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GDP: purchasing power parity - $245 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 24%
industry: 13%
services: 63% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 32%, industry
3% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $94.4 million
expenditures: $99.8 million, including capital expenditures of $30.4
million (1996 est.)

Industries: food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 32 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 30 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: copra, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, taro, yams,
coconuts, fruits, vegetables; fish, beef

Exports: $33.8 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: copra, beef, cocoa, timber, coffee

Exports - partners: Japan 32%, Germany 14%, Spain 8%, New Caledonia
7%, Australia 2% (1997 est.)

Imports: $76.2 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, fuels

Imports - partners: Japan 52%, Australia 20%, New Caledonia,
Singapore, New Zealand, France, Fiji (1997 est.)

Debt - external: $48 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $45.8 million (1995)

Currency: 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1 - 129.76 (December 1999), 129.08
(1999), 127.52 (1998), 115.87 (1997), 111.72 (1996), 112.11 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Vanuatu:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2,500 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 121 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 62,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 2,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Vanuatu:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,070 km
paved: 256 km
unpaved: 814 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Forari, Port-Vila, Santo (Espiritu Santo)

Merchant marine:
total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,266,634 GRT/1,618,877
DWT
ships by type: bulk 27, cargo 24, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
2, container 1, liquified gas 4, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated
cargo 9, vehicle carrier 6 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 15 countries
among which are ships of Japan 28, India 10, US 10, Greece 3, Hong
Kong 3, Australia 2, Canada 1, China 1, and France 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 32 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 17 (1999 est.)

@Vanuatu:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Vanuatu Police Force
(VPF; includes the paramilitary Vanuatu Mobile Force or VMF)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Vanuatu:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Matthew and Hunter Islands east of
New Caledonia

______________________________________________________________________



VENEZUELA

@Venezuela:Introduction

Background: Venezuela was one of the three countries that emerged from
the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and
Ecuador). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Venezuela
was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the
oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically
elected governments have held sway since 1959. Current concerns
include: drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border, increasing
internal drug consumption, overdependence on the petroleum industry
with its price fluctuations, and irresponsible mining operations which
are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.

@Venezuela:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the
North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 66 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 912,050 sq km
land: 882,050 sq km
water: 30,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,993 km
border countries: Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 15 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central
plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite,
other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: subject to floods, rockslides, mud slides; periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia;
oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil
degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the
Caribbean coast

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping

Geography - note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South
America

@Venezuela:People

Population: 23,542,649 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 3,967,544; female 3,721,658)
15-64 years: 63% (male 7,406,086; female 7,355,923)
65 years and over: 4% (male 499,102; female 592,336) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 21.09 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.94 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.07 years
male: 70.05 years
female: 76.31 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.51 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Venezuelan(s)
adjective: Venezuelan

Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African,
indigenous people

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

Languages: Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.1%
male: 91.8%
female: 90.3% (1995 est.)

@Venezuela:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
conventional short form: Venezuela
local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela
local short form: Venezuela

Data code: VE

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 23 states (estados, singular - estado),1
federal district* (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependency**
(dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas,
Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales**,
Distrito Federal*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas,
Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy,
Zulia
note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled
island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 30 December 1999

Legal system: based on organic laws as of July 1999; open, adversarial
court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February
1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held 28 May 2000 under
new constitution)
election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias elected president; percent of vote
- 57%
note: government coalition - Patriotic Pole or Polo Patriotico
consists of MVR, MAS, and PPT

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional;
under the 1999 constitution, the bicameral Congress of the Republic
has been replaced by a unicameral National Assembly; the total number
of seats in the new National Assembly has not yet been determined, but
members will be elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms;
three seats will be reserved for the indigenous peoples of Venezuela
elections: election for deputies to the new National Assembly are
scheduled to be held in May 2000
election results: NA; elections to be held in May 2000

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de
Justicia, magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a
single 12-year term

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Action or AD ;
Fifth Republic Movement or MVR ; Homeland for All or PPT
; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS ; National
Convergence or Convergencia ; Radical Cause or La Causa R
; Social Christian Party or COPEI

Political pressure groups and leaders: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative
business group; VECINOS groups; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or
CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action)

International organization participation: CAN, Caricom (observer),
CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MINURSO, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfredo TORO Hardy
chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (202) 342-2214
FAX: (202) 342-6820
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans,
New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Francis MAISTO
embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas
1060
mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037
telephone: (2) 975-6411
FAX: (2) 975-6710

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue,
and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and
an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

@Venezuela:Economy

Economy - overview: Venezuelan officials estimate the economy
contracted 7.2% in 1999. A steep downturn in international oil prices
during the first half of the year fueled the recession, and spurred
the CHAVEZ administration to abide by OPEC-led production cuts in an
effort to raise world oil prices. The petroleum sector dominates the
economy, accounting for roughly a third of GDP, around 80% of export
earnings, and more than half of government operating revenues. Higher
oil prices during the second half 1999 took pressure off the budget
and currency; the bolivar is widely believed to be overvalued by as
much as 50%. Despite higher oil prices, the economy remains in the
doldrums, possibly due to investor uncertainty over President CHAVEZ's
reform agenda. Implementing legislation for the new constitution will
not be passed until the second half of 2000, after a new legislature
is elected. With the president's economic cabinet attempting to
reconcile a wide range of views, the country's economic reform program
has largely stalled. The government is seeking international
assistance to finance reconstruction after massive flooding and
landslides in December 1999 caused an estimated $15 billion to $20
billion in damage.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $182.8 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -7.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 63%
services: 33% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 67% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 35.6% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1999)

Labor force: 9.9 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 64%, industry 23%, agriculture
13% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 18% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $26.4 billion
expenditures: $27 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000
est.)

