and a drop in unemployment to below 5%. Long-term
problems include inadequate investment in economic infrastructure,
rapidly rising medical costs of an aging population, sizable trade
deficits, and stagnation of family income in the lower economic
groups. The outlook for 2000 is clouded by the continued economic
problems of Japan, Russia, Indonesia, Brazil, and many other
countries. Domestically, the potentially most serious problem is the
exuberant level of stock prices in relation to corporate earnings.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.255 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $33,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 18%
services: 80% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 12.7% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 28.5% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (1999)

Labor force: 139.4 million (includes unemployed) (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: managerial and professional 30.3%,
technical, sales and administrative support 29.2%, services 13.4%,
manufacturing, mining, transportation, and crafts 24.5%, farming,
forestry, and fishing 2.6% (1999)
note: figures exclude the unemployed

Unemployment rate: 4.2% (1999)

revenues: $1.828 trillion
expenditures: $1.703 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified
and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles,
aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food
processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 3.62 trillion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 70.34%
hydro: 8.96%
nuclear: 18.61%
other: 2.09% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 3.365 trillion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 12.772 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 39.513 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, other grains, corn, fruits, vegetables,
cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports: $663 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies
and raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products

Exports - partners: Canada 23%, Mexico 12%, Japan 8%, UK 6%, Germany
4%, France 3%, Netherlands 3% (1998)

Imports: $912 billion (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: crude oil and refined petroleum products,
machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food
and beverages

Imports - partners: Canada 19%, Japan 13%, Mexico 10%, China 8%,
Germany 5%, UK 4%, Taiwan 4% (1998)

Debt - external: $862 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $6.9 billion (1997)

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: British pounds per US$ - 0.6092 (January 2000), 0.6180
(1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995);
Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$ - 1.4489 (January 2000), 1.4857
(1999), 1.4835 (1998), 1.3846 (1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.3724 (1995);
French francs (F) per US$ - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367
(1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994); Italian lire
(Lit) per US$ - 1,668.7 (January 1999), 1,763.2 (1998), 1,703.1
(1997), 1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994); Japanese yen
per US$ - 105.16 (January 2000), 113.91 (1999), 130.91 (1998), 120.99
(1997), 108.78 (1996), 94.06 (1995); German deutsche marks (DM) per
US$ - 1.69 (January 1999), 1.9692 (1998), 1.7341 (1997), 1.5048
(1996), 1.4331 (1995), 1.6228 (1994); Euro per US$ - 0.98673 (January
1999), 0.93863 (1999)
note: France, Italy, and Germany have adopted the euro since 1998

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@United States:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 178 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 55.312 million (1997)

Telephone system:
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay,
coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone
traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone
traffic throughout the country
international: 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite earth stations
- 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean
regions) (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM about 5,000, FM about 5,000, shortwave 18

Radios: 575 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: more than 1,500 (including nearly 1,000
stations affiliated with the five major networks - NBC, ABC, CBS, FOX,
and PBS; in addition, there are about 9,000 cable TV systems) (1997)

Televisions: 219 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7,600 (1999 est.)

@United States:Transportation

total: 240,000 km mainline routes (nongovernment owned)
standard gauge: 240,000 km 1.435-m gauge (1989)

total: 6,348,227 km
paved: 3,732,757 km (including 88,727 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,615,470 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the
Great Lakes

Pipelines: petroleum products 276,000 km; natural gas 331,000 km

Ports and harbors: Anchorage, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago,
Duluth, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Los Angeles,
New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Port Canaveral, Portland
(Oregon), Prudhoe Bay, San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Toledo

Merchant marine:
total: 386 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,634,608
GRT/15,574,117 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 10, bulk 67, cargo 28, chemical tanker
14, combination bulk 2, container 84, liquified gas 10,
multi-functional large load carrier 3, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 1,
petroleum tanker 104, roll-on/roll-off 43, short-sea passenger 3,
specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 9 (1999 est.)

Airports: 14,572 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5,174
over 3,047 m: 180
2,438 to 3,047 m: 221
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,310
914 to 1,523 m: 2,448
under 914 m: 1,015 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 9,398
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 155
914 to 1,523 m: 1,661
under 914 m: 7,574 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 118 (1999 est.)

@United States:Military

Military branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy
(includes Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force
note: the Coast Guard is normally subordinate to the Department of
Transportation, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 70,502,691 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,056,762 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $276.7 billion (FY1999 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.2% (FY1999 est.)

