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ships by type: petroleum tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 65 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 50
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 33 (1999 est.)

@Uruguay:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard,
Marines), Air Force, Police (Coracero Guard, Grenadier Guard)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 810,490 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 656,492 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $172 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (FY98)

@Uruguay:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: two short sections of the boundary with
Brazil are in dispute - Arroyo de la Invernada (Arroio Invernada) area
of the Rio Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the islands at the confluence of
the Rio Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the Uruguay River

______________________________________________________________________



UZBEKISTAN

@Uzbekistan:Introduction

Background: Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century.
Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually
suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1925. During the Soviet
era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to
overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which
have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half
dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its
dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum
reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militant
groups from Tajikistan and Afghanistan, a non-convertible currency,
and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

@Uzbekistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan
1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note: Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a
420 km shoreline

Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)

Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters;
semiarid grassland in east

Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat
intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Sirdaryo
(Syr Darya), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by
mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium,
silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting
in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts;
these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed
and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial
wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of
many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil
contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly
landlocked countries in the world

@Uzbekistan:People

Population: 24,755,519 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 4,673,501; female 4,520,471)
15-64 years: 58% (male 7,140,215; female 7,283,143)
65 years and over: 5% (male 452,480; female 685,709) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 26.18 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.02 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.71 years
male: 60.09 years
female: 67.52 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.09 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Uzbekistani(s)
adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%,
Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (yearend 1996)

@Uzbekistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: none
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: UZ

Government type: republic; effectively authoritarian presidential
rule, with little power outside the executive branch; executive power
concentrated in the presidency

Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions: 12 wiloyatlar (singular - wiloyat), 1
autonomous republic* (respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon
Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati,
Khorazm Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati,
Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpoghiston* (Nukus), Samarqand
Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati
(Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent
judicial system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he
was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December
1995) and 10 deputy prime ministers
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval
of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held NA January 2005);
note - extension of President KARIMOV's original term for an
additional five years overwhelmingly approved - 99.6% of total vote in
favor - by national referendum held 26 March 1995); prime minister and
deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote -
Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz DZHALALOV 4.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 5 December 1999 (next to be held NA December
2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP
32, Fidokorlar 19, Fatherland Progress Party 9, Adolat Social
Democratic Party 9, MTP 6, local government 98, initiative groups 11,
other 66
note: not all seats in the last Supreme Assembly election were
contested; all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President
KARIMOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president
and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic
Party ; Democratic National
Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP ;
Fatherland Progress Party (Vatan Tarakiyoti) or VTP [Anvar YULDASHEV,
chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party)
; Self-Sacrificers Party or
Fidokorlar

Political pressure groups and leaders: Birlik (Unity) Movement
; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhamd
SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Human Rights Society of
Uzbekistan ; Independent Human Rights
Society of Uzbekistan

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sadyk SAFAYEV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: (202) 887-5300
FAX: (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. PRESEL
embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent 700115
mailing address: use embassy street address; US Embassy Tashkent,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7110
telephone: (71) 120-5450
FAX: (71) 120-6335

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and
12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

@Uzbekistan:Economy

Economy - overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which
10% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. It was
one of the poorest areas of the former Soviet Union with more than 60%
of its population living in densely populated rural communities.
Uzbekistan is now the world's third largest cotton exporter, a major
producer of gold and natural gas, and a regionally significant
producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in
December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style
command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and
prices. Faced with high rates of inflation, however, the government
began to reform in mid-1994, by introducing tighter monetary policies,
expanding privatization, slightly reducing the role of the state in
the economy, and improving the environment for foreign investors. The
state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy, and
reforms have so far failed to bring about much-needed structural
changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million standby
arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that made
impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions. Uzbekistan has responded to
the negative external conditions generated by the Asian and Russian
financial crises by tightening export and currency controls within its
already largely closed economy. Economic policies that have repelled
foreign investment are a major factor in the economy's stagnation. A
growing debt burden, persistent inflation, and a poor business climate
cloud growth prospects in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $59.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 27%
industry: 27%
services: 46% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 11.9 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 44%, industry
20%, services 36% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 5% plus another 10% underemployed (December 1996
est.)