Industries: petroleum, iron ore mining, construction materials, food
processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 70.39 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 25.46%
hydro: 74.54%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 65.463 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas,
vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish

Exports: $20.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel,
chemicals, agricultural products, basic manufactures (1998)

Exports - partners: US and Puerto Rico 57%, Colombia, Brazil, Japan,
Germany, Netherlands, Italy (1999)

Imports: $11.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, machinery and equipment,
transport equipment, construction materials (1999)

Imports - partners: US 53%, Japan, Colombia, Italy, Germany, France,
Brazil, Canada (1999)

Debt - external: $32 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $35 million with more assistance likely as a
result of flooding (1999)

Currency: 1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 652.333 (January 2000),
605.717 (1999), 547.556 (1998), 488.635 (1997), 417.333 (1996),
176.843 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Venezuela:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.6 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2 million (1998)

Telephone system: modern and expanding
domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent
substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas;
substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines;
installation of a national inter-urban fiber-optic network capable of
digital multimedia services
international: 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an
international fiber-optic network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 201, FM NA (20 in Caracas), shortwave 11
(1998)

Radios: 10.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 66 (plus 45 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 4.1 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 11 (1999)

@Venezuela:Transportation

Railways:
total: 584 km (248 km privately owned)
standard gauge: 584 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 96,155 km
paved: 32,308 km
unpaved: 63,847 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept
oceangoing vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas
4,010 km

Ports and harbors: Amuay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, La
Salina, Maracaibo, Matanzas, Palua, Puerto Cabello, Puerto la Cruz,
Puerto Ordaz, Puerto Sucre, Punta Cardon

Merchant marine:
total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 488,584 GRT/888,764 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 10, combination bulk 1, liquified gas 2,
passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 7, roll-on/roll-off 7, short-sea
passenger 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 366 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 122
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 32
914 to 1,523 m: 58
under 914 m: 17 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 244
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 93
under 914 m: 141 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Venezuela:Military

Military branches: National Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales
or FAN) includes Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or
Ejercito), Naval Forces (Fuerzas Navales or Armada), Air Force
(Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion), Armed Forces of Cooperation or National
Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacion or Guardia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 6,398,169 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 4,612,754 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 244,350 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $934 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (FY99)

@Venezuela:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo
River; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium for the international drug
trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine and
heroin transit the country from Colombia bound for US and Europe;
important money-laundering hub; active eradication program primarily
targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by
Colombian insurgents on border

______________________________________________________________________



VIETNAM

@Vietnam:Introduction

Background: France occupied all of Vietnam by 1884. Independence was
declared after World War II, but the French continued to rule until
1954 when they were defeated by communist forces under HO Chi Minh,
who took control of the north. US economic and military aid to South
Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the
government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire
agreement in 1973. Two years later North Vietnamese forces overran the
south. Economic reconstruction of the reunited country has proven
difficult as aging Communist Party leaders have only grudgingly
initiated reforms necessary for a free market.

@Vietnam:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of
Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 106 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 329,560 sq km
land: 325,360 sq km
water: 4,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 4,639 km
border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km

Coastline: 3,444 km (excludes islands)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season
(mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to
mid-March)

Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly,
mountainous in far north and northwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Ngoc Linh 3,143 m

Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate,
offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 18,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive
flooding

Environment - current issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural
practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water
pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations;
groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban
industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading
environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test
Ban

@Vietnam:People

Population: 78,773,873 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 13,353,828; female 12,516,289)
15-64 years: 62% (male 23,691,412; female 24,951,397)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,696,708; female 2,564,239) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.49% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 21.62 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.26 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 31.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.27 years
male: 66.84 years
female: 71.87 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.53 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese

Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 85%-90%, Chinese 3%, Muong, Tai, Meo, Khmer,
Man, Cham

Religions: Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs,
Muslim, Protestant, Cao Dai, Hoa Hao

Languages: Vietnamese (official), Chinese, English, French, Khmer,
tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.7%
male: 96.5%
female: 91.2% (1995 est.)

@Vietnam:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV

Data code: VM

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Hanoi

Administrative divisions: 58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3
municipalities* (thu do, singular and plural); An Giang, Bac Giang,
Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh
Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac Lac, Da
Nang, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Hai Duong, Hai Phong*,
Ha Nam, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hoa Binh, Ho Chi Minh*, Hung Yen,
Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai,
Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen,
Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang,
Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue,
Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

Constitution: 15 April 1992

Legal system: based on communist legal theory and French civil law
system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tran Duc LUONG (since 24 September 1997) and
Vice President Nguyen Thi BINH (since NA October 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 25 September
1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 29 September
1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Nguyen Cong TAN (since 29 September
1997), Nguyen Manh CAM (since 29 September 1997), and Pham Gia KHIEM



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