@United States:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary disputes with Canada
(Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal
Island); US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only
mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the
lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim
in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not
recognize the claims of any other nation; Marshall Islands claims Wake

Illicit drugs: consumer of cocaine shipped from Colombia through
Mexico and the Caribbean; consumer of heroin, marijuana, and
increasingly methamphetamines from Mexico; consumer of high-quality
Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana,
depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamines;
drug-money-laundering center




Background: A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement, the Tupamaros,
launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to agree to
military control of his administration in 1973. By the end of the year
the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its
hold throughout the government. Civilian rule was not restored until
1985. Uruguay has long had one of South America's highest standards of
living; its political and labor conditions are among the freest on the


Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Argentina and Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 S, 56 00 W

Map references: South America

total: 176,220 sq km
land: 173,620 sq km
water: 2,600 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the state of Washington

Land boundaries:
total: 1,564 km
border countries: Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 200 nm; overflight and navigation guaranteed beyond
12 nm

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m

Natural resources: arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 77%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 10% (1997 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,700 sq km (1997 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and
occasional violent wind which blows north from the Argentine pampas),
droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as
weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid
changes in weather fronts

Environment - current issues: water pollution from meat
packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation


Population: 3,334,074 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 417,288; female 397,125)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,030,201; female 1,057,968)
65 years and over: 13% (male 178,393; female 253,099) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.77% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 17.42 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.06 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.24 years
male: 71.9 years
female: 78.75 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan

Ethnic groups: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian,
practically nonexistent

Religions: Roman Catholic 66% (less than one-half of the adult
population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%,
nonprofessing or other 30%

Languages: Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on
the Brazilian frontier)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.3%
male: 96.9%
female: 97.7% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay

Data code: UY

Government type: republic

Capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno,
Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio
Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y

Independence: 25 August 1825 (from Brazil)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1825)

Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27
June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980;
two constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 26 November 1989 and
7 January 1997

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jorge BATLLE (since 1 March 2000) and Vice
President Luis HIERRO (since 1 March 2000); note - the president is
both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jorge BATLLE (since 1 March 2000) and
Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 March 2000); note - the president
is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with
parliamentary approval
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 31 October 1999
with run-off election on 28 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Jorge BATLLE elected president; percent of vote -
52% in a runoff against Tabare VAZQUEZ

Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and
Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 31 October 1999 (next to be
held NA 2004); Chamber of Representatives - last held 31 October 1999
(next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - Encuentro Progresista 12, Colorado Party 10, Blanco
7, New Sector/Space Coalition 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent
of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Encuentro Progresista 40,
Colorado Party 33, Blanco 22, New Sector/Space Coalition 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president
and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Batlleist faction of the Colorado Party
; Broad Front Coalition ;
Colorado Party ; Herrerista faction of the National
Party ; Herrero Wilsonista faction of the National
Party ; National Party or Blanco ;
New Sector/Space Coalition or Nuevo Espacio ;
Progressive Encounter in the Broad Front or Encuentro Progresista
International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur,

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alvaro DIEZ DE MEDINA Suarez
chancery: 2715 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (202) 331-1313 through 1316
FAX: (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher C. ASHBY
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: (2) 23 60 61, 48 77 77
FAX: (2) 48 86 11

Flag description: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and
bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper
hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the
Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy


Economy - overview: Uruguay's economy is characterized by an
export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce,
relatively even income distribution, and high levels of social
spending. After averaging growth of 5% annually in 1996-98, in 1999
the economy suffered from lower demand in Argentina and Brazil, which
together account for about half of Uruguay's exports. Despite the
severity of the trade shocks and ensuing recession, Uruguay's
financial indicators remained more stable than those of its neighbors,
a reflection of its solid reputation among investors and its
investment-grade sovereign bond rating - one of only two in Latin
America. Challenges for the government of incoming President Jorge
BATLLE include expanding Uruguay's trade ties beyond its Mercosur
trade partners and bolstering Uruguay's competitiveness by increasing
labor market flexibility and reducing the costs of public services.
Growth should recover in 2000, to perhaps 3%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $28 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -2.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 28%
services: 62% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.38 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services

Unemployment rate: 12% (1999)

revenues: $4.4 billion
expenditures: $4.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $500
million (1998 est.)

Industries: food processing, electrical machinery, transportation
equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: -4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 9.474 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 3.91%
hydro: 95.62%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.47% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 6.526 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 2.363 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 78 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, rice, barley, corn, sorghum; livestock;

Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: meat, rice, leather products, vehicles, dairy
products, wool, electricity

Exports - partners: Mercosur partners 45%, EU 20%, US 7% (1999 est.)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: road vehicles, electrical machinery, metal
manufactures, heavy industrial machinery, crude petroleum

Imports - partners: MERCOSUR partners 43%, EU 20%, US 11% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $8 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Uruguayan peso ($Ur) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: Uruguayan pesos ($Ur) per US$1 - 11.3393 (1999),
10.4719 (1998), 9.4418 (1997), 7.9718 (1996), 6.3490 (1995), 5.0439

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones - main lines in use: 622,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 40,000 (1995)

Telephone system: some modern facilities
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new
nationwide microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 94, FM 115, shortwave 14 (seven are
inactive) (1998)

Radios: 1.97 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 26 (plus ten low-power repeaters for
the Montevideo station) (1997)

Televisions: 782,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (1999)


total: 2,073 km
standard gauge: 2,073 km 1.435-m gauge (1997)

total: 8,983 km
paved: 8,085 km
unpaved: 898 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Ports and harbors: Fray Bentos, Montevideo, Nueva Palmira, Paysandu,
Punta del Este, Colonia, Piriapolis

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,807 GRT/2,405 DWT

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 115 of 140)