Budget:
revenues: $4.4 billion
expenditures: $4.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.1
billion (1997 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy,
natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 43.47 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 85.2%
hydro: 14.8%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 41.327 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 5.1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 6 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock

Exports: $2.9 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers,
ferrous metals, textiles, food products, automobiles

Exports - partners: Russia 15%, Switzerland 10%, UK 10%, Belgium 4%,
Kazakhstan 4%, Tajikistan 4% (1998)

Imports: $3.1 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals;
foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Russia 16%, South Korea 11%, Germany 8%, US 7%,
Turkey 6%, Kazakhstan 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $3.2 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $276.6 million (1995)

Currency: Uzbekistani som (UKS)

Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soms (UKS) per US$1 - 141.4 (January
2000), 111.9 (February 1999), 110.95 (December 1998), 75.8 (September
1997), 41.1 (1996), 30.2 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Uzbekistan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.976 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 26,000 (1998)

Telephone system: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of
modernization
domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and
technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent and Samarqand,
under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries;
moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation
- four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one
D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type
(Advanced Mobile Phone System)
international: linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS
member states and to other countries by leased connection via the
Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek
link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will
be independent of Russian facilities for international communications;
Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an
expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)

Radios: 10.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus two repeater stations that
relay Russian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Tadzhik programs) (1997)

Televisions: 6.4 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Uzbekistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,380 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 3,380 km 1.520-m gauge (300 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning
that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel-surfaced)
unpaved: 10,363 km (dirt) (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,100 (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810
km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Termiz (Amu Darya river)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Uzbekistan:Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Security Forces
(internal and border troops), National Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 6,357,625 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 5,161,926 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 262,289 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $200 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY97)

@Uzbekistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and very small
amounts of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption, almost
entirely eradicated by an effective government eradication program;
increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from
Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe and for acetic anhydride
destined for Afghanistan

______________________________________________________________________



VANUATU

@Vanuatu:Introduction

Background: The British and French who settled the New Hebrides in the
19th century, agreed in 1906 to an Anglo-French Condominium, which
administered the islands until independence in 1980.

@Vanuatu:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 S, 167 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 14,760 sq km
land: 14,760 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes more than 80 islands

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,528 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tabwemasana 1,877 m

Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 75%
other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April);
volcanism causes minor earthquakes

Environment - current issues: a majority of the population does not
have access to a potable and reliable supply of water; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Vanuatu:People

Population: 189,618 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 35,934; female 34,404)
15-64 years: 60% (male 58,155; female 55,156)
65 years and over: 3% (male 3,228; female 2,741) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.74% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.93 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.52 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.18 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.57 years
male: 59.23 years
female: 61.98 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.29 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)
adjective: Ni-Vanuatu

Ethnic groups: indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, Vietnamese,
Chinese, Pacific Islanders

Religions: Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Roman Catholic 15%,
indigenous beliefs 7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ
3.8%, other 15.7%

Languages: English (official), French (official), pidgin (known as
Bislama or Bichelama)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 53%
male: 57%
female: 48% (1979 est.)

@Vanuatu:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Vanuatu
conventional short form: Vanuatu
former: New Hebrides

Data code: NH

Government type: republic

Capital: Port-Vila

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Malampa, Penama, Sanma, Shefa,
Tafea, Torba

Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

Constitution: 30 July 1980

Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French and
British systems

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Father John BANI (since 25 March 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Barak SOPE (since 25 November
1999); Deputy Prime Minister Stanley REGINALD (since 25 November 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of
Parliament and the presidents of the regional councils for a five-year
term; election for president last held 25 March 1999 (next to be held
NA 2004); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by
Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last
held 6 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: Father John BANI elected president; percent of
electoral college vote - NA; Barak SOPE elected prime minister by
Parliament with a total of 28 votes; other candidate, Edward NATAPEI,
received 24 votes
note: as a result of legislative elections in March 1998, Donald
KALPOKAS was elected prime minister and the VP formed a coalition
government with the NUP; in November 1999, KALPOKAS, facing strong
opposition and the threat of a no confidence vote, resigned; Barak
SOPE was elected prime minister in his place and a coalition
government was formed

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (52 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VP
18, UMP 12, NUP 11, other and independent 11; note - political party
associations are fluid; there have been four changes of government
since the November 1995 elections
note: the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and
land

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the
president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of
the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on
the advice of the Judicial Service Commission

Political parties and leaders: Friend Melanesian Party [Albert
RAVUTIA]; John Frum Movement ; Melanesian Progressive Party
or MPP ; Na-Griamel Movement ; National
United Party or NUP ; Tan Union or TU [Vincent
BOULEKONE]; Union of Moderate Parties or UMP ; Vanuatu
Party or VP ; Vanuatu Republican Party [Maxime Carlot
KORMAN]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Vanuatu does not have an embassy
in the US, it does, however, have a Permanent Mission to the UN

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Vanuatu; the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all
separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal
Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the
triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two
crossed namele leaves, all in yellow

@Vanuatu:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence or
small-scale agriculture which provides a living for 65% of the
population. Fishing, offshore financial services, and tourism, with
about 50,000 visitors in 1997, are other mainstays of the economy.
Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has no known petroleum
deposits. A small light industry sector caters to the local market.
Tax revenues come mainly from import duties. Economic development is
hindered by dependence on relatively few commodity exports,
vulnerability to natural disasters, and long distances from main
markets and between constituent islands. The most recent natural
disaster, a severe earthquake in November 1999 followed by a tsunami,
caused extensive damage to the northern island of Pentecote and left
thousands homeless.



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